artificial limbs


Summary: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.

Top Publications

  1. Saunders I, Vijayakumar S. The role of feed-forward and feedback processes for closed-loop prosthesis control. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2011;8:60 pubmed publisher
  2. Eshraghi A, Osman N, Gholizadeh H, Karimi M, Ali S. Pistoning assessment in lower limb prosthetic sockets. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2012;36:15-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies should provide a gold standard for the acceptable range of pistoning in a prosthetic socket. ..
  3. Silverman A, Neptune R. Muscle and prosthesis contributions to amputee walking mechanics: a modeling study. J Biomech. 2012;45:2271-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide further insight into muscle and prosthesis function in below-knee amputee walking and can help guide rehabilitation methods and device designs to improve amputee mobility...
  4. Ortiz Catalan M, Brånemark R, Håkansson B, Delbeke J. On the viability of implantable electrodes for the natural control of artificial limbs: review and discussion. Biomed Eng Online. 2012;11:33 pubmed publisher
    ..paper describes several implantable electrodes and discusses them as a solution for the natural control of artificial limbs. In this context "natural" is defined as producing control over limb movement analogous to that of ..
  5. Branemark R, Berlin O, Hagberg K, Bergh P, Gunterberg B, Rydevik B. A novel osseointegrated percutaneous prosthetic system for the treatment of patients with transfemoral amputation: A prospective study of 51 patients. Bone Joint J. 2014;96-B:106-13 pubmed publisher
  6. Portnoy S, Kristal A, Gefen A, Siev Ner I. Outdoor dynamic subject-specific evaluation of internal stresses in the residual limb: hydraulic energy-stored prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy-stored prosthetic feet. Gait Posture. 2012;35:121-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that using a hydraulic prosthetic foot may protect the distal tibial end of the TTA residuum from high stresses, therefore preventing pressure-related injury and pain...
  7. Fougner A, Stavdahl O, Kyberd P, Losier Y, Parker P. Control of upper limb prostheses: terminology and proportional myoelectric control-a review. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2012;20:663-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to further promote the development of proportional myoelectric control, these topics need to be addressed. ..
  8. Matrone G, Cipriani C, Carrozza M, Magenes G. Real-time myoelectric control of a multi-fingered hand prosthesis using principal components analysis. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2012;9:40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results open up promising possibilities for the development of intuitive, effective myoelectric hand controllers. ..
  9. Takahashi K, Kepple T, Stanhope S. A unified deformable (UD) segment model for quantifying total power of anatomical and prosthetic below-knee structures during stance in gait. J Biomech. 2012;45:2662-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this technique may be valuable for facilitating direct comparisons between anatomical and disparate prosthetic below-knee structures in future studies. ..

More Information


  1. Young A, Smith L, Rouse E, Hargrove L. Classification of simultaneous movements using surface EMG pattern recognition. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2013;60:1250-8 pubmed publisher
  2. Gailey R, Gaunaurd I, Agrawal V, Finnieston A, O Toole C, Tolchin R. Application of self-report and performance-based outcome measures to determine functional differences between four categories of prosthetic feet. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012;49:597-612 pubmed
    ..05). Significant differences were found between the PVD and the non-PVD groups (p </= 0.05) in the AMPPRO and 6MWT when using the Proprio foot. Self-report measures were unable to detect differences between prosthetic feet. ..
  3. Simon A, Hargrove L, Lock B, Kuiken T. Target Achievement Control Test: evaluating real-time myoelectric pattern-recognition control of multifunctional upper-limb prostheses. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2011;48:619-27 pubmed
    ..These results highlight the need for closed-loop performance measures and demonstrate that the TAC Test is a useful and more challenging tool to test real-time pattern-recognition performance. ..
  4. Eshraghi A, Abu Osman N, Karimi M, Gholizadeh H, Ali S, Wan Abas W. Quantitative and qualitative comparison of a new prosthetic suspension system with two existing suspension systems for lower limb amputees. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;91:1028-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The satisfaction with donning and doffing was high with the magnetic system. Moreover, the subjects reported fewer problems with the new system. ..
  5. Young A, Hargrove L, Kuiken T. Improving myoelectric pattern recognition robustness to electrode shift by changing interelectrode distance and electrode configuration. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2012;59:645-52 pubmed publisher
    ..01) reduced sensitivity to electrode shift compared to a traditional time-domain feature set. ..
  6. Segal A, Zelik K, Klute G, Morgenroth D, Hahn M, Orendurff M, et al. The effects of a controlled energy storage and return prototype prosthetic foot on transtibial amputee ambulation. Hum Mov Sci. 2012;31:918-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Controlled energy storage and return enhanced prosthetic push-off, but requires further design modifications to improve amputee walking economy...
  7. Gholizadeh H, Abu Osman N, Eshraghi A, Ali S, Sævarsson S, Wan Abas W, et al. Transtibial prosthetic suspension: less pistoning versus easy donning and doffing. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012;49:1321-30 pubmed
    ..The article also verifies the feasibility of the Vicon motion system for measuring pistoning during gait...
  8. Kark L, Vickers D, McIntosh A, Simmons A. Use of gait summary measures with lower limb amputees. Gait Posture. 2012;35:238-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The mGGI, mGDI and mGPS identified, quantified and stratified gait pathology, indicating that any of the gait measures investigated in this study can be applied as outcome measures in research and case management in lower limb amputees. ..
  9. Scheme E, Englehart K. Electromyogram pattern recognition for control of powered upper-limb prostheses: state of the art and challenges for clinical use. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2011;48:643-59 pubmed
    ..This article describes the pertinent issues and best practices in EMG pattern recognition, identifies the major challenges in deploying robust control, and advocates research directions that may have an effect in the near future...
  10. Dhillon G, Horch K. Direct neural sensory feedback and control of a prosthetic arm. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2005;13:468-72 pubmed
    Evidence indicates that user acceptance of modern artificial limbs by amputees would be significantly enhanced by a system that provides appropriate, graded, distally referred sensations of touch and joint movement, and that the ..
  11. Pylatiuk C, Schulz S, Döderlein L. Results of an Internet survey of myoelectric prosthetic hand users. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2007;31:362-70 pubmed
  12. Chu J, Moon I, Mun M. A real-time EMG pattern recognition system based on linear-nonlinear feature projection for a multifunction myoelectric hand. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2006;53:2232-9 pubmed
    ..Our experimental results show that all processes, including virtual hand control, are completed within 125 ms, and the proposed method is applicable to real-time myoelectric hand control without an operational time delay. ..
  13. Johansson J, Sherrill D, Riley P, Bonato P, Herr H. A clinical comparison of variable-damping and mechanically passive prosthetic knee devices. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;84:563-75 pubmed
  14. O Shaughnessy K, Dumanian G, Lipschutz R, Miller L, Stubblefield K, Kuiken T. Targeted reinnervation to improve prosthesis control in transhumeral amputees. A report of three cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90:393-400 pubmed publisher
  15. Miller L, Stubblefield K, Lipschutz R, Lock B, Kuiken T. Improved myoelectric prosthesis control using targeted reinnervation surgery: a case series. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2008;16:46-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Performance on timed tests, including the box-and-blocks test and clothespin test, has increased two to six times. Options for new control strategies are discussed. ..
  16. Scheme E, Englehart K, Hudgins B. Selective classification for improved robustness of myoelectric control under nonideal conditions. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2011;58:1698-705 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the classification scheme allows for real-time, independent adjustment of individual class-pair boundaries making it flexible and intuitive for clinical use. ..
  17. Tura A, Raggi M, Rocchi L, Cutti A, Chiari L. Gait symmetry and regularity in transfemoral amputees assessed by trunk accelerations. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2010;7:4 pubmed publisher
    ..3% and 81.8%, respectively. The use of a simple accelerometer, whose components can be analyzed by the autocorrelation function method, is adequate for the assessment of gait symmetry and regularity in transfemoral amputees. ..
  18. Dumbleton T, Buis A, McFadyen A, McHugh B, McKay G, Murray K, et al. Dynamic interface pressure distributions of two transtibial prosthetic socket concepts. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2009;46:405-15 pubmed
    ..The sockets instrumented for this study had been in daily use for at least 6 months, with no residual-limb health problems. ..
  19. Nolan L, Wit A, Dudziński K, Lees A, Lake M, Wychowański M. Adjustments in gait symmetry with walking speed in trans-femoral and trans-tibial amputees. Gait Posture. 2003;17:142-51 pubmed
  20. Dillon M, Barker T. Comparison of gait of persons with partial foot amputation wearing prosthesis to matched control group: observational study. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2008;45:1317-34 pubmed
    ..The hip joints still contributed significantly to the power generation required to walk. ..
  21. Kark L, Simmons A. Patient satisfaction following lower-limb amputation: the role of gait deviation. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2011;35:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..RESULTS suggest that improving self-perceived functional ability and attitudes toward the prosthesis, rather than minimizing gait deviation, will improve patient satisfaction. ..
  22. Lloyd C, Stanhope S, Davis I, Royer T. Strength asymmetry and osteoarthritis risk factors in unilateral trans-tibial, amputee gait. Gait Posture. 2010;32:296-300 pubmed publisher
    ..643). Results suggest that strength asymmetry in unilateral trans-tibial amputees has a moderate relationship with osteoarthritis risk, and may be a useful way to assess gait ability and the need for rehabilitation in this population. ..
  23. Ylimäinen K, Nachemson A, Sommerstein K, Stockselius A, Norling Hermansson L. Health-related quality of life in Swedish children and adolescents with limb reduction deficiency. Acta Paediatr. 2010;99:1550-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The difference between parent and child ratings should be considered in clinical practice. ..
  24. Datta D, Selvarajah K, Davey N. Functional outcome of patients with proximal upper limb deficiency--acquired and congenital. Clin Rehabil. 2004;18:172-7 pubmed
    ..It is vital that rehabilitation programmes should focus on both prosthetic and nonprosthetic training to achieve maximal independence. ..
  25. Castellini C, van der Smagt P. Surface EMG in advanced hand prosthetics. Biol Cybern. 2009;100:35-47 pubmed publisher
  26. Rabuffetti M, Recalcati M, Ferrarin M. Trans-femoral amputee gait: socket-pelvis constraints and compensation strategies. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2005;29:183-92 pubmed
  27. Zmitrewicz R, Neptune R, Walden J, Rogers W, Bosker G. The effect of foot and ankle prosthetic components on braking and propulsive impulses during transtibial amputee gait. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;87:1334-9 pubmed
    ..062) with a multi-axis ankle. These results suggest that amputee gait may improve with the prescription of multi-axis ankles that allow for greater propulsive impulses by the residual leg, which improve the loading symmetry between legs. ..
  28. Carrozza M, Cappiello G, Micera S, Edin B, Beccai L, Cipriani C. Design of a cybernetic hand for perception and action. Biol Cybern. 2006;95:629-44 pubmed
  29. Zecca M, Micera S, Carrozza M, Dario P. Control of multifunctional prosthetic hands by processing the electromyographic signal. Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2002;30:459-85 pubmed
  30. Davies B, Datta D. Mobility outcome following unilateral lower limb amputation. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2003;27:186-90 pubmed
    ..This study concludes that mobility rates one year after prosthetic provision for unilateral trans-tibial and trans-femoral amputees worsen with increasing age at amputation and a higher level of amputation. ..
  31. Convery P, Buis A, Wilkie R, Sockalingam S, Blair A, McHugh B. Measurement of the consistency of patellar-tendon-bearing cast rectification. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2003;27:207-13 pubmed
    ..8mm for prosthetist B. The lengths of the 5 plaster models rectified by prosthetist A indicated a SD of 0.2mm whereas the lengths of the 5 plaster models rectified by prosthetist B indicated a SD of 2.9mm. ..
  32. Dhillon G, Lawrence S, Hutchinson D, Horch K. Residual function in peripheral nerve stumps of amputees: implications for neural control of artificial limbs. J Hand Surg Am. 2004;29:605-15; discussion 616-8 pubmed
    ..This implies that peripheral nerve interfaces could be used to provide amputees with prosthetic limbs that have more natural feel and control than is possible with current myoelectric and body-powered control systems. ..
  33. Kuiken T, Dumanian G, Lipschutz R, Miller L, Stubblefield K. The use of targeted muscle reinnervation for improved myoelectric prosthesis control in a bilateral shoulder disarticulation amputee. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2004;28:245-53 pubmed
    ..Subjectively the patient clearly preferred the new prosthesis. He reported that it was easier and faster to use, and felt more natural...
  34. Hermansson L, Eliasson A, Engstrom I. Psychosocial adjustment in Swedish children with upper-limb reduction deficiency and a myoelectric prosthetic hand. Acta Paediatr. 2005;94:479-88 pubmed
    ..To study psychosocial adjustment and mental health in children with upper-limb reduction deficiency and a myoelectric prosthetic hand...
  35. Hofstad C, van der Linde H, Nienhuis B, Weerdesteyn V, Duysens J, Geurts A. High failure rates when avoiding obstacles during treadmill walking in patients with a transtibial amputation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;87:1115-22 pubmed
    ..The fact that some subjects with the longest time since amputation made no errors suggests that over many years it is possible to relearn the appropriate avoidance reactions sufficiently fast. ..
  36. Hofstad C, Weerdesteyn V, van der Linde H, Nienhuis B, Geurts A, Duysens J. Evidence for bilaterally delayed and decreased obstacle avoidance responses while walking with a lower limb prosthesis. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;120:1009-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results on obstacle avoidance responses can be used to evaluate future prosthetic training involving obstacle crossings for amputee rehabilitation. ..
  37. Meulenbelt H, Geertzen J, Dijkstra P, Jonkman M. Skin problems in lower limb amputees: an overview by case reports. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21:147-55 pubmed
    ..The main disorders are acroangiodermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, bullous diseases, epidermal hyperplasia, hyperhidrosis, infections, malignancies and ulcerations. ..
  38. Varol H, Sup F, Goldfarb M. Multiclass real-time intent recognition of a powered lower limb prosthesis. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2010;57:542-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the intentional overlapping functionality of the middle-level controllers, the incorrect classifications neither caused problems in functionality, nor were perceived by the user. ..
  39. Merrill D, Lockhart J, Troyk P, Weir R, Hankin D. Development of an implantable myoelectric sensor for advanced prosthesis control. Artif Organs. 2011;35:249-52 pubmed publisher
  40. Huang H, Kuiken T, Lipschutz R. A strategy for identifying locomotion modes using surface electromyography. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2009;56:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..1%, and 5.2% +/- 3.7%, respectively. Comparable results were also observed in our pilot study on the subjects with TF amputations. The outcome of this investigation could promote the future design of neural-controlled artificial legs. ..
  41. Tillander J, Hagberg K, Hagberg L, Brånemark R. Osseointegrated titanium implants for limb prostheses attachments: infectious complications. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010;468:2781-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. ..
  42. Versluys R, Beyl P, Van Damme M, Desomer A, Van Ham R, Lefeber D. Prosthetic feet: state-of-the-art review and the importance of mimicking human ankle-foot biomechanics. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2009;4:65-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of mimicking human ankle-foot biomechanics with prosthetic feet is briefly discussed. Prior work in both objective and subjective evaluation of prosthetic gait is reported. ..
  43. Englehart K, Hudgins B. A robust, real-time control scheme for multifunction myoelectric control. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2003;50:848-54 pubmed
    ..Finally, minimal storage capacity is required, which is an important factor in embedded control systems. ..
  44. Matrone G, Cipriani C, Secco E, Magenes G, Carrozza M. Principal components analysis based control of a multi-DoF underactuated prosthetic hand. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2010;7:16 pubmed publisher
  45. Ehrsson H, Rosén B, Stockselius A, Ragnö C, KOHLER P, Lundborg G. Upper limb amputees can be induced to experience a rubber hand as their own. Brain. 2008;131:3443-52 pubmed publisher
    ..sensations from the stump to a prosthetic limb by tricking the brain, thereby making an important contribution to the field of neuroprosthetics where a major goal is to develop artificial limbs that feel like a real parts of the body.
  46. Murray C. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the embodiment of artificial limbs. Disabil Rehabil. 2004;26:963-73 pubmed
    ..While future work may be able to explore the psychosocial correlates of these experiences, it is nonetheless the case that persons with these differing experiences were able to enjoy the benefits imbued by prosthesis use. ..
  47. Pylatiuk C, Schulz S, Kargov A, Bretthauer G. Two multiarticulated hydraulic hand prostheses. Artif Organs. 2004;28:980-6 pubmed
    ..This significantly reduces the necessary grip force and results in stable holding of an object. For a natural appearance, the hands are covered with a cosmetic silicone rubber glove. ..
  48. Egeland B, Urbanchek M, Peramo A, Richardson Burns S, Martin D, Kipke D, et al. In vivo electrical conductivity across critical nerve gaps using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-coated neural interfaces. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;126:1865-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates their relevance not only as a nerve-electronic coupling device capable of reaching the long-sought goal of closed-loop neural control of a prosthetic limb, but also in a multitude of other bioelectrical applications. ..
  49. Miller L, Lipschutz R, Stubblefield K, Lock B, Huang H, Williams T, et al. Control of a six degree of freedom prosthetic arm after targeted muscle reinnervation surgery. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89:2057-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional control sources may spur the development of more advanced and complex componentry for these amputees. ..
  50. Hof A, van Bockel R, Schoppen T, Postema K. Control of lateral balance in walking. Experimental findings in normal subjects and above-knee amputees. Gait Posture. 2007;25:250-8 pubmed
    ..This suggests that not in all cases symmetric gait should be an aim of rehabilitation. ..
  51. Vrieling A, van Keeken H, Schoppen T, Otten E, Halbertsma J, Hof A, et al. Gait initiation in lower limb amputees. Gait Posture. 2008;27:423-30 pubmed
    ..Improving prosthetic ankle properties and initiating gait with the prosthetic limb may facilitate the gait initiation process in amputees. ..
  52. Collins D, Karmarkar A, Relich R, Pasquina P, Cooper R. Review of research on prosthetic devices for lower extremity amputation. Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2006;34:379-438 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, no prosthetic device can adjust to the typical movements of the human gait. These areas provide opportunities for further research and development. ..
  53. Gailey R, Allen K, Castles J, Kucharik J, Roeder M. Review of secondary physical conditions associated with lower-limb amputation and long-term prosthesis use. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2008;45:15-29 pubmed
    ..We review the literature on secondary complications among people with lower-limb loss who are long-term prosthesis wearers. ..