Summary: Walking aids generally having two handgrips and four legs.

Top Publications

  1. Ishikura T. Biomechanical analysis of weight bearing force and muscle activation levels in the lower extremities during gait with a walker. Acta Med Okayama. 2001;55:73-82 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that normal gait and gait with a walker may be applicable as a method for gradually increasing the muscle activation level. ..
  2. Bachschmidt R, Harris G, Simoneau G. Walker-assisted gait in rehabilitation: a study of biomechanics and instrumentation. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2001;9:96-105 pubmed
    While walkers are commonly prescribed to improve patient stability and ambulatory ability, quantitative study of the biomechanical and functional requirements for effective walker use is limited...
  3. Cubo E, Moore C, Leurgans S, Goetz C. Wheeled and standard walkers in Parkinson's disease patients with gait freezing. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2003;10:9-14 pubmed
    ..Though walkers may stabilize patients and increase confidence, PD patients walk more slowly when using them, without reducing ..
  4. Rentschler A, Cooper R, Blasch B, Boninger M. Intelligent walkers for the elderly: performance and safety testing of VA-PAMAID robotic walker. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2003;40:423-31 pubmed
    ..The VA-PAMAID has good range, has adequate reaction time, and is structurally sound. Clinical trials are planned to compare the device to other low-technical adaptive mobility devices. ..
  5. Stevens J, Thomas K, Teh L, Greenspan A. Unintentional fall injuries associated with walkers and canes in older adults treated in U.S. emergency departments. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57:1464-9 pubmed publisher
    To characterize nonfatal, unintentional, fall-related injuries associated with walkers and canes in older adults. Surveillance data of injuries treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs), January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2006...
  6. Crews R, Sayeed F, Najafi B. Impact of strut height on offloading capacity of removable cast walkers. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2012;27:725-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Removable cast walkers are frequently used for offloading; however, patient compliance is often poor...
  7. Youdas J, Kotajarvi B, Padgett D, Kaufman K. Partial weight-bearing gait using conventional assistive devices. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86:394-8 pubmed
    ..A wheeled walker resulted in weight bearing greater than the target of 50% of body weight. Subjects were able to offload the right lower extremity by about 25% of body weight by using a single-point cane. ..
  8. Yuge M, Kanda T, Yamori Y, Fukase H. [The comparison of motor developmental processes between spastic diplegic children and athetotic children who have been treated since infancy]. No To Hattatsu. 1991;23:342-7 pubmed
    ..of each type were divided into two groups according to the ability of locomotion at the age of 4 years; S- I: 6 walkers, S- II: 9 crawler, A- I: 11 walkers and A- II: 10 crawler...
  9. Kreger A. Choosing mobility. Rehab Manag. 2006;19:34-5 pubmed

More Information


  1. Goldman S, Barice E, Schneider W, Hennekens C. Lumbar spinal stenosis: can positional therapy alleviate pain?. J Fam Pract. 2008;57:257-60 pubmed
    ..We analyzed a retrospective case series of 52 patients with spinal stenosis confirmed by spinal imaging and walking limitations treated with a wheeled walker set to induce lumbosacral flexion...
  2. Paquet N, Desrosiers J, Demers L, Robichaud L. Predictors of daily mobility skills 6 months post-discharge from acute care or rehabilitation in older adults with stroke living at home. Disabil Rehabil. 2009;31:1267-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The best predictor of the TUG at T3 is the use of a walking aid during daily life in participants from acute care, and motor recovery of the foot in participants from rehabilitation. ..
  3. Burrows P, Griffiths P. Do baby walkers delay onset of walking in young children?. Br J Community Nurs. 2002;7:581-6 pubmed
    Baby walkers have been a source of considerable controversy. Some people suggest developmental benefit from their use while others focus on the potential harm that stems from accidents and even suggest developmental delay...
  4. Salminen A, Brandt A, samuelsson K, Töytäri O, Malmivaara A. Mobility devices to promote activity and participation: a systematic review. J Rehabil Med. 2009;41:697-706 pubmed publisher
    ..A lack of high-quality research hampers conclusions about effectiveness. More original, well-designed research is required. ..
  5. Triolo R, Wibowo M, Uhlir J, Kobetic R, Kirsch R. Effects of stimulated hip extension moment and position on upper-limb support forces during FNS-induced standing--a technical note. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001;38:545-55 pubmed
  6. Ng S, Fakih A, Fourney A, Poupart P, Zelek J. Towards a mobility diagnostic tool: tracking rollator users' leg pose with a monocular vision system. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2009;2009:1220-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary experiments indicate that texture and colour cues conditioned on the appearance of a rollator user outperform more general cues, at the cost of manually initializing the appearance offline. ..
  7. Hathaway J, Walsh J, Lacey C, Saenger H. Insights obtained from an evaluation of a falls prevention program set in a rural hospital. Aust J Rural Health. 2001;9:172-7 pubmed
    ..Age, mental status and mobility of patients in combination with time and location of falls suggested a pattern that was possibly peculiar to this rural hospital, which has implications for funding and staffing. ..
  8. Messer M. [From case to case: an aid is not necessarily aid]. Pflege Z. 2007;60:48-9 pubmed
  9. Shimada Y, Hatakeyama K, Minato T, Matsunaga T, Sato M, Chida S, et al. Hybrid functional electrical stimulation with medial linkage knee-ankle-foot orthoses in complete paraplegics. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2006;209:117-23 pubmed
    ..Moreover, FES provides sufficient propulsion to allow the complete paraplegics to walk. ..
  10. Ochi M, Makino K, Wada F, Saeki S, Hachisuka K. A walker with a device of partial suspension for patients with gait disturbance: body weight supported walker. J UOEH. 2009;31:259-63 pubmed
    ..Because the BWS Walker is less expensive, simpler, and easier to operate than other BWS systems, we believe the BWS Walker can be widely applicable in training for patients with severe and moderate gait disturbance. ..
  11. Woollam P, Miller K, McLeod N, Batty D, Stallard J. Structural design and performance of a rear support walking frame. Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2002;216:201-9 pubmed
    ..The successful outcome of prototype testing has justified production development. Work is now proceeding on a design that incorporates further improvements in structural performance and ease of manufacture. ..
  12. Nooijen C, ter Hoeve N, Field Fote E. Gait quality is improved by locomotor training in individuals with SCI regardless of training approach. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2009;6:36 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to walking at preferred speed, gait quality values of ND individuals walking at a slower speed and while using a walker were more similar to those of individuals with SCI. ..
  13. Bateni H, Heung E, Zettel J, McLlroy W, Maki B. Can use of walkers or canes impede lateral compensatory stepping movements?. Gait Posture. 2004;20:74-83 pubmed
    Although assistive devices, such as walkers and canes are often prescribed to aid in balance control, recent studies have suggested that such devices may actually increase risk of falling...
  14. Liu H, McGee M, Wang W, Persson M. Comparison of gait characteristics between older rolling walker users and older potential walker users. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;48:276-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The results seemed to indicate that this altered gait pattern may become more apparent the longer an individual uses a RW for ambulation assistance. ..
  15. Tung J, Gage W, Zabjek K, Maki B, McIlroy W. Frontal plane standing balance with an ambulation aid: Upper limb biomechanics. J Biomech. 2011;44:1466-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The key finding that the upper limbs play an important role in effecting frontal plane balance control has important implications for ambulation aid users (e.g., elderly, stroke, and traumatic brain injury). ..
  16. Raja K. Compliance with walking aid use in children with cerebral palsy in India. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;85:694-8 pubmed
    A 3-mo prospective descriptive study of 50 Indian ambulant children with cerebral palsy using different types of walkers or elbow crutches was done to determine compliance with use of the prescribed device...
  17. Beckles V, McCahill J, Stebbins J, Mkandawire N, Church J, Lavy C. The African disability scooter: efficiency testing in paediatric amputees in Malawi. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2016;11:247-50 pubmed publisher
  18. Lavery L, Baranoski S, Ayello E. Options for off-loading the diabetic foot. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2004;17:181-82, 184-86 pubmed
  19. Akizuki K, Gartman E, Nisonson B, Ben Avi S, McHugh M. The relative stress on the Achilles tendon during ambulation in an ankle immobiliser: implications for rehabilitation after Achilles tendon repair. Br J Sports Med. 2001;35:329-33; discussion 333-4 pubmed
    ..In the immobilised ankle, the addition of a 1 inch heel lift was sufficient to minimise plantarflexor activity during walking. ..
  20. Goldman S. Nocturnal neuropathic pain in diabetic patients may be caused by spinal stenosis. Diabet Med. 2005;22:1763-5 pubmed
    ..Positional testing should be considered in possible cases. Clinical use and further investigation are indicated. ..
  21. Balasubramanian C, Bowden M, Neptune R, Kautz S. Relationship between step length asymmetry and walking performance in subjects with chronic hemiparesis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;88:43-9 pubmed
    ..To understand the relationship between step length asymmetry and hemiparetic walking performance...
  22. Mahoney J, Sager M, Jalaluddin M. Use of an ambulation assistive device predicts functional decline associated with hospitalization. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1999;54:M83-8 pubmed
    ..Ambulation assistive devices (canes, walkers), as markers of lower extremity disability, may predict functional decline associated with hospitalization, but ..
  23. Rethlefsen S, Tolo V, Reynolds R, Kay R. Outcome of hamstring lengthening and distal rectus femoris transfer surgery. J Pediatr Orthop B. 1999;8:75-9 pubmed
    ..Patients who used braces postoperatively showed an improvement in stride length and velocity when wearing orthoses. This suggests that postoperative bracing may be needed in some patients to maximize the surgical outcome. ..
  24. Sun J, Zhong S, Ouyang Y, Tang D, Xian Q. [Beneficial effects of reciprocating gait orthosis on bladder and bowel functions in paraplegia patients]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2008;28:1019-21 pubmed
  25. Brotherton S, Saunders L, Krause J, Morrisette D. Association between reliance on devices and people for walking and ability to walk community distances among persons with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2012;35:156-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that reliance on devices or a person for assistance is important to consider when assessing potential for achieving functional community ambulation. ..
  26. May C, Broadhurst M, Major R. Comparison of rocking edge spacing for two common designs of swivel walkers. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2004;28:75-80 pubmed
    ..In general it is shown that there should be no obstacles to such variation on the part of an orthotist thereby improving access to these devices and function for disabled individuals. ..
  27. Petersen O, Nielsen M, Jensen K, Solgaard S. [Randomized comparison of CAM walker and light-weight plaster cast in the treatment of first-time Achilles tendon rupture]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2002;164:3852-5 pubmed
    ..Owing to the risk of type two error (44%), it is possible that we could have found a significant difference in the number of reruptures if the number of patients had been larger. ..
  28. Gosman Hedström G, Aniansson A, Persson G. ADL-reduction and need for technical aids among 70-year-olds. From the population study of 70-year-olds in Göteborg. Compr Gerontol B. 1988;2:16-23 pubmed
    ..The results do not illustrate the occurrence of handicap but are aimed at illustrating the special needs that elderly people may have in their normal surroundings. ..
  29. Bethoux F. Gait disorders in multiple sclerosis. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2013;19:1007-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Gait disorders need to be identified and managed early in the course of MS, using a multimodal approach that needs to be adjusted over time based on the results of periodic assessments. ..
  30. Hill K, Dolmage T, Woon L, Brooks D, Goldstein R. Rollator use does not consistently change the metabolic cost of walking in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;93:1077-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism responsible for the amelioration in dyspnea during rollator-assisted walking is multifactorial. A reduction in the metabolic cost of walking may play a part in some, but not all, patients. ..
  31. Nakashima Y, Ohki E, Ando T, Kobayashi Y, Fujie M. Treadmill motor current based real-time estimation of anteroposterior force during gait. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010;2010:475-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This showed that the proposed method might possibly be useful for estimating the anteroposterior force in real-time. ..
  32. Franceschini M, Rampello A, Bovolenta F, Aiello M, Tzani P, Chetta A. Cost of walking, exertional dyspnoea and fatigue in individuals with multiple sclerosis not requiring assistive devices. J Rehabil Med. 2010;42:719-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Energy expenditure when walking is not a determinant of fatigue or exertional dyspnoea in individuals with multiple sclerosis and low levels of disability. ..
  33. Vad E, Worm C, Lauritsen J, Poulsen P, Puggaard L, Støvring H, et al. [Physical training as treatment of reduced functional ability in frail 75+ year-olds living at home. A randomized intervention study in general practice with technological assessment elements]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2002;164:5140-4 pubmed
    ..The establishing of a "multi-component-training" as a treatment offer, to which general practitioners could refer their patients, would involve some costs, but savings due to reduced nursing care can be expected. ..
  34. Haubert L, Gutierrez D, Newsam C, Gronley J, Mulroy S, Perry J. A comparison of shoulder joint forces during ambulation with crutches versus a walker in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;87:63-70 pubmed
    ..Shoulder joint forces during assisted ambulation were large. Crutch use increased the superior force but did not increase walking velocity. ..
  35. Liu H. Assessment of rolling walkers used by older adults in senior-living communities. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2009;9:124-30 pubmed publisher
    Rolling walkers (RW) are among the most common ambulatory devices used in senior-living communities. However, many observational studies have associated RW use with an increased risk of falling...
  36. Zorowitz R. Ambulation in a wheelchair-bound stroke survivor using a walker with body weight support: a case report. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2005;12:50-5 pubmed
    ..Implications of using the walker system with BWS in the inpatient, outpatient, and home settings are discussed. ..
  37. Morona J, Buckley E, Jones S, Reddin E, Merlin T. Comparison of the clinical effectiveness of different off-loading devices for the treatment of neuropathic foot ulcers in patients with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2013;29:183-93 pubmed publisher
    ..not detect a statistically significant difference between non-removable off-loading devices and removable cast walkers; however, on average non-removable off-loading devices performed better than therapeutic shoes at promoting the ..
  38. Hirai M, Kaneoke Y, Nakata H, Ryusuke Kakigi -. Neural responses related to point-light walker perception: a magnetoencephalographic study. Clin Neurophysiol. 2008;119:2775-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first evidence to specify a single neuromagnetic response to a PLW stimulus. ..
  39. Stallard J. Walking for the severely disabled: research and development, experience and clinical outcomes. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2005;87:604-7 pubmed
  40. Kobetic R, Marsolais E, Triolo R, Davy D, Gaudio R, Tashman S. Development of a hybrid gait orthosis: a case report. J Spinal Cord Med. 2003;26:254-8 pubmed
    ..Further advantages would include reduction in required stimulation during standing and support phases of gait. ..
  41. McQuade K, Finley M, Oliveira A. Upper extremity joint stresses during walkerassisted ambulation in post-surgical patients. Rev Bras Fisioter. 2011;15:332-7 pubmed
  42. Behrman A, Harkema S. Physical rehabilitation as an agent for recovery after spinal cord injury. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2007;18:183-202, v pubmed
    ..A classification scheme for physical rehabilitation interventions is also discussed to aid clinical decision making. ..
  43. Lancioni G, Singh N, O Reilly M, Sigafoos J, Didden R, Manfredi F, et al. Fostering locomotor behavior of children with developmental disabilities: An overview of studies using treadmills and walkers with microswitches. Res Dev Disabil. 2009;30:308-22 pubmed publisher
    This paper provides an overview of studies using programs with treadmills or walkers with microswitches and contingent stimulation to foster locomotor behavior of children with developmental disabilities...
  44. Costa Filho R, Tamburus W, Jorge S. Tetraplegic ambulation with the ORLAU swivel walker: a case report. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2001;25:156-9 pubmed
    ..has been modified so that it is now being successfully used by spinal cord paralysed patients. This is a case study of a C7 traumatic tetraplegic patient who has used the ORLAU swivel walker for 5 years. ..
  45. Clarke P, Chan P, Santaguida P, Colantonio A. The use of mobility devices among institutionalized older adults. J Aging Health. 2009;21:611-26 pubmed publisher
    ..However, socioeconomic resources may provide older adults with alternate ways to manage mobility limitations in institutional settings. ..
  46. Westerman R, Hull P, Hendry R, Cooper J. The physiological cost of restricted weight bearing. Injury. 2008;39:725-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings should be borne in mind when recommending such restrictions in clinical practice and encouraging a patient to mobilise early and effectively. ..
  47. Keefer M, King J, Powell D, Krusenklaus J, Zhang S. Effects of modified short-leg walkers on ground reaction force characteristics. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2008;23:1172-7 pubmed publisher
    Although short-leg walkers are often used in the treatment of lower extremity injuries (ankle and foot fractures and severe ankle sprains), little is known about the effect the short-leg walker on gait characteristics...
  48. Noritake K, Yoshihashi Y, Miyata T. Calcaneal lengthening for planovalgus foot deformity in children with spastic cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2005;14:274-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that for severe pes planovalgus of children with cerebral palsy, it may be difficult to correct the foot deformity by calcaneal lengthening with peroneal tendons. ..
  49. Smania N, Gandolfi M, Marconi V, Calanca A, Geroin C, Piazza S, et al. Applicability of a new robotic walking aid in a patient with cerebral palsy. Case report. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2012;48:147-53 pubmed
    ..This new robotic walking device may have a potential impact in stimulating the development and in training of gait in children with neurological gait impairment. Future studies are warranted in order to test this hypothesis. ..
  50. Takanokura M. Theoretical optimization of usage of four-wheeled walker and body posture of elderly users for comfortable steady walking. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008;2008:4519-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Stooping users with low capabilities should use a lower handgrip, should maintain an erect trunk as much as possible, and should push the handgrip downward by leaning their upper body on the walker. ..
  51. Thanapan P, Prasertsukdee S, Vachalathiti R. Comparison of body segmental kinematic characteristics between children with cerebral palsy performing sit-to-stand with and without a walker. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2013;8:145-50 pubmed publisher
    ..W-STS performed the mean maximum horizontal and vertical linear velocities of all selected segments close to D-STS did. ..
  52. Leung C, Yeh P. Vertical force and wrist deviation angle in a sample of elderly people using walkers. Percept Mot Skills. 2013;116:223-32 pubmed
    b>Walkers are frequently used by elderly people with weak lower limbs and limited balance, but the ergonomic relationship between the use of a walker and stress on the upper limbs is relatively unstudied...
  53. Gambassi G, Incalzi R. Breast hematoma due to an axillary pad in an anticoagulated patient. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51:1508-9 pubmed