Summary: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.

Top Publications

  1. Montesano L, Diaz M, Bhaskar S, Minguez J. Towards an intelligent wheelchair system for users with cerebral palsy. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2010;18:193-202 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that the intelligent wheelchair effectively provided mobility and autonomy to the target population. ..
  2. Richter W, Kwarciak A, Guo L, Turner J. Effects of single-variable biofeedback on wheelchair handrim biomechanics. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;92:572-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinicians should be aware of and comfortable with any cross-variable effects resulting from single-variable biofeedback training. ..
  3. Bashton D, Mandy A, Haines D, Cameron J. Comparison of activities of daily living in two different one arm drive wheelchairs: a controlled trial. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2012;7:75-81 pubmed publisher
    ..ADL tasks in the NUW were completed more efficiently with no loss in quality of motor and process skills performance. This suggests that the NUW is a viable alternative to current one arm drive provision. ..
  4. Sonenblum S, Sprigle S, Caspall J, Lopez R. Validation of an accelerometer-based method to measure the use of manual wheelchairs. Med Eng Phys. 2012;34:781-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The methodology presented in this paper can be applied to a variety of commercially available products that record bi-axial accelerations, and used to answer many research questions in wheeled mobility. ..
  5. McGarry S, Moir L, Girdler S. The Smart Wheelchair: is it an appropriate mobility training tool for children with physical disabilities?. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2012;7:372-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The descriptive findings of this study allow for future, more rigorous research, to be conducted on the effectiveness of the Smart Wheelchair as a mobility training tool. ..
  6. Jones M, McEwen I, Neas B. Effects of power wheelchairs on the development and function of young children with severe motor impairments. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2012;24:131-40; discussion 140 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled study was to identify any effects of power wheelchairs on the development and function of young children with severe motor impairments...
  7. Mason B, van der Woude L, Tolfrey K, Goosey Tolfrey V. The effects of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort mobility performance in wheelchair athletes. Int J Sports Med. 2012;33:199-204 pubmed publisher
  8. Lenton J, van der Woude L, Fowler N, Nicholson G, Tolfrey K, Goosey Tolfrey V. Hand-rim forces and gross mechanical efficiency at various frequencies of wheelchair propulsion. Int J Sports Med. 2013;34:158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in GE are not explained by different levels of force effectiveness. ..
  9. Huang H, Yeh C, Chen C, Lin Y, Chung K. Sliding and pressure evaluation on conventional and V-shaped seats of reclining wheelchairs for stroke patients with flaccid hemiplegia: a crossover trial. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2011;8:40 pubmed publisher
    Reclining wheelchairs are commonly used to transport elderly stroke patients in Taiwan...

More Information


  1. Wang R, Mihailidis A, Dutta T, Fernie G. Usability testing of multimodal feedback interface and simulated collision-avoidance power wheelchair for long-term-care home residents with cognitive impairments. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2011;48:801-22 pubmed
    ..in long-term-care homes have complex physical and cognitive impairments and have difficulty propelling manual wheelchairs. Power wheelchair use is restricted owing to safety concerns...
  2. Eicholtz M, Caspall J, Dao P, Sprigle S, Ferri A. Test method for empirically determining inertial properties of manual wheelchairs. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012;49:51-62 pubmed
    ..turntable used to measure inertial properties of irregularly shaped rigid bodies, specifically manual wheelchairs. We used a Newton-Euler approach to calculate wheelchair mass and center of mass (CM) location from static ..
  3. Kim J, Huo X, Minocha J, Holbrook J, Laumann A, Ghovanloo M. Evaluation of a smartphone platform as a wireless interface between tongue drive system and electric-powered wheelchairs. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2012;59:1787-96 pubmed publisher
    ..It provides users with the ability to drive powered wheelchairs (PWC) and access computers using their unconstrained tongue motion...
  4. Mortenson W, Miller W, Backman C, Oliffe J. Association between mobility, participation, and wheelchair-related factors in long-term care residents who use wheelchairs as their primary means of mobility. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60:1310-5 pubmed publisher
    ..factors, mobility, and participation are associated in a sample of long-term care residents who use wheelchairs as their primary means of mobility. Cross-sectional survey...
  5. Lindquist N, Loudon P, Magis T, Rispin J, Kirby R, Manns P. Reliability of the performance and safety scores of the wheelchair skills test version 4.1 for manual wheelchair users. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;91:1752-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1 (WST 4.1) for manual wheelchairs operated by adult wheelchair users. Cohort study. University research setting...
  6. Haisma J, van der Woude L, Stam H, Bergen M, Sluis T, Bussmann J. Physical capacity in wheelchair-dependent persons with a spinal cord injury: a critical review of the literature. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:642-52 pubmed
    ..The variation between results is caused by population and methodological differences. Standardized measurement of physical capacity is needed to further develop comparative values for clinical practice and rehabilitation research. ..
  7. Richter W, Rodriguez R, Woods K, Karpinski A, Axelson P. Reduced finger and wrist flexor activity during propulsion with a new flexible handrim. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;87:1643-7 pubmed
    ..Case series. Biomechanics laboratory. Twenty-four manual wheelchair users. Subjects pushed their own wheelchairs on a research treadmill set to level, 3 degrees , and 6 degrees grades using both a standard uncoated handrim ..
  8. Fitzgerald S, Collins D, Cooper R, Tolerico M, Kelleher A, Hunt P, et al. Issues in maintenance and repairs of wheelchairs: A pilot study. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2005;42:853-62 pubmed
    ..Specifically, we examined the characteristics of the participants' wheelchairs, the types of maintenance and repairs completed, and whether the participants' satisfaction was affected by ..
  9. McClure L, Boninger M, Oyster M, Williams S, Houlihan B, Lieberman J, et al. Wheelchair repairs, breakdown, and adverse consequences for people with traumatic spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009;90:2034-8 pubmed publisher
    ..7% had an adverse consequence occur. People who use power wheelchairs required significantly more repairs (P<.001), and adverse consequences occurred more frequently (P<...
  10. Ceres R, Pons J, Calderón L, Jiménez A, Azevedo L. A robotic vehicle for disabled children. Providing assisted mobility with the PALMA project. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 2005;24:55-63 pubmed
  11. Souza A, Boninger M, Fitzgerald S, Shimada S, Cooper R, Ambrosio F. Upper limb strength in individuals with spinal cord injury who use manual wheelchairs. J Spinal Cord Med. 2005;28:26-32 pubmed
    ..This study and others of strength in individuals with paraplegia may overestimate shoulder strength. ..
  12. Kilkens O, Post M, Dallmeijer A, Seelen H, van der Woude L. Wheelchair skills tests: a systematic review. Clin Rehabil. 2003;17:418-30 pubmed
    ..Tests were selected if they were observational tests, designed for subjects using hand-rim wheelchairs and were intended to assess wheelchair skill performance at the activity level...
  13. Hastings J, Fanucchi E, Burns S. Wheelchair configuration and postural alignment in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;84:528-34 pubmed
    ..postural alignment and shoulder flexion range differ for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) seated in wheelchairs with standard configurations versus wheelchairs with posterior seat inclination and a low backrest set ..
  14. van den Berg R, De Groot S, Swart K, van der Woude L. Physical capacity after 7 weeks of low-intensity wheelchair training. Disabil Rehabil. 2010;32:2244-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Training at 30% HRR (3?×?/week, 30 min/session) may be appropriate in untrained individuals, such as novice wheelchair users at the start of their rehabilitation, to prevent early fatigue and overuse and enhance motivation. ..
  15. Sabol T, Haley E. Wheelchair evaluation for the older adult. Clin Geriatr Med. 2006;22:355-75; ix pubmed
    ..The discussion includes wheelchair options, components, and accessories. Basic principles to guide the clinician in the process of selection for maximum function are addressed. ..
  16. Higuchi T, Takada H, Matsuura Y, Imanaka K. Visual estimation of spatial requirements for locomotion in novice wheelchair users. J Exp Psychol Appl. 2004;10:55-66 pubmed
    ..The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. ..
  17. Sprigle S, Wootten M, Sawacha Z, Thielman G, Theilman G. Relationships among cushion type, backrest height, seated posture, and reach of wheelchair users with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2003;26:236-43 pubmed
    ..Because individuals adopt different postures when using different cushions and backrest heights, clinicians should monitor posture while assessing seating and function of wheelchair users. ..
  18. Evans S, Frank A, Neophytou C, De Souza L. Older adults' use of, and satisfaction with, electric powered indoor/outdoor wheelchairs. Age Ageing. 2007;36:431-5 pubmed
    ..Service providers should be aware that older EPIOC users may require extra support and the provision of timely adjustments to increase chair use. ..
  19. Palisano R, Tieman B, Walter S, Bartlett D, Rosenbaum P, Russell D, et al. Effect of environmental setting on mobility methods of children with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2003;45:113-20 pubmed
    ..For children who do not walk, attention should be given to the needs of caregivers and factors that are important for successful powered mobility. ..
  20. Marchal Crespo L, McHughen S, Cramer S, Reinkensmeyer D. The effect of haptic guidance, aging, and initial skill level on motor learning of a steering task. Exp Brain Res. 2010;201:209-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that training with haptic guidance can benefit long-term retention of a driving skill for young and for some old drivers. Training with haptic guidance is more useful for people with less initial skill. ..
  21. Meiser M, McEwen I. Lightweight and ultralight wheelchairs: propulsion and preferences of two young children with spina bifida. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2007;19:245-53 pubmed
    ..2SDBW comparison was not used in the other four phase comparisons because of autocorrelations. This study presents initial evidence supporting the use of ultralight rigid-framed wheelchairs by young children.
  22. Ding D, Souza A, Cooper R, Fitzgerald S, Cooper R, Kelleher A, et al. A preliminary study on the impact of pushrim-activated power-assist wheelchairs among individuals with tetraplegia. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;87:821-9 pubmed publisher
    This preliminary study was to evaluate the impact of pushrim- activated power-assist wheelchairs (PAPAWs) on mobility, community participation, satisfaction, and psychosocial impact among individuals with tetraplegia...
  23. Michael S, Porter D, Pountney T. Tilted seat position for non-ambulant individuals with neurological and neuromuscular impairment: a systematic review. Clin Rehabil. 2007;21:1063-74 pubmed
    ..REVIEWER'S CONCLUSION: Posterior tilt can reduce pressures at the interface under the pelvis. ..
  24. Evans S, Neophytou C, De Souza L, Frank A. Young people's experiences using electric powered indoor - outdoor wheelchairs (EPIOCs): potential for enhancing users' development?. Disabil Rehabil. 2007;29:1281-94 pubmed
    ..Most young people and their families were fairly satisfied with the service and provision of their wheelchairs. The findings suggest that the development of disabled young people may benefit from the use of electric ..
  25. Frank A, Neophytou C, Frank J, De Souza L. Electric-powered indoor/outdoor wheelchairs (EPIOCs): users' views of influence on family, friends and carers. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2010;5:327-38 pubmed publisher
    ..A reduction in the physical demand for pushing and increased freedom were identified. These benefits appear to outweigh the residual practical difficulties and worries. ..
  26. Sprigle S, Cohen L, Davis K. Establishing seating and wheeled mobility research priorities. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2007;2:169-72 pubmed
    ..Significant areas of study remain to fully associate AT interventions and the health and everyday functioning of wheelchair users. ..
  27. Vanlandewijck Y, Theisen D, Daly D. Wheelchair propulsion biomechanics: implications for wheelchair sports. Sports Med. 2001;31:339-67 pubmed
    ..Conclusions can easily be transferred to other wheelchair sports where movement dynamics are fundamental. ..
  28. De Groot S, Veeger D, Hollander A, van der Woude L. Wheelchair propulsion technique and mechanical efficiency after 3 wk of practice. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34:756-66 pubmed
    ..No changes occurred over time in most force application parameters, left-right symmetry, and intercycle variability during the 3-wk practice period; however, these variables may change on another time scale. ..
  29. Zipfel E, Cooper R, Pearlman J, Cooper R, McCartney M. New design and development of a manual wheelchair for India. Disabil Rehabil. 2007;29:949-62 pubmed
    ..the problem, a collaboration undertaken by a US-based lab and a manufacturer in India to produce quality wheelchairs. One goal is to publicize the design free of charge to manufacturers and interested parties world-wide...
  30. Higuchi T, Cinelli M, Greig M, Patla A. Locomotion through apertures when wider space for locomotion is necessary: adaptation to artificially altered bodily states. Exp Brain Res. 2006;175:50-9 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal that movement constraints on shoulder rotation are likely to be a critical factor in determining whether quick and successful adaptation takes place. ..
  31. Cooper R. Wheelchair standards: it's all about quality assurance and evidence-based practice. J Spinal Cord Med. 2006;29:93-4 pubmed
  32. Barker D, Reid D, Cott C. The experience of senior stroke survivors: factors in community participation among wheelchair users. Can J Occup Ther. 2006;73:18-25 pubmed
    This qualitative study investigated the lived experience of senior stroke survivors who used prescribed wheelchairs in their home and community...
  33. Lacoste M, Weiss Lambrou R, Allard M, Dansereau J. Powered tilt/recline systems: why and how are they used?. Assist Technol. 2003;15:58-68 pubmed
    ..The main objectives for using this type of assistive technology were to increase comfort and to promote rest. Although mainly descriptive, results are of clinical relevance and can be helpful when selecting wheelchairs.
  34. Arpaia G, Bavera P, Caputo D, Mendozzi L, Cavarretta R, Agus G, et al. Risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in bedridden or wheelchair-bound multiple sclerosis patients: a prospective study. Thromb Res. 2010;125:315-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the level of DVT risk in this series should lead physicians to consider the systematic application of long-term preventive measures. ..
  35. Cooper R. SMARTWheel: From concept to clinical practice. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2009;33:198-209 pubmed publisher
    ..This article describes the evolution of the SMART(Wheel) as new technologies became available and its applications in the field of wheelchair biomechanics and clinical service delivery. ..
  36. Ju J, Shin Y, Kim E. Vision based interface system for hands free control of an Intelligent Wheelchair. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2009;6:33 pubmed publisher
    ..As a solution to this, the Intelligent Wheelchairs (IWs) have received considerable attention as mobility aids...
  37. Hubbard S, Fitzgerald S, Reker D, Boninger M, Cooper R, Kazis L. Demographic characteristics of veterans who received wheelchairs and scooters from Veterans Health Administration. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2006;43:831-44 pubmed
    ..360), and American Indians/Asians (OR = 1.585) were more likely than Caucasians to receive standard wheelchairs. Hispanics (OR = 0.4), African Americans (OR = 0.7), and American Indians/Asians (OR = 0...
  38. Simpson R, Poirot D, Baxter F. The Hephaestus Smart Wheelchair System. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2002;10:118-22 pubmed
    ..as a series of components that clinicians and wheelchair manufacturers will be able to attach to standard power wheelchairs to convert them into "smart wheelchairs...
  39. Chen Y, Chen S, Chen W, Lin J. A head orientated wheelchair for people with disabilities. Disabil Rehabil. 2003;25:249-53 pubmed
    Most electric wheelchairs available on the market are joystick-controlled making people with hand or arm disabilities unable to control the wheelchairs easily...
  40. Faupin A, Campillo P, Weissland T, Gorce P, Thevenon A. The effects of rear-wheel camber on the mechanical parameters produced during the wheelchair sprinting of handibasketball athletes. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2004;41:421-8 pubmed
    ..These results should provide the information necessary for optimal wheelchair regulation. ..
  41. Kimura F, Ishida S, Furutama D, Hirata Y, Sato T, Hosokawa T, et al. Wheelchair economy class syndrome in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neuromuscul Disord. 2006;16:204-7 pubmed
    ..This case offers a warning for long-term wheelchair users, particularly hypoxemic ALS patients, regarding the risks of treatable pulmonary thromboembolism. ..
  42. Boninger M, Souza A, Cooper R, Fitzgerald S, Koontz A, Fay B. Propulsion patterns and pushrim biomechanics in manual wheelchair propulsion. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83:718-23 pubmed
    ..Case series. Biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-eight individuals with paraplegia who use manual wheelchairs for mobility. Subjects propelled their own wheelchair on a dynamometer at 2 different steady state speeds...
  43. Hurd W, Morrow M, Kaufman K, An K. Biomechanic evaluation of upper-extremity symmetry during manual wheelchair propulsion over varied terrain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89:1996-2002 pubmed publisher
    ..The greater asymmetry identified during outdoor versus laboratory conditions emphasizes the need to evaluate wheelchair biomechanics in the user's natural environment. ..
  44. Koontz A, Roche B, Collinger J, Cooper R, Boninger M. Manual wheelchair propulsion patterns on natural surfaces during start-up propulsion. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009;90:1916-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Manual wheelchair users (N=29). Subjects pushed their wheelchairs from a resting position over high-pile carpet, over linoleum, and up a ramp with a 5 degrees incline while ..
  45. Hoenig H, Landerman L, Shipp K, Pieper C, Richardson M, Pahel N, et al. A clinical trial of a rehabilitation expert clinician versus usual care for providing manual wheelchairs. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53:1712-20 pubmed
    To determine the effect of differing methods of dispensing wheelchairs. Quasi-experimental by day of week. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center...
  46. Pettersson I, Ahlstrom G, Törnquist K. The value of an outdoor powered wheelchair with regard to the quality of life of persons with stroke: a follow-up study. Assist Technol. 2007;19:143-53 pubmed
    ..Service providers should be alert, however, to the possible negative impact of a powered wheelchair on quality of life and support the user. ..
  47. Barea R, Boquete L, Mazo M, Lopez E. System for assisted mobility using eye movements based on electrooculography. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2002;10:209-18 pubmed
    ..Results obtained show that this control technique could be useful in multiple applications, such as mobility and communication aid for handicapped persons. ..
  48. Kittel A, Di M, Stewart H. Factors influencing the decision to abandon manual wheelchairs for three individuals with a spinal cord injury. Disabil Rehabil. 2002;24:106-14 pubmed
    ..Suggestions for changes to wheelchair prescription practices were made. ..
  49. Boninger M, Impink B, Cooper R, Koontz A. Relation between median and ulnar nerve function and wrist kinematics during wheelchair propulsion. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85:1141-5 pubmed
    ..Thirty-five people with spinal cord injury who use manual wheelchairs. Subjects propelled their own wheelchair on a dynamometer at 0.9 and 1.8m/s...
  50. Lalonde N, Dansereau J, Pauget P, Cinquin P, Aissaoui R. Accessing the influence of repositioning on the pelvis' 3-D orientation in wheelchair users. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2006;14:76-82 pubmed
    ..Results also demonstrated the importance in calculating the total 3-D rotations and translations to characterize adequately the pelvic movement. ..
  51. Oztürk A, Ucsular F. Effectiveness of a wheelchair skills training programme for community-living users of manual wheelchairs in Turkey: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 2011;25:416-24 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Community-living wheelchair users who received wheelchair skills training increased their total performance and safety scores to a greater extent than a control group. ..
  52. Kirby R, Cooper R. Applicability of the Wheelchair Skills Program to the Indian context. Disabil Rehabil. 2007;29:969-72 pubmed
    ..Of the hand-rim-propelled wheelchairs we observed, most were heavy and non-adjustable ('depot style'). Ground-level carts were also seen...
  53. Cowan R, Nash M, Collinger J, Koontz A, Boninger M. Impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and axle position on wheelchair propulsion by novice older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009;90:1076-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Weight was added to a titanium folding chair, simulating the weight difference between very light and depot wheelchairs. Instrumented wheels measured propulsion kinetics...