Summary: Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)

Top Publications

  1. Dowding D, Freeman S, Nimmo S, Smith D, Wisniewski M. An investigation into the accuracy of different types of thermometers. Prof Nurse. 2002;18:166-8 pubmed
    ..This study examined the accuracy of three other types of temperature-measurement device--disposable, digital and tympanic--when compared with standard mercury thermometer readings. ..
  2. Terndrup T, Crofton D, Mortelliti A, Kelley R, Rajk J. Estimation of contact tympanic membrane temperature with a noncontact infrared thermometer. Ann Emerg Med. 1997;30:171-5 pubmed
    To investigate the agreement between contact tympanic membrane (TM) and noncontact infrared ear thermometers in children. Twenty-three children (ages .5 to 10 years) undergoing elective tympanostomy tube placement were studied...
  3. Larrat B, Pernot M, Aubry J, Dervishi E, Sinkus R, Seilhean D, et al. MR-guided transcranial brain HIFU in small animal models. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55:365-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Brain elasticity appears to be more sensitive to the presence of oedema than to tissue necrosis. ..
  4. Sund Levander M, Grodzinsky E. Time for a change to assess and evaluate body temperature in clinical practice. Int J Nurs Pract. 2009;15:241-9 pubmed publisher
    ..That is, as normal body temperature shows individual variations, it is reasonable that the same should hold true for the febrile range. ..
  5. Gota C, Okabe K, Funatsu T, Harada Y, Uchiyama S. Hydrophilic fluorescent nanogel thermometer for intracellular thermometry. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:2766-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, intracellular temperature variations associated with biological processes can be monitored by this novel thermometer with a temperature resolution of better than 0.5 degrees C. ..
  6. Suzuki T, Wada K, Wada Y, Kagitani H, Arioka T, Maeda K, et al. The validity of mass body temperature screening with ear thermometers in a warm thermal environment. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2010;222:89-95 pubmed
    ..The area under the ROC curve (AUC) indicates the validity of measurements. The AUC for ear thermometers in a warm environment (mean temperature: 20.0°C) showed a fair accuracy (AUC: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.64-0...
  7. Yang J, Yang H, Lin L. Quantum dot nano thermometers reveal heterogeneous local thermogenesis in living cells. ACS Nano. 2011;5:5067-71 pubmed publisher
    ..single living cells upon external chemical and physical stimuli was characterized using quantum dots as nano thermometers. The photoluminescence spectral shifts from endocytosed quantum dots were used to map intracellular heat ..
  8. Jonstrup A, Fredsøe J, Andersen A. DNA hairpins as temperature switches, thermometers and ionic detectors. Sensors (Basel). 2013;13:5937-44 pubmed publisher
    ..increasing ability to make research into small-scale systems, a specific need for very small thermostats and thermometers has been created...
  9. Waldminghaus T, Kortmann J, Gesing S, Narberhaus F. Generation of synthetic RNA-based thermosensors. Biol Chem. 2008;389:1319-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacterial RNA thermometers are located in the 5'-untranslated region of certain heat shock and virulence genes...

More Information


  1. Hausfater P, Zhao Y, Defrenne S, Bonnet P, Riou B. Cutaneous infrared thermometry for detecting febrile patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1255-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although negative predictive value was excellent (0.99), positive predictive value was low (0.10). Therefore, we question mass detection of febrile patients by using this method. ..
  2. Talavera K, Nilius B, Voets T. Neuronal TRP channels: thermometers, pathfinders and life-savers. Trends Neurosci. 2008;31:287-95 pubmed publisher
    ..studies have firmly established the role of temperature-sensitive TRPs (thermoTRPs) as the principal molecular thermometers in the peripheral sensory system, and provided the first molecular insight into the mechanisms underlying the ..
  3. Shah P, Gilchrist M. Is thermosensing property of RNA thermometers unique?. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11308 pubmed publisher
    A large number of studies have been dedicated to identify the structural and sequence based features of RNA thermometers, mRNAs that regulate their translation initiation rate with temperature...
  4. Mangat J, Standley T, Prevost A, Vasconcelos J, White P. A comparison of technologies used for estimation of body temperature. Physiol Meas. 2010;31:1105-18 pubmed publisher
    Body temperature measurement is an important clinical parameter. The performance of a number of non-invasive thermometers was measured by comparing intra- and inter-operator variability (n = 100) and clinical accuracy (n = 61)...
  5. Uneke C, Ijeoma P. The potential for transmission of hospital-acquired infections by non-critical medical devices: the role of thermometers and blood pressure cuffs. World Health Popul. 2011;12:5-12 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to assess the potential contributory role played by thermometers and blood pressure cuffs in HAI transmission in a Nigerian teaching hospital...
  6. Neupert J, Bock R. Designing and using synthetic RNA thermometers for temperature-controlled gene expression in bacteria. Nat Protoc. 2009;4:1262-73 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA thermometers are the only known single-component regulators of gene expression...
  7. Rabbani M, Amir M, Malik M, Mufti M, Bin Pervez M, Iftekhar S. Tympanic temperature comparison with oral mercury thermometer readings in an OPD setting. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2010;20:33-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To observe and compare the Tympanic Temperature (TT) readings with the Oral Mercury Thermometer (OMT) in an OPD setting...
  8. Gota C, Uchiyama S, Ohwada T. Accurate fluorescent polymeric thermometers containing an ionic component. Analyst. 2007;132:121-6 pubmed
    Fluorescent polymeric thermometers consisting of only N-alkylacrylamide and fluorescent components show rather low temperature resolution in their functional ranges (ca...
  9. Devrim I, Kara A, Ceyhan M, Tezer H, Uludag A, Cengiz A, et al. Measurement accuracy of fever by tympanic and axillary thermometry. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007;23:16-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, we aimed to compare tympanic infrared thermometers with the conventional temperature option, mercury-in-glass thermometer, which is historical standard in the ..
  10. Vetrone F, Naccache R, Zamarrón A, Juarranz de la Fuente A, Sanz Rodriguez F, Martinez Maestro L, et al. Temperature sensing using fluorescent nanothermometers. ACS Nano. 2010;4:3254-8 pubmed publisher
  11. McCabe K, Hernandez M. Molecular thermometry. Pediatr Res. 2010;67:469-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Some nanomaterial systems have even demonstrated a theranostic capacity for heat-sensitive, local delivery of chemotherapeutics. Just as early thermometry rapidly moved into the clinic, so too will these molecular thermometers.
  12. McClung C, Davis S. Ambient thermometers in plants: from physiological outputs towards mechanisms of thermal sensing. Curr Biol. 2010;20:R1086-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This review considers the evidence for plant thermometers to date, provides a description of several notable physiological and developmental processes under ambient ..
  13. Köhler M, Mougenot C, Quesson B, Enholm J, Le Bail B, Laurent C, et al. Volumetric HIFU ablation under 3D guidance of rapid MRI thermometry. Med Phys. 2009;36:3521-35 pubmed
  14. Edelu B, Ojinnaka N, Ikefuna A. Fever detection in under 5 children in a tertiary health facility using the infrared tympanic thermometer in the oral mode. Ital J Pediatr. 2011;37:8 pubmed publisher
    ..The oral mercury-in-glass thermometer which has relatively good accuracy cannot be used in children less than 5 years because it requires their cooperation...
  15. Uslu S, Ozdemir H, Bulbul A, Comert S, Bolat F, Can E, et al. A comparison of different methods of temperature measurements in sick newborns. J Trop Pediatr. 2011;57:418-23 pubmed publisher
    ..2°C) between both mean AGMT&DAT and AGMT&ITT measurements. Our study suggests that tympanic thermometer measurement could be used as an acceptable and practical method for sick newborn in neonatal units...
  16. Lee J, Lee S, Kim K, Han W, Yoon G, Pasmanik L, et al. Experimental investigation of the mammary gland tumour phantom for multifrequency microwave radio-thermometers. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2004;42:581-90 pubmed
    ..was proposed that imitates a mammary gland tumour, and the brightness temperature was observed using radio-thermometers operated at different frequencies, 1.75GHz and 3GHz...
  17. Cheng H, Plewes D. Tissue thermal conductivity by magnetic resonance thermometry and focused ultrasound heating. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2002;16:598-609 pubmed
    ..This capability is relevant in thermal therapy planning of tumor ablation using MR-guided FUS systems. ..
  18. Huang J, Kurz A. Body warmer and upper extremities position affect the accuracy of cutaneous thermometers during anesthesia. J Clin Anesth. 2001;13:241-3 pubmed
    ..At 0 degrees of arm adduction, or at 90 degrees using the upper body, forced-air surface warmer, axillary skin temperature accurately identified the core temperature in patients during general anesthesia. ..
  19. Sulieman M, Addy M, Rees J. Surface and intra-pulpal temperature rises during tooth bleaching: an in vitro study. Br Dent J. 2005;199:37-40; discussion 32 pubmed
    ..50 degrees C increase thought to produce irreversible pulpal damage. The only lamp that produced an intrapulpal temperature increase above this threshold was the laser-based lamp and caution is advised when using this equipment. ..
  20. Asmussen E, Peutzfeldt A. Temperature rise induced by some light emitting diode and quartz-tungsten-halogen curing units. Eur J Oral Sci. 2005;113:96-8 pubmed
    ..Previous findings, that LED curing units induce less temperature rise than QTH units, does not hold true in general. ..
  21. Silverman B, Daley W, Rubin J. The use of infrared ear thermometers in pediatric and family practice offices. Public Health Rep. 1998;113:268-72 pubmed
    To describe the use of infrared (IR) ear thermometers in pediatric and family practice offices...
  22. Ng D, Lam J, Chow K. Childhood fever revisited. Hong Kong Med J. 2002;8:39-43 pubmed
    The academic study of body temperature began in 1868. Since then, a variety of thermometers have been developed for clinical use...
  23. Hughes W, Patterson G, Thornton D, Williams B, Lott L, Dodge R. Detection of fever with infrared thermometry: a feasibility study. J Infect Dis. 1985;152:301-6 pubmed
    ..Overall, 92% of all patients were correctly categorized by use of the infrared thermometer at this site. We conclude that this approach is feasible and, with further technical developments, may be applicable for routine clinical use. ..
  24. Uchiyama S, Matsumura Y, de Silva A, Iwai K. Modulation of the sensitive temperature range of fluorescent molecular thermometers based on thermoresponsive polymers. Anal Chem. 2004;76:1793-8 pubmed
    Fluorescent molecular thermometers based on polymers showing a temperature-induced phase transition and labeled with polarity-sensitive fluorescent benzofurazans are the most sensitive known...
  25. Mehl A, Kremers L, Salzmann K, Hickel R. 3D volume-ablation rate and thermal side effects with the Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser. Dent Mater. 1997;13:246-51 pubmed
    ..This finding supports the light-propagating theory for spreading effects of laser beams in dentin. ..
  26. Pusnik I, Simpson R, Drnovsek J. Bilateral comparison of blackbody cavities for calibration of infrared ear thermometers between NPL and FE/LMK. Physiol Meas. 2004;25:1239-47 pubmed
    ..Three cavity shapes are suggested in different standards as suitable for calibration of infrared ear thermometers (IRETs), while one cavity shape was proposed by the LMK...
  27. Craig J, Lancaster G, Taylor S, Williamson P, Smyth R. Infrared ear thermometry compared with rectal thermometry in children: a systematic review. Lancet. 2002;360:603-9 pubmed
    ..temperature measured at the rectum (the reference site) using mercury, electronic, or indwelling probe thermometers, with temperature measured at the ear (the test site) using infrared ear thermometers...
  28. García Callejo F, Platero Zamarreño A, Sebastian Gil E, Marco Sanz M, Alpera Lacruz R, Martínez Beneyto M. [Otologic determining factors on infra-red tympanic thermometry in children]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2004;55:107-13 pubmed
    ..So, this system must be avoided in these circumstances. Otitis media, fluid in middle ear, tympanic perforation and ventilation tubes did not modify thermometric results. ..
  29. O Brien D, Rogers I, Holden W, Jacobs I, Mellett S, Wall E, et al. The accuracy of oral predictive and infrared emission detection tympanic thermometers in an emergency department setting. Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7:1061-4 pubmed
    ..The sensitivities and specificities for detection of fever of the predictive and the IRED tympanic thermometers were similar (sensitivity 85.7%/88.1% and specificity 98.7%/95.8%, respectively)...
  30. Kelechi T, Michel Y, Wiseman J. Are infrared and thermistor thermometers interchangeable for measuring localized skin temperature?. J Nurs Meas. 2006;14:19-30 pubmed
    Localized skin temperature must be measured by accurate and reliable thermometers to effectively evaluate treatment outcomes, monitor changes, and predict potential complications...
  31. Dew P. Is tympanic membrane thermometry the best method for recording temperature in children?. J Child Health Care. 2006;10:96-110 pubmed
    ..Children's preferences and rectal thermometry in relation to children's rights, which have not been reviewed so far...
  32. Dodd S, Lancaster G, Craig J, Smyth R, Williamson P. In a systematic review, infrared ear thermometry for fever diagnosis in children finds poor sensitivity. J Clin Epidemiol. 2006;59:354-7 pubmed
    ..These findings support our previous concerns about the use of infrared ear thermometers in situations where a failure to detect fever has serious implications.
  33. El Radhi A, Patel S. An evaluation of tympanic thermometry in a paediatric emergency department. Emerg Med J. 2006;23:40-1 pubmed
    ..Body temperature is commonly recorded at the axilla but accuracy is a problem. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a tympanic thermometer in the paediatric emergency setting...
  34. Ng D, Chan C, Chan E, Kwok K, Chow P, Lau W, et al. A brief report on the normal range of forehead temperature as determined by noncontact, handheld, infrared thermometer. Am J Infect Control. 2005;33:227-9 pubmed
    ..The temperature readings from 3 handheld infrared thermometers were validated against an electronic thermometer...
  35. Kocoglu H, Goksu S, Isik M, Akturk Z, Bayazit Y. Infrared tympanic thermometer can accurately measure the body temperature in children in an emergency room setting. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2002;65:39-43 pubmed
    ..The objective in this study was to compare the accuracy of the tympanic membrane infrared thermometer with the other conventional temperature measurement options...
  36. Liu C, Chang R, Chang W. Limitations of forehead infrared body temperature detection for fever screening for severe acute respiratory syndrome. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004;25:1109-11 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the auditory meatus temperature is a superior alternative compared with the forehead body surface temperature due to its close approximation to the tympanic temperature. ..
  37. van Staaij B, Rovers M, Schilder A, Hoes A. Accuracy and feasibility of daily infrared tympanic membrane temperature measurements in the identification of fever in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2003;67:1091-7 pubmed
    ..The Braun ITT therefore is an adequate tool to assess fever and may be used both in a clinical setting and for research purposes. ..
  38. El Radhi A, Barry W. Thermometry in paediatric practice. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91:351-6 pubmed
    ..Once outstanding issues are addressed, the tympanic site is likely to become the gold standard for measuring temperature in children. ..
  39. Chowdhury S, Maris C, Allain F, Narberhaus F. Molecular basis for temperature sensing by an RNA thermometer. EMBO J. 2006;25:2487-97 pubmed
    ..RNA thermometers employ a similar strategy to sense temperature changes in the cell and regulate the translational machinery...
  40. Nimah M, Bshesh K, Callahan J, Jacobs B. Infrared tympanic thermometry in comparison with other temperature measurement techniques in febrile children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2006;7:48-55 pubmed
    ..ITT measurements are a reproducible and relatively noninvasive substitute for bladder or rectal measurements in febrile children. ..
  41. Chaturvedi D, Vilhekar K, Chaturvedi P, Bharambe M. Comparison of axillary temperature with rectal or oral temperature and determination of optimum placement time in children. Indian Pediatr. 2004;41:600-3 pubmed
    ..sequential AT and OT recording was done in older children by different investigators using calibrated Hick thermometers. The placement time recorded was when 3 consecutive readings at one minute interval remained unchanged...
  42. McKenzie N. Evaluation of a new, wearable, precision phase-change thermometer in neonates. Pediatr Nurs. 2003;29:117-25 pubmed
    ..Continuous thermometer placement eliminates drawdown, the transitory, local cooling effect of intermittent thermometer placement. ..
  43. Pearce J. A brief history of the clinical thermometer. QJM. 2002;95:251-2 pubmed
  44. Romano M, Fortenberry J, Autrey E, Harris S, Heyroth T, Parmeter P, et al. Infrared tympanic thermometry in the pediatric intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 1993;21:1181-5 pubmed
    To determine the performance of two different commercially available, noncontact infrared tympanic thermometers in predicting core body temperature as measured by pulmonary artery catheters in pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
  45. Vandewalle K, Roberts H, Tiba A, Charlton D. Thermal emission and curing efficiency of LED and halogen curing lights. Oper Dent. 2005;30:257-64 pubmed
    ..No significant differences were found in maximum thermal emission or KHN ratios between the LED (LEDemetron 1) and the QTH (VIP) at maximum output and similar energy densities (ANOVA/Tukey's; alpha=0.05). ..
  46. Martin S, Kline A. Can there be a standard for temperature measurement in the pediatric intensive care unit?. AACN Clin Issues. 2004;15:254-66 pubmed
    ..Numerous studies on temperature measurement have been conducted on children of various ages using a variety of thermometers and routes in both the inpatient and outpatient setting...
  47. Pusnik I, van der Ham E, Drnovsek J. IR ear thermometers: what do they measure and how do they comply with the EU technical regulation?. Physiol Meas. 2004;25:699-708 pubmed
    ..This paper describes and analyses the mentioned dilemmas in the case of widely used infrared ear thermometers, with their benefits and limitations, as well as with regard to the European technical regulation in the field ..
  48. Khorshid L, Eser I, Zaybak A, Yapucu U. Comparing mercury-in-glass, tympanic and disposable thermometers in measuring body temperature in healthy young people. J Clin Nurs. 2005;14:496-500 pubmed
    ..when compared with a mercury-in-glass thermometer and to investigate the waiting periods of mercury-in-glass thermometers. Although different methods of temperature measurement have been widely studied and described during the last ..
  49. Dzarr A, Kamal M, Baba A. A comparison between infrared tympanic thermometry, oral and axilla with rectal thermometry in neutropenic adults. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2009;13:250-4 pubmed publisher
    ..3 degrees C) to rectal thermometry as reference standard in neutropenic adults. The sensitivity and specificity of the mentioned thermometries in detecting rectal fever (> or =38 degrees C) were also analysed...
  50. Mei C, Panych L, Yuan J, McDannold N, Treat L, Jing Y, et al. Combining two-dimensional spatially selective RF excitation, parallel imaging, and UNFOLD for accelerated MR thermometry imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2011;66:112-22 pubmed publisher
    ..1°c ± 0.6; r = 0.98; p > 0.05). ..
  51. Agarwal S, Sethi V, Pandey R, Kondal D. Human touch vs. axillary digital thermometry for detection of neonatal hypothermia at community level. J Trop Pediatr. 2008;54:200-1 pubmed
  52. Sesma N, Gil C, Kolikauskas W, Silva R, Pannuti C. Temperature of denture base resin under different protocols of microwave irradiation. Braz Dent J. 2011;22:388-91 pubmed
    ..001) than the final mean temperatures recorded in the other groups. It may be concluded that denture base resins subjected to microwave irradiation immersed in water may be exposed to deleterious temperatures. ..
  53. Xiong L, Fletcher A, Ernst S, Davies S, Compton R. An electrochemical thermometer: voltammetric measurement of temperature and its application to amperometric gas sensing. Analyst. 2012;137:2567-73 pubmed publisher
    ..All experiments gave a high reproducibility. ..