Summary: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.

Top Publications

  1. Ridley D, HAWGOOD B. The value of formol-ether concentration of faecal cysts and ova. J Clin Pathol. 1956;9:74-6 pubmed
  2. Croop J. P-glycoprotein structure and evolutionary homologies. Cytotechnology. 1993;12:1-32 pubmed
    ..Amino acid sequences, the similarities between the halves and intron/exon boundaries have been compared to understand the evolutionary origins of the P-glycoprotein. ..
  3. SAPERO J, LAWLESS D. The MIF stain-preservation technic for the identification of intestinal protozoa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1953;2:613-9 pubmed
  4. Pawlowski J. The new micro-kingdoms of eukaryotes. BMC Biol. 2013;11:40 pubmed publisher
  5. Santofimia E, González Toril E, López Pamo E, Gomariz M, Amils R, Aguilera A. Microbial Diversity and Its Relationship to Physicochemical Characteristics of the Water in Two Extreme Acidic Pit Lakes from the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66746 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking into consideration the hydrochemical characteristics of these pit lakes and the spatial distribution of the identified microorganisms, a model explaining their geomicrobiology is advanced. ..
  6. Chariton A, Ho K, Proestou D, Bik H, Simpson S, Portis L, et al. A molecular-based approach for examining responses of eukaryotes in microcosms to contaminant-spiked estuarine sediments. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2014;33:359-69 pubmed
  7. Hill S, Hanzén S, Nystrom T. Restricted access: spatial sequestration of damaged proteins during stress and aging. EMBO Rep. 2017;18:377-391 pubmed publisher
  8. Abudukelimu A, Mondeel T, Barberis M, Westerhoff H. Learning to read and write in evolution: from static pseudoenzymes and pseudosignalers to dynamic gear shifters. Biochem Soc Trans. 2017;45:635-652 pubmed publisher
    ..A combination of functionalities into enzymes, signalers, and the pseudo-versions thereof may offer fitness in terms of plasticity, both in real time and in evolution. ..
  9. Jores T, Rapaport D. Early stages in the biogenesis of eukaryotic ?-barrel proteins. FEBS Lett. 2017;591:2671-2681 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge about the biogenesis of ?-barrel proteins, focusing on the early stages from the translation on cytosolic ribosomes to the recognition on the surface of the organelle. ..

More Information

Publications106 found, 100 shown here

  1. Edmonds J, Francesconi K. Transformations of arsenic in the marine environment. Experientia. 1987;43:553-7 pubmed
  2. Conley D, Paerl H, Howarth R, Boesch D, Seitzinger S, Havens K, et al. Ecology. Controlling eutrophication: nitrogen and phosphorus. Science. 2009;323:1014-5 pubmed publisher
  3. Hunter P. The tide turns towards microalgae. Current research aims to produce traditional biofuels from algae, but their potential to generate sustainable energy might be even greater and more 'natural'. EMBO Rep. 2010;11:583-6 pubmed publisher
  4. Almeida J, Mariat D, Azevedo V, Miyoshi A, de Moreno de Leblanc A, Del Carmen S, et al. Correlation between fibronectin binding protein A expression level at the surface of recombinant lactococcus lactis and plasmid transfer in vitro and in vivo. BMC Microbiol. 2014;14:248 pubmed publisher
    ..The recombinant strains of L. lactis that expresses FnBPA under the control of the nisin inducible expression system could thus be considered as an improved tool in the field of DNA transfer. ..
  5. Lanzen A, Lekang K, Jonassen I, Thompson E, Troedsson C. DNA extraction replicates improve diversity and compositional dissimilarity in metabarcoding of eukaryotes in marine sediments. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179443 pubmed publisher
  6. Matthews C, Wright C, Kuo A, Colant N, Westoby M, Love J. Reexamining opportunities for therapeutic protein production in eukaryotic microorganisms. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2017;114:2432-2444 pubmed publisher
    ..Related article: ..
  7. Alsmark C, Foster P, Sicheritz Ponten T, Nakjang S, Martin Embley T, Hirt R. Patterns of prokaryotic lateral gene transfers affecting parasitic microbial eukaryotes. Genome Biol. 2013;14:R19 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, from the perspective of the effects of lateral gene transfer on individual gene ancestries in different lineages, eukaryotic metabolism appears to be chimeric. ..
  8. Dangkulwanich M, Ishibashi T, Bintu L, Bustamante C. Molecular mechanisms of transcription through single-molecule experiments. Chem Rev. 2014;114:3203-23 pubmed publisher
  9. Sablok G, Chen T, Lee C, Yang C, Gan R, Wegrzyn J, et al. ChloroMitoCU: Codon patterns across organelle genomes for functional genomics and evolutionary applications. DNA Res. 2017;24:327-332 pubmed publisher
    ..ChloroMitoCU can increase our understanding of the biased patterns of codon usage in organelle genomes across multiple clades. ChloroMitoCU can be accessed at: ..
  10. Palmgren M, Engström K, Hallström B, Wahlberg K, Søndergaard D, Sall T, et al. AS3MT-mediated tolerance to arsenic evolved by multiple independent horizontal gene transfers from bacteria to eukaryotes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175422 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are supported by the observation that genetic variation in AS3MT correlates with the capacity to methylate arsenic. Adaptation to arsenic thus serves as a model for how organisms evolve to survive under toxic conditions. ..
  11. Couso J, Patraquim P. Classification and function of small open reading frames. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2017;18:575-589 pubmed publisher
  12. Boom R, Sol C, Salimans M, Jansen C, Wertheim van Dillen P, van der Noordaa J. Rapid and simple method for purification of nucleic acids. J Clin Microbiol. 1990;28:495-503 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we show representative experiments illustrating some characteristics of the procedure which may have wide application in clinical microbiology. ..
  13. Devos D. Regarding the presence of membrane coat proteins in bacteria: confusion? What confusion?. Bioessays. 2012;34:38-9 pubmed publisher
  14. Chavali S, Chavali P, Chalancon G, de Groot N, Gemayel R, Latysheva N, et al. Constraints and consequences of the emergence of amino acid repeats in eukaryotic proteins. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2017;24:765-777 pubmed publisher
    ..Their presence facilitates rapid exploration of the genotype-phenotype landscape of a population, thereby contributing to adaptation and fitness. ..
  15. Sorokin C. New high-temperature Chiorella. Science. 1967;158:1204-5 pubmed
    ..It also differs from Chlorella 7-11-05 morphologically. Because of its high capacity for organic synthesis, Chlorella 1-9-30 may be useful in biochemical, biophysical, and physiological research. ..
  16. Lane N, Martin W. Eukaryotes really are special, and mitochondria are why. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E4823 pubmed publisher
  17. Sánchez M, Sabio L, Galvez N, Capdevila M, Domínguez Vera J. Iron chemistry at the service of life. IUBMB Life. 2017;69:382-388 pubmed publisher
    ..2017 IUBMB Life, 69(6):382-388, 2017. ..
  18. Wittouck S, van Noort V. Correlated duplications and losses in the evolution of palmitoylation writer and eraser families. BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:83 pubmed publisher
    ..A general pattern of correlated evolution appears between writer and eraser domains. These co-evolution patterns could be used in new methods for interaction prediction based on phylogenies. ..
  19. Sebé Pedrós A, Degnan B, Ruiz Trillo I. The origin of Metazoa: a unicellular perspective. Nat Rev Genet. 2017;18:498-512 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the results of these investigations and discuss their implications for understanding the earliest stages of animal evolution, including the origin of metazoan genes and genome function. ..
  20. Atherton J, Jiang K, Stangier M, Luo Y, Hua S, Houben K, et al. A structural model for microtubule minus-end recognition and protection by CAMSAP proteins. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2017;24:931-943 pubmed publisher
    ..The steric clash between microtubule-bound CKK and kinesin motors explains how CKK protects microtubule minus ends against kinesin-13-induced depolymerization and thus controls the stability of free microtubule minus ends. ..
  21. Libault M, Joshi T, Benedito V, Xu D, Udvardi M, Stacey G. Legume transcription factor genes: what makes legumes so special?. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:991-1001 pubmed publisher
  22. Heymann J, Hinshaw J. Dynamins at a glance. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3427-31 pubmed publisher
  23. Choi J, Um J, Cho J, Lee H. Tiny RNAs and their voyage via extracellular vesicles: Secretion of bacterial small RNA and eukaryotic microRNA. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017;242:1475-1481 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides insight into the function of small RNAs in intercellular and even interkingdom communication...
  24. Witvrouw M, De Clercq E. Sulfated polysaccharides extracted from sea algae as potential antiviral drugs. Gen Pharmacol. 1997;29:497-511 pubmed
  25. Popper Z, Tuohy M. Beyond the green: understanding the evolutionary puzzle of plant and algal cell walls. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:373-83 pubmed publisher
  26. Saldivar J, Cortez D, Cimprich K. The essential kinase ATR: ensuring faithful duplication of a challenging genome. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2017;18:622-636 pubmed publisher
    ..We focus on the activities of ATR in the control of cell cycle checkpoints, origin firing and replication fork stability, and on how proper regulation of these processes is crucial to ensure faithful duplication of a challenging genome. ..
  27. Cocito C. Antibiotics of the virginiamycin family, inhibitors which contain synergistic components. Microbiol Rev. 1979;43:145-92 pubmed
  28. Mascarelli A. Gold rush for algae. Nature. 2009;461:460-1 pubmed publisher
  29. Butterfield N. Paleontology. Terminal developments in Ediacaran embryology. Science. 2011;334:1655-6 pubmed publisher
  30. Maraia R, Arimbasseri A. Factors That Shape Eukaryotic tRNAomes:  Processing, Modification and Anticodon-Codon Use. Biomolecules. 2017;7: pubmed publisher
    ..The genetics of tRNA function is relevant to health directly and as disease modifiers. ..
  31. Harish A, Kurland C. Empirical genome evolution models root the tree of life. Biochimie. 2017;138:137-155 pubmed publisher
  32. Kearse M, Wilusz J. Non-AUG translation: a new start for protein synthesis in eukaryotes. Genes Dev. 2017;31:1717-1731 pubmed publisher
  33. Bartha R. The microbiology of aquatic oil spills. Adv Appl Microbiol. 1977;22:225-66 pubmed
  34. Galperin M. Sorting out the mix in microbial genomics. Environ Microbiol. 2008;10:3187-92 pubmed publisher
  35. Richards T, Leonard G, Wideman J. What Defines the "Kingdom" Fungi?. Microbiol Spectr. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Our hope is that, by summarizing these data in the form of a discussion, we can illustrate the ongoing efforts to understand what drove the evolutionary diversification of fungi. ..
  36. Korsinczky M, Chen N, Kotecka B, Saul A, Rieckmann K, Cheng Q. Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum cytochrome b that are associated with atovaquone resistance are located at a putative drug-binding site. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44:2100-8 pubmed
    ..Mutations in these positions are consistent with a reduced binding affinity of atovaquone for malaria parasite CYT b. ..
  37. Stump B, Eberle C, Schweizer W, Kaiser M, Brun R, Krauth Siegel R, et al. Pentafluorosulfanyl as a novel building block for enzyme inhibitors: trypanothione reductase inhibition and antiprotozoal activities of diarylamines. Chembiochem. 2009;10:79-83 pubmed publisher
  38. Lukes J, Stensvold C, Jirků Pomajbíková K, Wegener Parfrey L. Are Human Intestinal Eukaryotes Beneficial or Commensals?. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1005039 pubmed publisher
  39. Gorman D, Levine R. Cytochrome f and plastocyanin: their sequence in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1965;54:1665-9 pubmed
  40. Cohen Z, Norman H, Heimer Y. Microalgae as a source of omega 3 fatty acids. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1995;77:1-31 pubmed
  41. Dollive S, Peterfreund G, Sherrill Mix S, Bittinger K, Sinha R, Hoffmann C, et al. A tool kit for quantifying eukaryotic rRNA gene sequences from human microbiome samples. Genome Biol. 2012;13:R60 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a well-characterized tool kit for sequence-based enumeration of eukaryotic organisms in human microbiome samples. ..
  42. Banerjee S, Feyertag F, Alvarez Ponce D. Intrinsic protein disorder reduces small-scale gene duplicability. DNA Res. 2017;24:435-444 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the potential evolutionary implications of our results. ..
  43. Sheu Gruttadauria J, Macrae I. Structural Foundations of RNA Silencing by Argonaute. J Mol Biol. 2017;429:2619-2639 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review current understanding of Argonaute proteins from a structural prospective and discuss unanswered questions surrounding this fascinating class of enzymes. ..
  44. Chung C, Majewska N, Wang Q, Paul J, Betenbaugh M. SnapShot: N-Glycosylation Processing Pathways across Kingdoms. Cell. 2017;171:258-258.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Post-translational modification of proteins with carbohydrates shapes their localization and function. This SnapShot presents the core pathways from different organisms that install these complex and highly variable structures...
  45. Taberlet P, Gielly L, Pautou G, Bouvet J. Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. Plant Mol Biol. 1991;17:1105-9 pubmed
  46. Jeltsch A. Molecular biology. Phylogeny of methylomes. Science. 2010;328:837-8 pubmed publisher
  47. Barribeau S, Gerardo N. An evolutionarily and ecologically focused strategy for genome sequencing efforts. Heredity (Edinb). 2012;108:577-80 pubmed publisher
  48. Hazkani Covo E, Martin W. Quantifying the Number of Independent Organelle DNA Insertions in Genome Evolution and Human Health. Genome Biol Evol. 2017;9:1190-1203 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings outline the main technical parameters influencing accurate identification and frequency estimation of numts in genomic studies pertinent to both evolution and human health...
  49. Thickman J, Gobler C. The ability of algal organic matter and surface runoff to promote the abundance of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Long Island Sound, USA. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185994 pubmed publisher
    ..parahaemolyticus, restricting nutrient inputs into coastal water bodies that promote algal blooms may indirectly decrease the proliferation of V. parahaemolyticus and protect public health...
  50. Benne R, Sloof P. Evolution of the mitochondrial protein synthetic machinery. Biosystems. 1987;21:51-68 pubmed
  51. Goad D, Goad C, Nagaraja T. Ruminal microbial and fermentative changes associated with experimentally induced subacute acidosis in steers. J Anim Sci. 1998;76:234-41 pubmed
    ..Bacterial changes associated with subacute acidosis resemble those reported during adaptation to grain feeding, and the decline in ciliated protozoa may be the only microbial indicator of a potentially acidotic condition in the rumen. ..
  52. Heath I. Variant mitoses in lower eukaryotes: indicators of the evolution of mitosis. Int Rev Cytol. 1980;64:1-80 pubmed
  53. Benchimol M, Engel J, Tan K, de Souza W. Cell biology of pathogenic protozoa and their interaction with host cells. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:143418 pubmed publisher
  54. Leśniewska E, Boguta M. Novel layers of RNA polymerase III control affecting tRNA gene transcription in eukaryotes. Open Biol. 2017;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Among other RNA polymerases, Pol III machinery represents unique features related to a short transcript length and high transcription efficiency. ..
  55. Herzel L, Ottoz D, Alpert T, Neugebauer K. Splicing and transcription touch base: co-transcriptional spliceosome assembly and function. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2017;18:637-650 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, we discuss aspects of spliceosome assembly, transcription elongation and other co-transcriptional events that allow the temporal coordination of co-transcriptional splicing. ..
  56. Fierer N. Embracing the unknown: disentangling the complexities of the soil microbiome. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2017;15:579-590 pubmed publisher
  57. Tibayrenc M, Kjellberg F, Ayala F. A clonal theory of parasitic protozoa: the population structures of Entamoeba, Giardia, Leishmania, Naegleria, Plasmodium, Trichomonas, and Trypanosoma and their medical and taxonomical consequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:2414-8 pubmed
    ..Uniparental reproduction renders unsatisfactory Linnean taxonomy; this needs to be supplemented by the "natural clone" as an additional taxonomic unit, which is best defined by means of genetic markers...
  58. Provasoli L, McLaughlin J, DROOP M. The development of artificial media for marine algae. Arch Mikrobiol. 1957;25:392-428 pubmed
  59. Carrara F, Giometto A, Seymour M, Rinaldo A, Altermatt F. Experimental evidence for strong stabilizing forces at high functional diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Ecology. 2015;96:1340-50 pubmed
  60. Yang J, Harding T, Kamikawa R, Simpson A, Roger A. Mitochondrial Genome Evolution and a Novel RNA Editing System in Deep-Branching Heteroloboseids. Genome Biol Evol. 2017;9:1161-1174 pubmed publisher
    ..kirbyi, suggest that this remarkably extensive system of insertional editing evolved independently in the BB2 lineage, after its divergence from the P. kirbyi lineage...
  61. Ahrens J, Nunez Castilla J, Siltberg Liberles J. Evolution of intrinsic disorder in eukaryotic proteins. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017;74:3163-3174 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the interplay between secondary structure and disorder on evolutionary time-scales, the importance of disorder for eukaryotic proteome expansion and functional divergence, and the evolutionary dynamics of disorder. ..
  62. Rich P. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase: catalysis, coupling and controversies. Biochem Soc Trans. 2017;45:813-829 pubmed publisher
    ..These mechanisms of catalysis and coupling, together with current alternative proposals of underlying mechanisms, are critically reviewed. ..
  63. Ohshita K, Fukui K, Sato M, Morisawa T, Hakumai Y, Morono Y, et al. Archaeal MutS5 tightly binds to Holliday junction similarly to eukaryotic MutS?. FEBS J. 2017;284:3470-3483 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that archaeal MutS5 should stabilize the Holliday junction and play a role in homologous recombination, which is analogous to the function of eukaryotic MutS?. ..
  64. Odum H. Notes on the strontium content of sea water, celestite Radiolaria, and strontianite snail shells. Science. 1951;114:211-3 pubmed
  65. Andersen L, Vedel Nielsen H, Stensvold C. Waiting for the human intestinal Eukaryotome. ISME J. 2013;7:1253-5 pubmed publisher
  66. Penny D. Cooperation and selfishness both occur during molecular evolution. Biol Direct. 2014;10:26 pubmed publisher
    ..We need to assert more strongly that genes, and gene products, function together as a cooperative unit. ..
  67. Wheeler G, Ishikawa T, Pornsaksit V, Smirnoff N. Evolution of alternative biosynthetic pathways for vitamin C following plastid acquisition in photosynthetic eukaryotes. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..The formation of the alternative biosynthetic pathways in photosynthetic eukaryotes uncoupled ascorbate synthesis from hydrogen peroxide production and likely contributed to the rise of ascorbate as a major photoprotective antioxidant. ..
  68. Harish A, Kurland C. Akaryotes and Eukaryotes are independent descendants of a universal common ancestor. Biochimie. 2017;138:168-183 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, innovation of novel superfamilies has played a surprisingly small role in the evolution of Akaryotes and only a marginal role in the evolution of Eukaryotes. ..
  69. Althaus J, Malyszek C, Kaiser M, Brun R, Schmidt T. Alkamides from Anacyclus pyrethrum L. and Their in Vitro Antiprotozoal Activity. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
  70. Peña C, Hurt E, Panse V. Eukaryotic ribosome assembly, transport and quality control. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2017;24:689-699 pubmed publisher
    ..We also highlight recent cryo-EM studies that provided unprecedented snapshots of ribosomes during assembly and quality control. ..
  71. Umen J, Goodenough U, Heitman J. Eukaryotic Sexual Reproduction Evoked "with a Little Help from My Friends". Cell. 2017;170:1059-1061 pubmed publisher
    ..Now in an unexpected twist, King and colleagues have expanded the repertoire of prokaryotic influence over eukaryotic physiology to include mating. ..
  72. Kiessling K, Pettersson H, Sandholm K, Olsen M. Metabolism of aflatoxin, ochratoxin, zearalenone, and three trichothecenes by intact rumen fluid, rumen protozoa, and rumen bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1984;47:1070-3 pubmed
    ..Whether such conversions in the rumen fluid may be considered as a first line of defense against toxic compounds present in the diet is briefly discussed. ..
  73. Lützhøft H, Halling Sørensen B, Jørgensen S. Algal toxicity of antibacterial agents applied in Danish fish farming. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1999;36:1-6 pubmed
    ..capricornutum. Applying this test procedure the toxicity of antibacterial agents, being mono- or polyprotic compounds, may be underestimated because of partitioning between ionized and unionized forms. ..
  74. Lee S, Ha J, Cheng K. Relative contributions of bacteria, protozoa, and fungi to in vitro degradation of orchard grass cell walls and their interactions. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66:3807-13 pubmed
    ..The protozoal fraction inhibited cellulolysis of cell wall material by both the bacterial and the fungal fractions, while in the coculture between the bacterial fraction and the fungal fraction a synergistic interaction was detected. ..
    ..The production of excessive amounts of these photosynthetic end products will undoubtedly influence the effective recycling time of growth media in life-support systems. ..
  76. Tibbetts J. Bleached, but not by the sun: sunscreen linked to coral damage. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:A173 pubmed
  77. Koonin E. The double-edged sword of Lamarck: comment on "Diversity, evolution, and therapeutic applications of small RNAs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic immune systems" by Edwin L. Cooper and Nicola Overstreet. Phys Life Rev. 2014;11:141-3; discussion 149-51 pubmed publisher
  78. Schmid S, Sorkin A, Zerial M. Endocytosis: Past, present, and future. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2014;6:a022509 pubmed publisher
  79. Embley T, Williams T. Evolution: Steps on the road to eukaryotes. Nature. 2015;521:169-70 pubmed publisher
  80. Yruela I, Oldfield C, Niklas K, Dunker A. Evidence for a Strong Correlation Between Transcription Factor Protein Disorder and Organismic Complexity. Genome Biol Evol. 2017;9:1248-1265 pubmed publisher
  81. Nogales E, Louder R, He Y. Structural Insights into the Eukaryotic Transcription Initiation Machinery. Annu Rev Biophys. 2017;46:59-83 pubmed publisher
  82. Farago A, Denes G. Mechanism of arginine biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardti. II. Purification and properties of N-acetylglutamate 5-phosphotransferase, the allosteric enzyme of the pathway. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1967;136:6-18 pubmed
  83. Mattick J. Video Q&A: Non-coding RNAs and eukaryotic evolution - a personal view. BMC Biol. 2010;8:67 pubmed publisher
  84. Hatch A, York J. SnapShot: Inositol phosphates. Cell. 2010;143:1030-1030.e1 pubmed publisher
  85. Sterck L, Billiau K, Abeel T, Rouze P, Van de Peer Y. ORCAE: online resource for community annotation of eukaryotes. Nat Methods. 2012;9:1041 pubmed publisher
  86. FOTER M, Palmer C, MALONEY T. Antialgal properties of various antibiotics. Antibiot Chemother (Northfield). 1953;3:505-8 pubmed
  87. Atkinson G. The evolutionary and functional diversity of classical and lesser-known cytoplasmic and organellar translational GTPases across the tree of life. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:78 pubmed publisher
  88. Grisshammer R. New approaches towards the understanding of integral membrane proteins: A structural perspective on G protein-coupled receptors. Protein Sci. 2017;26:1493-1504 pubmed publisher
    ..Three emerging methods, serial femtosecond crystallography, micro electron diffraction, and single particle electron cryo-microscopy, hold promise to overcome current limitations in structural membrane biology. ..
  89. Innis S, Hansen J. Plasma fatty acid responses, metabolic effects, and safety of microalgal and fungal oils rich in arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64:159-67 pubmed
    ..These oils appear to be safe dietary sources of AA and DHA for healthy adults at intakes equivalent to 0.8 g AA and 0.6 g DHA/d for > or = 2 wk. ..
  90. O DONNELL M, Langston L, Stillman B. Principles and concepts of DNA replication in bacteria, archaea, and eukarya. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2013;5: pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, DNA replication in eukaryotes needs to be coordinated with inheritance of chromatin, developmental patterning of tissues, and cell division to ensure that the genome replicates once per cell division cycle. ..
  91. Ball S, Bhattacharya D, Weber A. EVOLUTION. Pathogen to powerhouse. Science. 2016;351:659-60 pubmed publisher
  92. Copetti D, Wing R. The Dark Side of the Genome: Revealing the Native Transposable Element/Repeat Content of Eukaryotic Genomes. Mol Plant. 2016;9:1664-1666 pubmed publisher