apicomplexa

Summary

Summary: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.

Top Publications

  1. Barta J, Thompson R. What is Cryptosporidium? Reappraising its biology and phylogenetic affinities. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:463-8 pubmed
    ..we aim to emphasize a growing need to re-evaluate the affinities of Cryptosporidium species within the phylum Apicomplexa so as to better understand the biology and ecology of these parasites...
  2. Nevin W, Dacks J. Repeated secondary loss of adaptin complex genes in the Apicomplexa. Parasitol Int. 2009;58:86-94 pubmed publisher
    The Apicomplexa include parasites of devastating medical and economic consequence...
  3. Rubini A, Paduan K, Martins T, Labruna M, O Dwyer L. Acquisition and transmission of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) by the tick Amblyomma ovale (Acari: Ixodidae). Vet Parasitol. 2009;164:324-7 pubmed publisher
    ..canis by DNA sequencing. The results obtained indicated A. ovale ticks as potential vector of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil. ..
  4. Valigurová A, Hofmannová L, Koudela B, Vavra J. An ultrastructural comparison of the attachment sites between Gregarina steini and Cryptosporidium muris. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2007;54:495-510 pubmed
    ..steini trophozoites. In both investigated organisms, the apical complex disappears early during cell invasion. The possibility of the epicellular location of Cryptosporidium on the surface of host cells is discussed...
  5. Sinai A, Roepe P. Autophagy in Apicomplexa: a life sustaining death mechanism?. Trends Parasitol. 2012;28:358-64 pubmed publisher
    ..from Plasmodium suggest that autophagy-related processes may serve as an additional death promoting pathway in Apicomplexa. Detailed mechanistic studies into the molecular basis for PCD in parasitic protozoa represent a fertile area ..
  6. Bargieri D, Lagal V, Tardieux I, Menard R. Host cell invasion by apicomplexans: what do we know?. Trends Parasitol. 2012;28:131-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, more recent work questions this view. Here, we critically discuss the current model and speculate on alternative models of the AMA1-RON association and of the apicomplexan TJ. ..
  7. Tardieux I, Menard R. Migration of Apicomplexa across biological barriers: the Toxoplasma and Plasmodium rides. Traffic. 2008;9:627-35 pubmed publisher
    The invasive stages of Apicomplexa parasites, called zoites, have been largely studied in in vitro systems, with a special emphasis on their unique gliding and host cell invasive capacities...
  8. Klinger C, Nisbet R, Ouologuem D, Roos D, Dacks J. Cryptic organelle homology in apicomplexan parasites: insights from evolutionary cell biology. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2013;16:424-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work has demonstrated divergent aspects of canonical eukaryotic components in the Apicomplexa, including Golgi bodies and mitochondria...
  9. Ali J, Paila U, Ranjan A. ApicoAlign: an alignment and sequence search tool for apicomplexan proteins. BMC Genomics. 2011;12 Suppl 3:S6 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show improved pairwise alignments of proteins from Apicomplexa viz. Cryptosporidium parvum and P...

More Information

Publications94

  1. Heintzelman M, Mateer M. GpMyoF, a WD40 repeat-containing myosin associated with the myonemes of Gregarina polymorpha. J Parasitol. 2008;94:158-68 pubmed publisher
    ..novel myosin and its homologs, which have been identified in several related genera, appear to be unique to the Apicomplexa and represent the only myosins known to contain the WD40 domain. The function of this myosin in G...
  2. Cavalier Smith T. Principles of protein and lipid targeting in secondary symbiogenesis: euglenoid, dinoflagellate, and sporozoan plastid origins and the eukaryote family tree. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 1999;46:347-66 pubmed
  3. Fowler R, Margos G, Mitchell G. The cytoskeleton and motility in apicomplexan invasion. Adv Parasitol. 2004;56:213-63 pubmed
    We consider the cytoskeletal structure, function, and motility of the invasive zoites of the Apicomplexa. This monophyletic group possess a prominent microtubular cytoskeleton, with a very distinct polarity...
  4. Agrawal S, Striepen B. More membranes, more proteins: complex protein import mechanisms into secondary plastids. Protist. 2010;161:672-87 pubmed publisher
    ..and seeks to provide a brief overview of plastid evolution in particular for readers not already familiar with plant and algal biology and then focuses on recent molecular discoveries using genetically tractable Apicomplexa and diatoms.
  5. Valigurová A, Michalková V, Koudela B. Eugregarine trophozoite detachment from the host epithelium via epimerite retraction: fiction or fact?. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1235-42 pubmed publisher
    Eugregarines represent a diverse group of Apicomplexa parasitising numerous invertebrates...
  6. Danne J, Gornik S, Macrae J, McConville M, Waller R. Alveolate mitochondrial metabolic evolution: dinoflagellates force reassessment of the role of parasitism as a driver of change in apicomplexans. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:123-39 pubmed publisher
  7. Wasmuth J, Daub J, Peregrín Alvarez J, Finney C, Parkinson J. The origins of apicomplexan sequence innovation. Genome Res. 2009;19:1202-13 pubmed publisher
    The Apicomplexa are a group of phylogenetically related parasitic protists that include Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma. Together they are a major global burden on human health and economics...
  8. Tawk L, Dubremetz J, Montcourrier P, Chicanne G, Merezegue F, Richard V, et al. Phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate is involved in toxoplasma apicoplast biogenesis. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001286 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also highlights the possibility of developing specific pharmacological inhibitors of the parasite PI3-kinase as novel anti-apicomplexan drugs. ..
  9. Harper J, Waanders E, Keeling P. On the monophyly of chromalveolates using a six-protein phylogeny of eukaryotes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005;55:487-96 pubmed
    ..Whereas these results are consistent with the monophyly of chromalveolates inferred from plastid data, testing this hypothesis is going to require a substantial increase in data from a wide variety of organisms...
  10. Leander B, Harper J, Keeling P. Molecular phylogeny and surface morphology of marine aseptate gregarines (Apicomplexa): Selenidium spp. and Lecudina spp. J Parasitol. 2003;89:1191-205 pubmed
    ..The trophozoites from the 2 species of Selenidium shared novel transverse striations but differed from one another in overall cell morphologies and writhing behavior. ..
  11. Lebrun M, Michelin A, El Hajj H, Poncet J, Bradley P, Vial H, et al. The rhoptry neck protein RON4 re-localizes at the moving junction during Toxoplasma gondii invasion. Cell Microbiol. 2005;7:1823-33 pubmed
    Host cell invasion in the Apicomplexa is unique in its dependency on a parasite actin-driven machinery and in the exclusion of most host cell membrane proteins during parasitophorous vacuole (PV) formation...
  12. Agop Nersesian C, Pfahler J, Lanzer M, Meissner M. Functional expression of ribozymes in Apicomplexa: towards exogenous control of gene expression by inducible RNA-cleavage. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:673-81 pubmed
  13. Johny S, Merisko A, Whitman D. Efficacy of eleven antimicrobials against a gregarine parasite (Apicomplexa: Protozoa). Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2007;6:15 pubmed
    The Apicomplexa are a diverse group of obligate protozoan parasites infesting a wide range of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts including humans...
  14. Fleige T, Limenitakis J, Soldati Favre D. Apicoplast: keep it or leave it. Microbes Infect. 2010;12:253-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The tasks of this organelle is compared across the phylum of Apicomplexa, highlighting its role in metabolic adaptation to different intracellular niches.
  15. Templeton T, Iyer L, Anantharaman V, Enomoto S, Abrahante J, Subramanian G, et al. Comparative analysis of apicomplexa and genomic diversity in eukaryotes. Genome Res. 2004;14:1686-95 pubmed
    ..We also describe additional molecular characteristics distinguishing Apicomplexa from other eukaryotes for which complete genome sequences are available.
  16. Wastling J, Xia D, Sohal A, Chaussepied M, Pain A, Langsley G. Proteomes and transcriptomes of the Apicomplexa--where's the message?. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:135-43 pubmed publisher
    The Apicomplexa have some of the most comprehensive and integrated proteome datasets of all pathogenic micro-organisms...
  17. Ferguson D, Sahoo N, Pinches R, Bumstead J, Tomley F, Gubbels M. MORN1 has a conserved role in asexual and sexual development across the apicomplexa. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:698-711 pubmed publisher
    The gene encoding the membrane occupation and recognition nexus protein MORN1 is conserved across the Apicomplexa. In Toxoplasma gondii, MORN1 is associated with the spindle poles, the anterior and posterior rings of the inner membrane ..
  18. Lantová L, Ghosh K, Svobodova M, Braig H, Rowton E, Weina P, et al. The life cycle and host specificity of Psychodiella sergenti n. sp. and Ps. tobbi n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) in sand flies Phlebotomus sergenti and Ph. tobbi (Diptera: Psychodidae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2010;105:182-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Both gregarines are considered as serious pathogens in laboratory-reared colonies of Old World sand flies...
  19. Lantová L, Volf P. The development of Psychodiella sergenti (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida) in Phlebotomus sergenti (Diptera: Psychodidae). Parasitology. 2012;139:726-34 pubmed publisher
    ..It develops sexually exclusively in sand fly females that took a bloodmeal, and its sporozoites bear a distinctive conoid (about 700 nm long), which is more than 4 times longer than conoids of the mosquito gregarines. ..
  20. Plattner F, Soldati Favre D. Hijacking of host cellular functions by the Apicomplexa. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2008;62:471-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In recent years, it has become evident that protozoan pathogens, including members of the phylum Apicomplexa, also hijack their host cell's functions to access nutrients and to escape cellular defenses and immune ..
  21. Huang J, Mullapudi N, Sicheritz Ponten T, Kissinger J. A first glimpse into the pattern and scale of gene transfer in Apicomplexa. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:265-74 pubmed
    ..Reports of plant-like and bacterial-like genes for a number of parasitic organisms, most notably those within the Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastida, have appeared in the literature over the last few years...
  22. Kuo C, Wares J, Kissinger J. The Apicomplexan whole-genome phylogeny: an analysis of incongruence among gene trees. Mol Biol Evol. 2008;25:2689-98 pubmed publisher
    The protistan phylum Apicomplexa contains many important pathogens and is the subject of intense genome sequencing efforts...
  23. Klinger C, Klute M, Dacks J. Comparative genomic analysis of multi-subunit tethering complexes demonstrates an ancient pan-eukaryotic complement and sculpting in Apicomplexa. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76278 pubmed publisher
    b>Apicomplexa are obligate intracellular parasites that cause tremendous disease burden world-wide...
  24. Cilingir G, Broschat S, Lau A. ApicoAP: the first computational model for identifying apicoplast-targeted proteins in multiple species of Apicomplexa. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36598 pubmed publisher
    Most of the parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa contain a relict prokaryotic-derived plastid called the apicoplast...
  25. Roos D. Genetics. Themes and variations in apicomplexan parasite biology. Science. 2005;309:72-3 pubmed
  26. Balaji S, Babu M, Iyer L, Aravind L. Discovery of the principal specific transcription factors of Apicomplexa and their implication for the evolution of the AP2-integrase DNA binding domains. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:3994-4006 pubmed
  27. Tosini F, Trasarti E, Pozio E. Apicomplexa genes involved in the host cell invasion: the Cpa135 protein family. Parassitologia. 2006;48:105-7 pubmed
    The availability of a bulk of genomic data of Apicomplexa parasites is a unique opportunity to identify groups of related proteins that are characteristic of this phylum...
  28. Leander B, Lloyd S, Marshall W, Landers S. Phylogeny of marine Gregarines (Apicomplexa)--Pterospora, Lithocystis and Lankesteria--and the origin(s) of coelomic parasitism. Protist. 2006;157:45-60 pubmed
    ..than it was to the Pterospora clade. These data suggested that coelomic parasitism evolved more than once from different marine intestinal eugregarines, although a larger taxon sample is needed to further explore this inference...
  29. Gubbels M, Duraisingh M. Evolution of apicomplexan secretory organelles. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:1071-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The variations within the Apicomplexa and how these relate to species-specific biology will be discussed...
  30. Cesbron Delauw M, Gendrin C, Travier L, Ruffiot P, Mercier C. Apicomplexa in mammalian cells: trafficking to the parasitophorous vacuole. Traffic. 2008;9:657-64 pubmed publisher
    Most Apicomplexa reside and multiply in the cytoplasm of their host cell, within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) originating from both parasite and host cell components...
  31. Watanabe J, Wakaguri H, Sasaki M, Suzuki Y, Sugano S. Comparasite: a database for comparative study of transcriptomes of parasites defined by full-length cDNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:D431-8 pubmed
    ..Putatively counterpart gene groups are clustered and comparative analysis of any combination of six apicomplexa species is implemented, such as interspecies comparisons regarding protein motifs (InterPro), predicted ..
  32. Polonais V, Javier Foth B, Chinthalapudi K, Marq J, Manstein D, Soldati Favre D, et al. Unusual anchor of a motor complex (MyoD-MLC2) to the plasma membrane of Toxoplasma gondii. Traffic. 2011;12:287-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Anchorage of this MLC2 to the plasma membrane is likely governed by palmitoylation...
  33. Toso M, Omoto C. Gregarina niphandrodes may lack both a plastid genome and organelle. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2007;54:66-72 pubmed
    ..To investigate the evolutionary history of plastids in the Apicomplexa, we tried to determine whether gregarines possess a plastid and/or its genome...
  34. Munro J, Silva J. Ribonucleotide reductase as a target to control apicomplexan diseases. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2012;14:9-26 pubmed
    ..While malaria is the most notorious of the apicomplexan-caused diseases, other members of eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa are responsible for additional, albeit less well-known, diseases in humans, economically important livestock, ..
  35. Anantharaman V, Iyer L, Balaji S, Aravind L. Adhesion molecules and other secreted host-interaction determinants in Apicomplexa: insights from comparative genomics. Int Rev Cytol. 2007;262:1-74 pubmed
    b>Apicomplexa have developed distinctive adaptations for invading and surviving within animal cells...
  36. Kim K. Role of proteases in host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii and other Apicomplexa. Acta Trop. 2004;91:69-81 pubmed
    ..Recent studies in Toxoplasma gondii and other Apicomplexa have led to the identification of proteases that may mediate these processing events...
  37. Tuda J, Mongan A, Tolba M, Imada M, Yamagishi J, Xuan X, et al. Full-parasites: database of full-length cDNAs of apicomplexa parasites, 2010 update. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:D625-31 pubmed publisher
    Full-Parasites (http://fullmal.hgc.jp/) is a transcriptome database of apicomplexa parasites, which include Plasmodium and Toxoplasma species...
  38. Mercier C, Adjogble K, Daubener W, Delauw M. Dense granules: are they key organelles to help understand the parasitophorous vacuole of all apicomplexa parasites?. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:829-49 pubmed
    Together with micronemes and rhoptries, dense granules are specialised secretory organelles of Apicomplexa parasites...
  39. Janouskovec J, Horak A, Obornik M, Lukes J, Keeling P. A common red algal origin of the apicomplexan, dinoflagellate, and heterokont plastids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10949-54 pubmed publisher
    ..g., ciliates, Cryptosporidium, and Phytophthora)...
  40. Keeley A, Soldati D. The glideosome: a molecular machine powering motility and host-cell invasion by Apicomplexa. Trends Cell Biol. 2004;14:528-32 pubmed
  41. Botha M, Pesce E, Blatch G. The Hsp40 proteins of Plasmodium falciparum and other apicomplexa: regulating chaperone power in the parasite and the host. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39:1781-803 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the Hsp40 proteins of P. falciparum to those of other apicomplexa reveals that most of the proteins (especially the PEXEL/HT-containing proteins) are unique to P. falciparum...
  42. Woehle C, Dagan T, Martin W, Gould S. Red and problematic green phylogenetic signals among thousands of nuclear genes from the photosynthetic and apicomplexa-related Chromera velia. Genome Biol Evol. 2011;3:1220-30 pubmed publisher
  43. Wakaguri H, Suzuki Y, Sasaki M, Sugano S, Watanabe J. Inconsistencies of genome annotations in apicomplexan parasites revealed by 5'-end-one-pass and full-length sequences of oligo-capped cDNAs. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:312 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated 5'-EST collections for six apicomplexa parasites using our full-length oligo-capping cDNA library method...
  44. de Souza W, Attias M, Rodrigues J. Particularities of mitochondrial structure in parasitic protists (Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastida). Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:2069-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In the phylum Apicomplexa, several species of Plasmodium cause malaria, whereas Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolite parasite found on all ..
  45. Sato S, Wilson R. Organelle-specific cochaperonins in apicomplexan parasites. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2005;141:133-143 pubmed
    ..The apicomplexan Cpn10 is phylogenetically related to other mitochondrial versions but a significant relationship between apicomplexan Cpn20s and other cochaperonins was not established...
  46. Maia J, Perera A, Harris D. Molecular survey and microscopic examination of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) in lacertid lizards from the western Mediterranean. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2012;59:241-8 pubmed
    The genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) is composed of intracellular haemogregarine parasites that are widely distributed among all tetrapod groups...
  47. Siroký P, Mikulícek P, Jandzik D, Kami H, Mihalca A, Rouag R, et al. Co-distribution pattern of a haemogregarine Hemolivia mauritanica (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) and its vector Hyalomma aegyptium (Metastigmata: Ixodidae). J Parasitol. 2009;95:728-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Identical host preferences of H. aegyptium and H. mauritanica suggest the occurrence of co-evolution within the Testudo-Hyalomma-Hemolivia host-parasite complex...
  48. Smit N, Grutter A, Adlard R, Davies A. Hematozoa of teleosts from Lizard Island, Australia, with some comments on their possible mode of transmission and the description of a new hemogregarine species. J Parasitol. 2006;92:778-88 pubmed
    ..bigemina-like hemogregarine, contained hemogregarine gamonts and possibly young oocysts up to 3 days postfeeding, but no firm evidence that gnathiids transmit hemogregarines at Lizard Island was obtained...
  49. Hikosaka K, Kita K, Tanabe K. Diversity of mitochondrial genome structure in the phylum Apicomplexa. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2013;188:26-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The phylum Apicomplexa includes a variety of unicellular eukaryotes, some of which are parasites of clinical or economic importance...
  50. Striepen B, Jordan C, Reiff S, van Dooren G. Building the perfect parasite: cell division in apicomplexa. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e78 pubmed
  51. Hung S, Parkinson J. Post-genomics resources and tools for studying apicomplexan metabolism. Trends Parasitol. 2011;27:131-40 pubmed publisher
    The phylum Apicomplexa comprises over 5000 species of obligate intracellular parasites, many responsible for diseases that significantly impact human health and economics...
  52. Hyde J. Targeting purine and pyrimidine metabolism in human apicomplexan parasites. Curr Drug Targets. 2007;8:31-47 pubmed
    ..This review examines the status of established drugs of this type and the potential for further exploiting the vulnerability of apicomplexan human pathogens to inhibition of this key area of metabolism...
  53. Hayes P, Smit N, Seddon A, Wertheim D, Davies A. A new fish haemogregarine from South Africa and its suspected dual transmission with trypanosomes by a marine leech. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2006;53:241-8 pubmed
    ..It is suspected that Z. arugamensis transmits the haemogregarine and trypanosomes simultaneously between fishes, a double event unreported previously from the marine environment...
  54. Metzger B, dos Santos Paduan K, Rubini A, de Oliveira T, Pereira C, O Dwyer L. The first report of Hepatozoon sp. (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in neotropical felids from Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2008;152:28-33 pubmed publisher
    ..from domestic cats in Spain. Hepatozoon species from Neotropical felids were identified molecularly and characterized for the first time. This is also the first report of Hepatozoon infection in a little spotted cat...
  55. Vaishnava S, Striepen B. The cell biology of secondary endosymbiosis--how parasites build, divide and segregate the apicoplast. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:1380-7 pubmed
    Protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa harbour a chloroplast-like organelle, the apicoplast...
  56. Heintzelman M. Cellular and molecular mechanics of gliding locomotion in eukaryotes. Int Rev Cytol. 2006;251:79-129 pubmed
    ..Chlamydomonas and other flagellated protists are also able to abandon their more familiar swimming locomotion for gliding, during which time they recruit a motility apparatus independent of that driving flagellar beating...
  57. Seeber F, Aliverti A, Zanetti G. The plant-type ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase/ferredoxin redox system as a possible drug target against apicomplexan human parasites. Curr Pharm Des. 2005;11:3159-72 pubmed
    b>Apicomplexa are unicellular, obligate intracellular parasites of great medical importance. They include human pathogens like Plasmodium spp...
  58. Rueckert S, Leander B. Molecular phylogeny and surface morphology of marine archigregarines (Apicomplexa), Selenidium spp., Filipodium phascolosomae n. sp., and Platyproteum n. g. and comb. from North-Eastern Pacific peanut worms (Sipuncula). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2009;56:428-39 pubmed publisher
    ..g. was established for Platyproteum vivax n. comb. (ex. S. vivax) in order to account for the highly divergent morphological features and better resolved phylogenetic position of this lineage...
  59. Schneider A, Mercereau Puijalon O. A new Apicomplexa-specific protein kinase family: multiple members in Plasmodium falciparum, all with an export signature. BMC Genomics. 2005;6:30 pubmed
    ..Database mining for orthologs to the Plasmodium falciparum trophozoite protein R45, a vaccine candidate, led us identify a new gene family...
  60. Smit N, Davies A. Intraerythrocytic merogony in Haemogregarina koppiensis (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina: Haemogregarinidae). Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2005;52:277-8 pubmed
    ..Identical merozoites, usually in clusters of up to 16, were also observed free of host cells. The pattern of merogony seen in H. koppiensis is unusual for a fish haemogregarine...
  61. Hakimi M, Deitsch K. Epigenetics in Apicomplexa: control of gene expression during cell cycle progression, differentiation and antigenic variation. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2007;10:357-62 pubmed
    ..Here we review recent advances in the study of epigenetic gene regulation in the apicomplexan parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii...
  62. Dowse T, Soldati D. Host cell invasion by the apicomplexans: the significance of microneme protein proteolysis. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2004;7:388-96 pubmed
    ..These proteases may constitute potential drug targets for intervention against malaria and other diseases caused by these parasites...
  63. Li H, Child M, Bogyo M. Proteases as regulators of pathogenesis: examples from the Apicomplexa. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1824:177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteolysis 50 years after the discovery of lysosome...
  64. Harris D, Maia J, Perera A. Molecular survey of Apicomplexa in Podarcis wall lizards detects Hepatozoon, Sarcocystis, and Eimeria species. J Parasitol. 2012;98:592-7 pubmed publisher
    ..lizards. This study shows the power of detecting multiple different apicomplexan parasites through screening of tail tissue samples and blood drops that are often collected in reptiles for other purposes...
  65. Templeton T. Whole-genome natural histories of apicomplexan surface proteins. Trends Parasitol. 2007;23:205-12 pubmed
  66. Gestal C, Pascual S, Hochberg F. Aggregata bathytherma sp. nov. (Apicomplexa:Aggregatidae), a new coccidian parasite associated with a deep-sea hydrothermal vent octopus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;91:237-42 pubmed publisher
    ..A. bathytherma is the first Aggregata species described from a host that lives in association with hydrothermal vents, and the third species of Aggregata from eastern North Pacific waters...
  67. Templeton T, Enomoto S, Chen W, Huang C, Lancto C, Abrahamsen M, et al. A genome-sequence survey for Ascogregarina taiwanensis supports evolutionary affiliation but metabolic diversity between a Gregarine and Cryptosporidium. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:235-48 pubmed publisher
    ..to this early diverging apicomplexan and properties that unite it with Cryptosporidium, the Coccidia, and the Apicomplexa. Phylogenetic trees inferred from a concatenated protein sequence comprised of 10,750 amino acid positions, as ..
  68. Valigurová A, Koudela B. Morphological analysis of the cellular interactions between the eugregarine Gregarina garnhami (Apicomplexa) and the epithelium of its host, the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. Eur J Protistol. 2008;44:197-207 pubmed publisher
    ..In individuals already detached from the host epithelium, a central depression remained at the top of their protomerite, in the area formerly bearing the epimerite...
  69. Siroky P, Kamler M, Modry D. Long-term occurrence of Hemolivia cf. mauritanica (Apicomplexa: Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) in captive Testudo marginata (Reptilia: Testudinidae): evidence for cyclic merogony?. J Parasitol. 2004;90:1391-3 pubmed
  70. Friedrich N, Matthews S, Soldati Favre D. Sialic acids: key determinants for invasion by the Apicomplexa. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:1145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..are equally important for host cell invasion by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa. Host cell entry is an active process relying crucially on proteins that engage with receptors on the host cell ..
  71. Jacot D, Soldati Favre D. Does protein phosphorylation govern host cell entry and egress by the Apicomplexa?. Int J Med Microbiol. 2012;302:195-202 pubmed publisher
    Members of the phylum Apicomplexa are responsible for a wide range of diseases in humans and animals...
  72. Lim L, McFadden G. The evolution, metabolism and functions of the apicoplast. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2010;365:749-63 pubmed publisher
  73. Janouskovec J, Horak A, Barott K, Rohwer F, Keeling P. Environmental distribution of coral-associated relatives of apicomplexan parasites. ISME J. 2013;7:444-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is significantly enriched in healthy coral tissue and shallow reef depths. Altogether, the evidence points to a specific relationship between ARL-V and corals, and is suggestive of symbiosis, perhaps based on photosynthesis...
  74. Lopes R, Alves S. Effect of Gregarina sp. parasitism on the susceptibility of Blattella germanica to some control agents. J Invertebr Pathol. 2005;88:261-4 pubmed
    ..Dead cockroaches showed darkened body and putrid smell, indicating septicaemia. Infected insects were more susceptible than healthy cockroaches when treated with Metarhizium anisopliae and triflumuron...
  75. Talevich E, Mirza A, Kannan N. Structural and evolutionary divergence of eukaryotic protein kinases in Apicomplexa. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:321 pubmed publisher
    The Apicomplexa constitute an evolutionarily divergent phylum of protozoan pathogens responsible for widespread parasitic diseases such as malaria and toxoplasmosis...
  76. Green B. Chloroplast genomes of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Plant J. 2011;66:34-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Genome sizes vary much more than gene content, depending on the extent of gene duplication and small repeats and the size of intergenic spacers...
  77. Seeber F, Soldati Favre D. Metabolic pathways in the apicoplast of apicomplexa. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2010;281:161-228 pubmed publisher
    Intracellular parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa harbor a plastid-like organelle called apicoplast that is the most reduced organelle of this type known...
  78. Pino P, Aeby E, Foth B, Sheiner L, Soldati T, Schneider A, et al. Mitochondrial translation in absence of local tRNA aminoacylation and methionyl tRNA Met formylation in Apicomplexa. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:706-18 pubmed publisher
    ..the unexpected absence of tRNA(Met) formyltransferase and peptide deformylase implies that the requirement for a specialized formylmethionyl-tRNA(Met) for translation initiation is bypassed in the mitochondrion of Apicomplexa.
  79. Essien K, Stoeckert C. Conservation and divergence of known apicomplexan transcriptional regulons. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:147 pubmed publisher
    ..Even less is known about how regulon systems, consisting of transcription factors and target genes together with their associated biological process, evolve in these diverse parasites...
  80. Rueckert S, Chantangsi C, Leander B. Molecular systematics of marine gregarines (Apicomplexa) from North-eastern Pacific polychaetes and nemerteans, with descriptions of three novel species: Lecudina phyllochaetopteri sp. nov., Difficilina tubulani sp. nov. and Difficilina paranemertis . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010;60:2681-90 pubmed publisher
    ..nov. (which lacked epicytic folds), Lecudina tuzetae, species of the genus Lankesteria and several sequences derived from previous environmental DNA surveys of marine biodiversity...
  81. Morrison D. Evolution of the Apicomplexa: where are we now?. Trends Parasitol. 2009;25:375-82 pubmed publisher
    The Apicomplexa is the only large taxonomic group whose members are entirely parasitic and is, therefore, presumably of major interest to parasitologists...
  82. Bougdour A, Maubon D, Baldacci P, Ortet P, Bastien O, Bouillon A, et al. Drug inhibition of HDAC3 and epigenetic control of differentiation in Apicomplexa parasites. J Exp Med. 2009;206:953-66 pubmed publisher
    Plasmodium and Toxoplasma are parasites of major medical importance that belong to the Apicomplexa phylum of protozoa...
  83. Straub K, Cheng S, Sohn C, Bradley P. Novel components of the Apicomplexan moving junction reveal conserved and coccidia-restricted elements. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:590-603 pubmed publisher
    ..of the Toxoplasma MJ have orthologues in Plasmodium, indicating a conserved structure throughout the Apicomplexa. We report here two novel MJ proteins, RON5 and RON8...
  84. Takishita K, Yubuki N, Kakizoe N, Inagaki Y, Maruyama T. Diversity of microbial eukaryotes in sediment at a deep-sea methane cold seep: surveys of ribosomal DNA libraries from raw sediment samples and two enrichment cultures. Extremophiles. 2007;11:563-76 pubmed
    ..Among other clones, phylotypes of eukaryotic parasites, such as Apicomplexa, Ichthyosporea, and Phytomyxea, were identified...
  85. Siroký P, Kamler M, Frye F, Fictum P, Modry D. Endogenous development of Hemolivia mauritanica (Apicomplexa: Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) in the marginated tortoise Testudo marginata (Reptilia: Testudinidae): evidence from experimental infection. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2007;54:13-8 pubmed
    ..The role of individual developmental stages of haemogregarines is discussed with respect to evolution of heteroxenous life cycle and long-term persistence of parasites in their intermediate hosts...