x ray film


Summary: A film base coated with an emulsion designed for use with x-rays.

Top Publications

  1. Butson M, Cheung T, Yu P. Absorption spectra analysis of exposed FWT-60 radiochromic film. Phys Med Biol. 2004;49:N377-81 pubmed
    ..077 OD units per kGy. The film can be an ideal dosimeter for areas where high dose levels need to be measured. ..
  2. Doyle P, Gentle D, Martin C. Optimising automatic exposure control in computed radiography and the impact on patient dose. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;114:236-9 pubmed
    ..Experiences gained in setting up the systems are described and results of a patient dose survey are reported. ..
  3. Alexander S. Radiology goes filmless. Healthc Inform. 2001;18:65-8, 70 pubmed
    ..Detailed financial model and needs assessment, commitment by management and staff, well-planned implementation, choice of vendor that provides total solution and support. ..
  4. Holly R, Keller B, Pignol J, Lemaire C, Peemoeller H. Initial investigation on the use of MR spectroscopy and micro-MRI of GAFCHROMIC EBT radiotherapy film. Med Phys. 2009;36:5341-6 pubmed
    ..Further MR spectroscopic experiments are needed to investigate the response of the film to dose, allowing for a better understanding of the relationship between polymer cross-linking in the active layer. ..
  5. Poon E, Reniers B, Devic S, Vuong T, Verhaegen F. Dosimetric characterization of a novel intracavitary mold applicator for 192Ir high dose rate endorectal brachytherapy treatment. Med Phys. 2006;33:4515-26 pubmed
    ..All experimental results agree with the GEANT4 calculations within measurement uncertainties. ..
  6. Kopans D, Pisano E, Acharyya S, Hendrick R, Yaffe M, Conant E, et al. DMIST results: technologic or observer variability?. Radiology. 2008;248:703; author reply 703 pubmed publisher
  7. Behrman R. The impact of increased Al filtration on x-ray tube loading and image quality in diagnostic radiology. Med Phys. 2003;30:69-78 pubmed
    ..These results, combined with the linear no-threshold model for radiation risk and the ALARA principle, suggest that general radiography should be carried out using a minimum of 4.0 mm total Al equivalent filtration. ..
  8. Alcaraz M, Navarro C, Vicente V, Canteras M. Dose reduction of intraoral dental radiography in Spain. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2006;35:295-8 pubmed
    ..The introduction of new legislation has resulted in a gradual reduction in the dose administered in intraoral dental radiology in Spain. ..
  9. Obenauer S, Hermann K, Marten K, Luftner Nagel S, von Heyden D, Skaane P, et al. Soft copy versus hard copy reading in digital mammography. J Digit Imaging. 2003;16:341-4 pubmed
    ..Soft copy reading is possible with the available system and enables radiologists to use the advantages of a digital system. ..

More Information


  1. McCarthy E, Brennan P. Viewing conditions for diagnostic images in three major Dublin hospitals: a comparison with WHO and CEC recommendations. Br J Radiol. 2003;76:94-7 pubmed
    ..The need for consistent and more informative recommendations has been emphasized. ..
  2. Chen G, Liu B, Wang D, Li T, Zheng G. [Characteristics of BMP expression and X-ray films in distraction osteogenesis for repair of cleft palate--an immunohistochemical and roentgenographic study]. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2002;20:209-12 pubmed
    ..The X-ray examination shows that there is distinctively low roentgenopeque. Nevertheless, roentgenography is so far a very effective and convenient method to evaluate and monitor the DO correction efficiency. ..
  3. Sewell J, Drage N, Brown J. The use of panoramic radiography in a dental accident and emergency department. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2001;30:260-3 pubmed
    ..The large number of inappropriate requests involving dental students has implications for educators. The use of local selection criteria based on currently accepted guidelines would have reduced the dose substantially. ..
  4. Matsuda Y, Hanazawa T, Seki K, Sano T, Ozeki M, Okano T. Accuracy of Digora system in detecting artificial peri-implant bone defects. Implant Dent. 2001;10:265-71 pubmed
    ..Digora had an equivalent performance to radiographic film in detecting intrabony defects adjacent to the implants, notwithstanding the amount of 1/5 of the exposure time. ..
  5. Shearer A, Mullane E, Macfarlane T, Grondahl H, Horner K. Three phosphor plate systems and film compared for imaging root canals. Int Endod J. 2001;34:275-9 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that a greater length of root canal was visible on conventional film than on three phosphor plate imaging systems and that this may be of clinical significance. ..
  6. Hadley D, Replogle K, Kirkam J, Best A. A comparison of five radiographic systems to D-speed film in the detection of artificial bone lesions. J Endod. 2008;34:1111-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The Kodak filtered, Schick filtered, OpTime unfiltered, Schick unfiltered, and Dexis filtered images were significantly better at lesion detection compared with D-speed film. ..
  7. Doyle P, Martin C, Gentle D. Dose-image quality optimisation in digital chest radiography. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;114:269-72 pubmed
    ..SNR measurements provided a useful objective measure for assessment of image quality for optimising DR systems. ..
  8. Siegel E, Reiner B. Filmless radiology at the Baltimore VA Medical Center: a 9 year retrospective. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 2003;27:101-9 pubmed
    ..Our experience suggests that it is absolutely essential to integrate the PACS into the patient's electronic medical record in order to maximize efficiency and clinical effectiveness of the system. ..
  9. Harding I, Pearce O. The importance of coded radiographic labelling in clinical practice. Int J Clin Pract. 2002;56:247-8 pubmed
    ..A further benefit was gained by using colour coding in conjunction with number coding. We recommend the use of colour and number coding of radiographs in clinical practice. ..
  10. Blendl C, Löbach W, Owert P. [The determination of the point of time in processing archived X-ray films]. Radiologe. 2003;43:234-9 pubmed
  11. Kruse J, Herman M, Hagness C, Davis B, Garces Y, Haddock M, et al. Electronic and film portal images: a comparison of landmark visibility and review accuracy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002;54:584-91 pubmed
    ..5 mm in film, compared to 1.5 mm with SLIC-EPID and 1.3 mm with aSi-EPID. Both EPIDs are clinically viable replacements for film, but aSi-EPID represents a significant advancement in image quality over film. ..
  12. Thomas G, Chu R, Rabe F. A study of GafChromic XR Type R film response with reflective-type densitometers and economical flatbed scanners. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2003;4:307-14 pubmed
    ..This method was compared to the use of a red acetate filter. The latter was demonstrated to be a possible alternative for measurement below 5 Gy and when there is no software ability to split an image into color components. ..
  13. Chang L, Ho S, Chui C, Du Y, Chen T. Verification and source-position error analysis of film reconstruction techniques used in the brachytherapy planning systems. Med Phys. 2009;36:4115-20 pubmed
    ..This method could be used to test the reconstruction techniques of any planning system, and the most suitable one can be chosen for clinical use. ..
  14. Brealey S, Scally A, Thomas N. Review article: methodological standards in radiographer plain film reading performance studies. Br J Radiol. 2002;75:107-13 pubmed
    ..Careful consideration of these standards is an essential component of study quality and hence the validity of the evidence base used to underpin radiographic reporting policy. ..
  15. Le Y, Ali I, Dempsey J, Williamson J. Prospects for quantitative two-dimensional radiochromic film dosimetry for low dose-rate brachytherapy sources. Med Phys. 2006;33:4622-34 pubmed
    ..The impacts of this work on the future use of new type of RCF were also discussed. ..
  16. Lee K, Fung K, Kwok C. Dual-peak dose measurement for radiochromic films by a newly developed spectral microdensitometer. Med Phys. 2005;32:1485-90 pubmed
    ..An initial test shows that there is a good agreement between the estimated and actual dose deposited; and the maximum discrepancy was found to be less than 1%. ..
  17. Lynch B, Kozelka J, Ranade M, Li J, Simon W, Dempsey J. Important considerations for radiochromic film dosimetry with flatbed CCD scanners and EBT GAFCHROMIC film. Med Phys. 2006;33:4551-6 pubmed
  18. Anjum M, Parker W, Ruo R, Afzal M. Evaluation criteria for film based intensity modulated radiation therapy quality assurance. Phys Med. 2010;26:38-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study may be useful for other institutions which use verification software and EBT films for patient specific IMRT QA. ..
  19. Martisíková M, Jäkel O. Dosimetric properties of Gafchromic EBT films in monoenergetic medical ion beams. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55:3741-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The above findings enable the use of EBT films calibrated in a beam of a particular ion type for dose measurements at any other dose and energy. The uncertainty of the film darkening determination in ion beams is also discussed. ..
  20. Brettle D. Display considerations for hospital-wide viewing of soft copy images. Br J Radiol. 2007;80:503-7 pubmed
    ..This paper considers the current situation and presents potential hospital-wide solutions for the outstanding issues. ..
  21. Agostinelli S, Garelli S, Piergentili M, Foppiano F. Response to high-energy photons of PTW31014 PinPoint ion chamber with a central aluminum electrode. Med Phys. 2008;35:3293-301 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the penumbra (80%-20% distance) showed that the spatial resolution of type 31014 PinPoint ion chamber approaches (penumbra broadening < or = 0.6 mm) EDR2 film results. ..
  22. Kallergi M, Berman C, Cressman J, Loeffler W, Pat Romilly A, Szabunio M, et al. Clinical evaluation of a new digitizing device for improved film mammography. Acad Radiol. 2004;11:1242-50 pubmed
    ..A larger clinical study of the improved system is necessary to clearly demonstrate its clinical value for mammography. ..
  23. Otsu Y, Choh T, Yamazaki I, Kosaka K, Iguchi M, Nakajima I. Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the Japan's domestic communication satellite CS-2 for the case of disasters and emergencies. Acta Astronaut. 1986;13:459-66 pubmed
    ..However, a few problems were found in the Hi-Fi reproduction of original colors and in the transmission of heart sounds in the very low frequency band less than 300 Hz. ..
  24. Stump K, DeWerd L, Micka J, Anderson D. Calibration of new high dose rate 192Ir sources. Med Phys. 2002;29:1483-8 pubmed
    ..In addition to the in-air calibration, contact autoradiographs of the sources were made with International Specialty Products model HD810 radiochromic film to demonstrate the sources relative dose distributions. ..
  25. Sharma S, Bianchi C, Conte L, Novario R, Bhatt B. Radiochromic film measurement of anisotropy function for high-dose-rate Ir-192 brachytherapy source. Phys Med Biol. 2004;49:4065-72 pubmed
    ..The RCF method described in this paper is comparatively high resolution, simple to use and is a general method, which can be applied for other brachytherapy sources as well...
  26. Morrell R, Rogers A. Film dosimetry for fluoroscopic procedures: potential errors. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;114:147-9 pubmed
    ..The overall uncertainty in dose was estimated to be between -20% and +40%, at 160 mGy. This uncertainty increases as the film approaches its saturation point. In addition, some unusual artefacts were observed. ..
  27. Noujeim M, Prihoda T, Langlais R, Nummikoski P. Evaluation of high-resolution cone beam computed tomography in the detection of simulated interradicular bone lesions. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2009;38:156-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy of limited-volume high-resolution cone beam CT (CBCT) in the detection of periodontal bone loss...
  28. Wei H, Chung M, Huang V, Cheng C. Feasibility study of custom hip stem design based on X-ray films. Biomed Mater Eng. 2004;14:193-202 pubmed
    ..The use of 6 or more X-ray films for custom-made hip stem as a source of design is recommended in this study. ..
  29. Neiburger E. Infectious reading. Gen Dent. 2003;51:382; author reply 382-3 pubmed
  30. Alcaraz M, Parra C, Martinez Beneyto Y, Velasco E, Canteras M. Is it true that the radiation dose to which patients are exposed has decreased with modern radiographic films?. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2009;38:92-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Not even the use of the most sensitive of modern films has brought about a reduction of the dose administered to patients in Spain. Only digital systems, it seems, will bring about reduction in this dose. ..
  31. Geissler K. In a fog. Radiol Technol. 2003;75:59-60 pubmed
  32. Stout J, Kosinski A, Hamilton C, Goodman P, Mosher A, Menzies D, et al. Effect of improving the quality of radiographic interpretation on the ability to predict pulmonary tuberculosis relapse. Acad Radiol. 2010;17:157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Improving the reliability of these findings could improve the utility of chest radiographs for predicting tuberculosis relapse. ..
  33. McKay G, Cox L, Long B. Imaging juvenile idiopathic arthritis: assessing the modalities. Radiol Technol. 2010;81:318-27 pubmed
    ..No single modality meets every imaging need at this time, but methods for detecting JIA are dramatically improving. Diagnostic radiography, MR imaging, ultrasonography and CT all play an important role in diagnosing or monitoring JIA. ..
  34. Li D, Yu C. [How to evaluate the competence in reading chest X-ray film of pneumoconiosis]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2004;22:399 pubmed
  35. Oliva P, Golosio B, Stumbo S, Bravin A, Tomassini P. Compact x-ray sources for mammographic applications: Monte Carlo simulations of image quality. Med Phys. 2009;36:5149-61 pubmed
    ..4 keV, depending on the phantom thickness and detail composition and thickness. An energy spread of about 1 keV standard deviation, easily achievable with compact x-ray sources, does not appreciably affect the image quality. ..
  36. De Rossi A, De Rossi M, Rocha L, da Silva L, Rossi M. Morphometric analysis of experimentally induced periapical lesions: radiographic vs histopathological findings. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2007;36:211-7 pubmed
  37. Stern R, Kurylo J, Siantar C, Lehmann J, Goldberg Z. Film dosimetry in the peripheral region using multiple sensitometric curves. Med Phys. 2004;31:327-32 pubmed
    ..Agreement with chamber measurements was within 7%, or less than 2 mm in regions of high gradient, over a wide range of field sizes and SSDs. ..
  38. Pacilio M, Aragno D, Rauco R, D Onofrio S, Pressello M, Bianciardi L, et al. Monte Carlo dose calculations using MCNP4C and EGSnrc/BEAMnrc codes to study the energy dependence of the radiochromic film response to beta-emitting sources. Phys Med Biol. 2007;52:3931-48 pubmed
  39. Jorgenson T, Masood F, Beckerley J, Burgin C, Parker D. Comparison of two imaging modalities: F-speed film and digital images for detection of osseous defects in patients with interdental vertical bone defects. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2007;36:500-5 pubmed
    ..In this study, unenhanced digital imaging was found to be superior to conventional F-speed film and inversion-enhanced digital images for accurately imaging periodontal osseous defects in patients. ..
  40. Foulkes K, Ostwald P, Kron T. A clinical comparison of different film systems for radiotherapy portal imaging. Med Dosim. 2001;26:281-4 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that, for the situations studied (head and neck, pelvis), the Kodak system exhibits better contrast and leads to improved decision making. ..
  41. Childress N, Dong L, Rosen I. Rapid radiographic film calibration for IMRT verification using automated MLC fields. Med Phys. 2002;29:2384-90 pubmed
    ..This single film method proved to be superior to the traditional calibration method and allows fast daily calibrations of films for highly accurate IMRT delivery verifications. ..
  42. Hiltz M. The environmental impact of dentistry. J Can Dent Assoc. 2007;73:59-62 pubmed
    ..This paper identifies some common wastes produced by dental offices (dental amalgam, lead, silver, biomedical and general office waste) and provides practical suggestions for reducing the impact of our profession on the environment. ..
  43. Mazzocchi S, Belli G, Busoni S, Gori C, Menchi I, Salucci P, et al. AEC set-up optimisation with computed radiography imaging. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;117:169-73 pubmed
    ..The plate response has been characterised in terms of digital signal, exposure on the plate and signal-to-noise ratio for different beam qualities, in a patient of standard size. ..
  44. Moorman V, Marshall J, Devine D, Payton M, Jann H, Bahr R. Comparison of flat-panel digital to conventional film-screen radiography in detection of experimentally created lesions of the equine third metacarpal bone. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2009;50:577-83 pubmed
    ..87 and 0.90, respectively (P = 0.59). We concluded that the digital radiographic system was comparable to the film-screen system for detection of subtle lesions of the equine third metacarpal bone. ..
  45. Jones D. Utilization of DICOM GSDF to modify lookup tables for images acquired on film digitizers. J Digit Imaging. 2006;19:167-71 pubmed
    ..These modified images can then be judged against the original films using the GSDF to determine if the original films' contrast is preserved. Results based on JND indicated that relative contrast of the original image is preserved. ..
  46. Geist J, Katz J. Radiation dose-reduction techniques in North American dental schools. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002;93:496-505 pubmed
    ..Some dose-reducing strategies are commonly used in dental schools, while others have not gained wide acceptance. ..
  47. Martens C, Reynaert N, De Wagter C, Nilsson P, Coghe M, Palmans H, et al. Underdosage of the upper-airway mucosa for small fields as used in intensity-modulated radiation therapy: a comparison between radiochromic film measurements, Monte Carlo simulations, and collapsed cone convolution calculations. Med Phys. 2002;29:1528-35 pubmed
    ..The interface dose was overestimated by a maximum of 31% or 54%, depending on the implementation of the CCC algorithm. At a depth of 1 mm, the maximum dose overestimation was 14% or 24%. ..
  48. Amano M, Nishitani H, Kohno S, Yasutomo M, Miyoshi H, Yagi H. [Measurement of patient skin dose in interventional radiology using radiochromic reflecting-type sheet films]. Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi. 2002;58:420-3 pubmed
  49. Gonzalez L, Moro J. Patient radiation dose management in dental facilities according to the X-ray focal distance and the image receptor type. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2007;36:282-4 pubmed
    ..Evidence based on third-quartile values different from those expected justifies the need for particular reference values taking into account image system and focal distance, as a way to improve patient radiation dose management. ..
  50. Henriksson C, Stermer E, Aass A, Sandvik L, Møystad A. Comparison of the reproducibility of storage phosphor and film bitewings for assessment of alveolar bone loss. Acta Odontol Scand. 2008;66:380-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Inter-observer comparison demonstrated significantly higher agreement for the digital measurements. Based on the overall results, the modalities with the measuring methods utilized are comparable when measuring minor alveolar bone loss. ..
  51. Reiner B, Siegel E, Hooper F. Accuracy of interpretation of CT scans: comparing PACS monitor displays and hard-copy images. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;179:1407-10 pubmed
    ..PACS (picture archiving and communication system) offers radiologists the potential for improved accuracy in CT interpretation compared with traditional film-based interpretation. ..
  52. Hujoel P, Hollender L, Bollen A, Young J, McGee M, Grosso A. Head-and-neck organ doses from an episode of orthodontic care. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008;133:210-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Orthodontic care, in part due to its high prevalence, potentially contributes significantly to the diagnostic radiation burden in those less than 19 years old in the United States. ..
  53. Moon J, Southgate R, Fitzsimmons J, O Driscoll S. Simple overlay device for determining radial head and neck height. Skeletal Radiol. 2010;39:915-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This method could be helpful for assessing whether or not the insertion of a radial head prosthesis has resulted in over-lengthening of the radius. ..