Summary: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Visser D, Xue D, Ronsky J, Harder J, Zernicke R. Computer-aided optimal design of custom scoliosis braces considering clinical and patient evaluations. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2012;107:478-89 pubmed publisher
    ..A multi-objective optimization method was employed to identify the optimal design parameters considering both clinical and patient evaluations. ..
  2. Mortaza N, Ebrahimi I, Jamshidi A, Abdollah V, Kamali M, Abas W, et al. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50110 pubmed publisher
    Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s) without inhibiting knee mobility...
  3. Negrini S, Minozzi S, Bettany Saltikov J, Zaina F, Chockalingam N, Grivas T, et al. Braces for idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:1285-93 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Braces are traditionally recommended to stop curvature progression in some countries and criticized in others...
  4. Cordova M, Takahashi Y, Kress G, Brucker J, Finch A. Influence of external ankle support on lower extremity joint mechanics during drop landings. J Sport Rehabil. 2010;19:136-48 pubmed
    ..05). Hip angular displacement was not affected by EAS (F(2,24) = 1.47, P = .25). EAS reduces ankle- and knee-joint displacement, which appear to influence the spatial and temporal characteristics of GRFz1 during drop landings. ..
  5. Raja K, Dewan N. Efficacy of knee braces and foot orthoses in conservative management of knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;90:247-62 pubmed publisher
    A systematic analysis was conducted on the effectiveness of knee braces and foot orthoses in conservative management of knee osteoarthritis...
  6. Kemler E, van de Port I, Backx F, van Dijk C. A systematic review on the treatment of acute ankle sprain: brace versus other functional treatment types. Sports Med. 2011;41:185-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of ankle braces as a treatment for acute ankle sprains compared with other types of functional treatments such as ankle tape and ..
  7. Baltaci G, Aktas G, Camci E, Oksuz S, Yildiz S, Kalaycioglu T. The effect of prophylactic knee bracing on performance: balance, proprioception, coordination, and muscular power. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011;19:1722-8 pubmed publisher
    Prophylactic knee braces are largely used in the prevention of ligament injuries, but their effectiveness on performance are still controversial...
  8. Liavaag S, Brox J, Pripp A, Enger M, Soldal L, Svenningsen S. Immobilization in external rotation after primary shoulder dislocation did not reduce the risk of recurrence: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011;93:897-904 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present clinical trial was to compare immobilization in internal and external rotation after anterior shoulder dislocation...
  9. McGuine T, Brooks A, Hetzel S. The effect of lace-up ankle braces on injury rates in high school basketball players. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:1840-8 pubmed publisher
    Ankle injuries are the most common injury in basketball players. However, no prospective studies have been performed to determine if wearing lace-up ankle braces will reduce the incidence of ankle injuries in high school athletes.

More Information


  1. Kutzner I, Küther S, Heinlein B, Dymke J, Bender A, Halder A, et al. The effect of valgus braces on medial compartment load of the knee joint - in vivo load measurements in three subjects. J Biomech. 2011;44:1354-60 pubmed publisher
    Knee osteoarthritis occurs predominately at the medial compartment. To unload the affected compartment, valgus braces are used which induce an additional valgus moment in order to shift the load more laterally...
  2. Janssen K, van Mechelen W, Verhagen E. Ankles back in randomized controlled trial (ABrCt): braces versus neuromuscular exercises for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Design of a randomised controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12:210 pubmed publisher
    ..This RCT evaluates the effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training (e.g...
  3. Maruyama T, Grivas T, Kaspiris A. Effectiveness and outcomes of brace treatment: a systematic review. Physiother Theory Pract. 2011;27:26-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison between bracing and surgery is difficult because in most studies, the curve magnitude at baseline was considerably larger in the surgery group. We recommend that future studies have clearer and more consistent guidelines. ..
  4. Fantini Pagani C, Hinrichs M, Bruggemann G. Kinetic and kinematic changes with the use of valgus knee brace and lateral wedge insoles in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:1125-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The valgus knee orthosis was more effective than the laterally wedged insole in reducing knee adduction moment in patients with medial knee OA. ..
  5. Grivas T, Kaspiris A. European braces widely used for conservative scoliosis treatment. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2010;158:157-66 pubmed
    A systematic examination of the braces commonly used in Europe lacks in literature. Therefore the objective of this report is the description of the European braces widely used...
  6. Freidel K, Reichel D, Steiner A, Warschburger P, Petermann F, Weiss H. Idiopathic scoliosis and quality of life. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;88:24-9 pubmed
  7. Li X, Li H, Liu Z, Dai L. Low bone mineral status in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 2008;17:1431-40 pubmed publisher
  8. Danielsson A, Hasserius R, Ohlin A, Nachemson A. A prospective study of brace treatment versus observation alone in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a follow-up mean of 16 years after maturity. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:2198-207 pubmed
    ..No patients treated primarily with a brace went on to undergo surgery, whereas 6 patients (10%) in the observation group required surgery during adolescence compared with none after maturity. Curve progression was related to immaturity. ..
  9. Rosenberg N, Soudry M. Shoulder impairment following treatment of diaphysial fractures of humerus by functional brace. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2006;126:437-40 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that although the fracture union is usually achieved following the functional bracing of humeral shaft fractures, the shoulder function in the injured limb may remain impaired. ..
  10. Celebi L, Muratli H, Dogan O, Yagmurlu M, Aktekin C, Bicimoglu A. [The efficacy of non-operative treatment of burst fractures of the thoracolumbar vertebrae]. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2004;38:16-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, further prospective, randomized, and comparative studies with longer follow-up periods are required to define prognostic factors that may predict poor results following non-operative treatment. ..
  11. Thijs Y, Vingerhoets G, Pattyn E, Rombaut L, Witvrouw E. Does bracing influence brain activity during knee movement: an fMRI study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2010;18:1145-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study also show that the intensity of brain activation during knee movement can be influenced by the intensity of proprioceptive stimulation at the joint. ..
  12. Misterska E, Głowacki M, Harasymczuk J. Polish adaptation of Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity. Eur Spine J. 2009;18:1911-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Following the process of adaptation, the authors obtained a tool that is instrumental in clinical evaluations and complies with methodological criteria. ..
  13. Sadeghi H, Allard P, Barbier F, Gatto L, Chavet P, Rivard C, et al. Bracing has no effect on standing balance in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Med Sci Monit. 2008;14:CR293-298 pubmed
    ..Spectral analysis highlighted increased stiffness in the antero-posterior direction and less control in the medio-lateral axis in standing balance between in-brace and out-of-brace conditions in AIS. ..
  14. Ugwonali O, Lomas G, Choe J, Hyman J, Lee F, Vitale M, et al. Effect of bracing on the quality of life of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Spine J. 2004;4:254-60 pubmed
    ..Brace wearing did not decrease the QOL of adolescents, compared with their observed counterparts, in our study population. ..
  15. Boyce S, Quigley M, Campbell S. Management of ankle sprains: a randomised controlled trial of the treatment of inversion injuries using an elastic support bandage or an Aircast ankle brace. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:91-6 pubmed
    ..Lateral ligament ankle sprains are the single most common sports injury...
  16. Ng G, Chan H. The immediate effects of tension of counterforce forearm brace on neuromuscular performance of wrist extensor muscles in subjects with lateral humeral epicondylosis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2004;34:72-8 pubmed
  17. Vasiliadis E, Grivas T, Savvidou O, Triantafyllopoulos G. The influence of brace on quality of life of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2006;123:352-6 pubmed
    ..Cobb angle and ATI significantly influenced school activity and social functioning respectively, but not general health perception, physical functioning, emotional functioning, vitality, bodily pain and self-esteem and aesthetics. ..
  18. van der Sluijs J, De Gier L, Verbeke J, Witbreuk M, Pruys J, van Royen B. Prolonged treatment with the Pavlik harness in infants with developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2009;91:1090-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of the Pavlik harness in type-IV hips in this age group is questionable, but if used, prolonged bracing is not advised...
  19. Kent C, Cheney F. A case of bilateral brachial plexus palsy due to shoulder braces. J Clin Anesth. 2007;19:482-4 pubmed
    ..Failure to recognize the significance of a decrease in pulses in the upper extremities, with resulting lack of remedial action, may have been a major factor leading to patient injury. ..
  20. Gravlee J, Van Durme D. Braces and splints for musculoskeletal conditions. Am Fam Physician. 2007;75:342-8 pubmed
    b>Braces and splints can be useful for acute injuries, chronic conditions, and the prevention of injury...
  21. Bunge E, Juttmann R, de Kleuver M, van Biezen F, de Koning H. Health-related quality of life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after treatment: short-term effects after brace or surgical treatment. Eur Spine J. 2007;16:83-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that short-term differences in HRQoL after treatment in adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis are negligible and cannot support preference of one treatment above the other. ..
  22. Krohn K. Footwear alterations and bracing as treatments for knee osteoarthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2005;17:653-6 pubmed
    ..This review examines the use of foot orthoses and knee braces to change the biomechanical forces on the knee joint and to reduce pain and improve function in patients with ..
  23. Faes M, van Elk N, de Lint J, Degens H, Kooloos J, Hopman M. A dynamic extensor brace reduces electromyographic activity of wrist extensor muscles in patients with lateral epicondylalgia. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2006;36:170-8 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, the dynamic extensor brace could be a promising new intervention for lateral epicondylalgia. ..
  24. Sullivan L, Bailie R, Weiss N, Miller B. An evaluation of shoulder external rotation braces. Arthroscopy. 2007;23:129-34 pubmed
    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate 4 commercially available shoulder external rotation braces to determine their ability to achieve and maintain shoulder external rotation...
  25. Rutgers M, Ring D. Treatment of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus using a functional brace. J Orthop Trauma. 2006;20:597-601 pubmed
    ..Proximal-third long oblique fractures may be at greater than average risk for nonunion after functional fracture bracing. Level IV (case series). ..
  26. Negrini S, Aulisa L, Ferraro C, Fraschini P, Masiero S, Simonazzi P, et al. Italian guidelines on rehabilitation treatment of adolescents with scoliosis or other spinal deformities. Eura Medicophys. 2005;41:183-201 pubmed
  27. van Raaij T, Reijman M, Brouwer R, Bierma Zeinstra S, Verhaar J. Medial knee osteoarthritis treated by insoles or braces: a randomized trial. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010;468:1926-32 pubmed publisher
    There is controversial evidence regarding whether foot orthoses or knee braces improve pain and function or correct malalignment in selected patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the medial knee compartment...
  28. Kotwicki T, Cheneau J. Biomechanical action of a corrective brace on thoracic idiopathic scoliosis: Cheneau 2000 orthosis. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2008;3:146-53 pubmed publisher
  29. Parent S, Newton P, Wenger D. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: etiology, anatomy, natural history, and bracing. Instr Course Lect. 2005;54:529-36 pubmed
    ..Bracing results are directly related to compliance with brace treatment; therefore, optimal results cannot be achieved without the patient's cooperation and family support. ..
  30. Najibi S, Albright J. The use of knee braces, part 1: Prophylactic knee braces in contact sports. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33:602-11 pubmed
    Surrogate knee model biomechanical studies have indicated that off-the-shelf braces provide 20% to 30% greater resistance to a lateral blow when the knee is in full extension...
  31. Toivanen J, Nieminen J, Laine H, Honkonen S, Jarvinen M. Functional treatment of closed humeral shaft fractures. Int Orthop. 2005;29:10-3 pubmed
    ..Logistic regression analysis revealed the only predictive factor in respect to successful brace treatment was fracture location. No significant difference was found in respect to healing between different AO-type fractures...
  32. Siebenga J, Leferink V, Segers M, Elzinga M, Bakker F, Haarman H, et al. Treatment of traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures: a multicenter prospective randomized study of operative versus nonsurgical treatment. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:2881-90 pubmed
    ..Patients with a Type A3 thoracolumbar spine fracture without neurologic deficit should be treated by short-segment posterior stabilization. ..
  33. Draganich L, Reider B, Rimington T, Piotrowski G, Mallik K, Nasson S. The effectiveness of self-adjustable custom and off-the-shelf bracing in the treatment of varus gonarthrosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88:2645-52 pubmed
    A recent development in valgus-producing knee braces has been the adjustable "unloader" brace...
  34. Weigert K, Nygaard L, Christensen F, Hansen E, Bunger C. Outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after brace treatment and surgery assessed by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument 24. Eur Spine J. 2006;15:1108-17 pubmed
    ..Improvement of appearance by means of surgical correction increases mean scores for post-treatment self-image and post-treatment satisfaction. Double-treatment by brace and surgery does not appear to jeopardize a good final outcome. ..
  35. Brouwer R, van Raaij T, Verhaar J, Coene L, Bierma Zeinstra S. Brace treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee: a prospective randomized multi-centre trial. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2006;14:777-83 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that a brace intended to reduce load shows small effects in patients with unicompartmental OA. However, many patients do not adhere in the long run to this kind of conservative treatment. ..
  36. Grosso C, Negrini S, Boniolo A, Negrini A. The validity of clinical examination in adolescent spinal deformities. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;91:123-5 pubmed
    ..The correlation with the radiographic value was weak. ..
  37. Luginbühl R, Brunner F, Schneeberger A. No effect of forearm band and extensor strengthening exercises for the treatment of tennis elbow: a prospective randomised study. Chir Organi Mov. 2008;91:35-40 pubmed publisher
    ..27), indicating that no beneficial influence was found either for the strengthening exercises or for the forearm support band. Improvement seems to occur with time, independent of the method of treatment used...
  38. Ramsey D, Briem K, Axe M, Snyder Mackler L. A mechanical theory for the effectiveness of bracing for medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89:2398-407 pubmed
    Evidence that knee braces used for the treatment of osteoarthritis mediate pain relief and improve function by unloading the joint (increasing the joint separation) remains inconclusive...
  39. Richards J, Sanchez Ballester J, Jones R, Darke N, Livingstone B. A comparison of knee braces during walking for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2005;87:937-9 pubmed
    ..Treatment with a simple brace showed only significant improvements in loading forces. Our findings suggest that although both braces improved confidence and function during gait, the valgus brace showed greater benefit.
  40. Post R, Keizer H, Leferink V, Van Der Sluis C. Functional outcome 5 years after non-operative treatment of type A spinal fractures. Eur Spine J. 2006;15:472-8 pubmed
  41. Théoret D, Lamontagne M. Study on three-dimensional kinematics and electromyography of ACL deficient knee participants wearing a functional knee brace during running. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2006;14:555-63 pubmed
    ..The adaptations to bracing found in this preliminary study further support the potential mechanical and proprioceptive contributions of the functional knee brace to protect the ACLD knee. ..
  42. Hardy L, Huxel K, Brucker J, Nesser T. Prophylactic ankle braces and star excursion balance measures in healthy volunteers. J Athl Train. 2008;43:347-51 pubmed publisher
    The effects of prophylactic ankle braces on lower extremity functional performance in healthy participants have not been studied extensively...
  43. Bullmann V, Halm H, Lerner T, Lepsien U, Hackenberg L, Liljenqvist U. [Prospective evaluation of braces as treatment in idiopathic scoliosis]. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 2004;142:403-9 pubmed
    ..05). Curve progression was prevented in 58 %. Prognostic risk factors are a young age at initiation of brace treatment, a thoracic curve, unsatisfactory curve correction in the brace and a male gender. ..
  44. Haft G, Walker C, Crawford H. Early clubfoot recurrence after use of the Ponseti method in a New Zealand population. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89:487-93 pubmed
    ..When the parents do not comply with the bracing protocol, many major and minor recurrences should be expected. ..
  45. Cheung K, Cheng E, Chan S, Yeung K, Luk K. Outcome assessment of bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis by the use of the SRS-22 questionnaire. Int Orthop. 2007;31:507-11 pubmed
    ..This study has implications for treatment, and more attention will need to be given to those with mild but progressive curves to help improve patients' understanding of their treatment and hence their compliance and satisfaction. ..
  46. Zhang S, Wortley M, Clowers K, Krusenklaus J. Evaluation of efficacy and 3D kinematic characteristics of cervical orthoses. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2005;20:264-9 pubmed
    ..The two new cervical orthoses also performed either comparably as or better than the two established cervical orthoses. ..
  47. Rishiraj N, Taunton J, Lloyd Smith R, Woollard R, Regan W, Clement D. The potential role of prophylactic/functional knee bracing in preventing knee ligament injury. Sports Med. 2009;39:937-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Knee braces have been available for the last 30 years and have been used to assist individuals with ACL-deficient and ACL-..
  48. Pietrosimone B, Grindstaff T, Linens S, Uczekaj E, Hertel J. A systematic review of prophylactic braces in the prevention of knee ligament injuries in collegiate football players. J Athl Train. 2008;43:409-15 pubmed publisher
    To determine the relative risk reduction associated with prophylactic knee braces in the prevention of knee injuries in collegiate football players...
  49. Ekholm R, Tidermark J, Tornkvist H, Adami J, Ponzer S. Outcome after closed functional treatment of humeral shaft fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 2006;20:591-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome after an isolated humeral shaft fracture treated primarily nonoperatively with a fracture brace...
  50. Matsunaga S, Hayashi K, Naruo T, Nozoe S, Komiya S. Psychologic management of brace therapy for patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005;30:547-50 pubmed
    ..For all patients, changes in psychologic test results, compliance with braces wearing instructions, and correction of scoliosis were analyzed...
  51. Draper C, Besier T, Santos J, Jennings F, Fredericson M, Gold G, et al. Using real-time MRI to quantify altered joint kinematics in subjects with patellofemoral pain and to evaluate the effects of a patellar brace or sleeve on joint motion. J Orthop Res. 2009;27:571-7 pubmed publisher
    Abnormal patellofemoral joint motion is a possible cause of patellofemoral pain, and patellar braces are thought to alleviate pain by restoring normal joint kinematics...
  52. Vasiliadis E, Grivas T. Quality of life after conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2008;135:409-13 pubmed
  53. Dennis D, Komistek R, Nadaud M, Mahfouz M. Evaluation of off-loading braces for treatment of unicompartmental knee arthrosis. J Arthroplasty. 2006;21:2-8 pubmed
    Two analyses were performed to assess the effectiveness of off-loading knee braces in producing condylar separation of degenerative compartments in patients with unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis...