radionuclide generators


Summary: Separation systems containing a relatively long-lived parent radionuclide which produces a short-lived daughter in its decay scheme. The daughter can be periodically extracted (milked) by means of an appropriate eluting agent.

Top Publications

  1. Roesch F, Riss P. The renaissance of the ??Ge/??Ga radionuclide generator initiates new developments in ??Ga radiopharmaceutical chemistry. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10:1633-68 pubmed
    Ge/??Ga radionuclide generators have been investigated for almost fifty years now, since the cyclotron-independent availability of positron emitting ??Ga via the ??Ge/??Ga system had always attracted researches working in basic nuclear ..
  2. Amjed N, Hussain M, Aslam M, Tárkányi F, Qaim S. Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross sections for optimization of production of the emerging diagnostic radionuclide ⁵⁵Co. Appl Radiat Isot. 2016;108:38-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The amounts of the radioactive impurities (56)Co and (57)Co were assessed. A comparison of the three investigated production routes is given. ..
  3. Chakraborty S, Chakravarty R, Sarma H, Dash A, Pillai M. The practicality of nanoceria-PAN-based (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator toward preparation of (68)Ga-labeled cyclic RGD dimer as a potential PET radiotracer for tumor imaging. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2013;28:77-83 pubmed publisher
  4. Lee J, Park U, Son K, Han H. One column operation for (90)Sr/(90)Y separation by using a functionalized-silica. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:1332-5 pubmed publisher
    ..An adsorptive extraction with a small Sep-Pak type column can recover more than 92% of (90)Y with a contamination ratio of (90)Sr/(90)Y=1.2x10(-5) from the mother solution and 70% with 5x10(-7)...
  5. Wilson D, Mohr L, Frey G, Lackland D, Hoel D. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers. Health Phys. 2010;98:42-52 pubmed publisher
    ..0-5686). Models of lung cancer mortality based on MPA worker data with additional covariates adequately described the beagle dog data, while the liver and bone cancer models were less successful. ..
  6. Eppard E, Loktionova N, Rösch F. Quantitative online isolation of ??Ge from ??Ge/??Ga generator eluates for purification and immediate quality control of breakthrough. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013;82:45-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The eluate contains ??Ga free of ??Ge, which can be determined immediately, i.e. prior to the application of the ??Ga-radiopharmaceutical. ..
  7. Fukumura T, Okada K, Suzuki H, Nakao R, Mukai K, Szelecsényi F, et al. An improved 62Zn/62Cu generator based on a cation exchanger and its fully remote-controlled preparation for clinical use. Nucl Med Biol. 2006;33:821-7 pubmed
    ..The goal of this study was to develop an improved (62)Zn/(62)Cu generator based on cation exchange resin and remote preparation at high radioactivity scale for clinical use...
  8. Nye J, Avila Rodriguez M, Nickles R. A new binary compound for the production of 124I via the 124Te(p,n)124I reaction. Appl Radiat Isot. 2007;65:407-12 pubmed
    ..Total losses of the target material after each irradiation and distillation cycle were approximately 2%. ..
  9. Pillai M, Dash A, Knapp F. Rhenium-188: availability from the (188)W/(188)Re generator and status of current applications. Curr Radiopharm. 2012;5:228-43 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the availability and use of (188)Re including a discussion of why broader use of (188)Re has not progressed as expected as a popular radionuclide for therapy...

More Information


  1. Packard A, Treves S, O Brien G, Lim K. An osmium-191/iridium-191m radionuclide generator using an oxalato osmate parent complex. J Nucl Med. 1987;28:1571-6 pubmed
    ..Acute and subacute toxicity studies performed on this generator eluate have shown no adverse effects attributable to the eluate. ..
  2. Troutner D. Chemical and physical properties of radionuclides. Int J Rad Appl Instrum B. 1987;14:171-6 pubmed
    ..Instead, if a particular application demands certain decay properties, the radionuclide which will be used will be the one for which appropriate chemistry can be developed and which can be produced and distributed most economically. ..
  3. Camps J, Zuur C, Blokland J, Broerse J, Pauwels E. A breathing lung phantom for 81mKr lung ventilation studies its use in dosimetry and quality control. Eur J Nucl Med. 1988;14:529-32 pubmed
    ..For a lung ventilation study that consists of 6 views of 300 kcnts each, an effective dose equivalent of 50 microSv was calculated. The phantom is also suitable for comparison of different generator systems. ..
  4. Andrade Martins P, Osso J. Thermal diffusion of ??Ga from irradiated Zn targets. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013;82:279-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The final ??Ga solution was obtained in 0.1 mol L?¹ HCl with the desirable high purity. ..
  5. Al Abyad M, Abdel Hamid A, Tarkanyi F, Ditroi F, Takacs S, Seddik U, et al. Cross-section measurements and nuclear model calculation for proton induced nuclear reaction on zirconium. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:257-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The integral yields for thick targets were deduced from the measured excitation function of the produced radionuclides. ..
  6. Volkert W, Goeckeler W, Ehrhardt G, Ketring A. Therapeutic radionuclides: production and decay property considerations. J Nucl Med. 1991;32:174-85 pubmed
    ..This consideration is especially important for the various MAbs and their fragments that are currently under investigation as carrier molecules to RIT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  7. Kairemo K, Kestilä M, Savolainen S, Korhola O, Hiltunen J, Svahn R, et al. 191Os/191mIr-generator for studying arterial blood flow in experimental animal models. J Nucl Biol Med. 1994;38:86-8 pubmed
    ..All of this indicates that 191mIr is suitable for radionuclide angiography and the generator system is simple and safe to use (191Os is beta-emitter).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  8. Pillai M, Dash A, Knapp F. Sustained availability of 99mTc: possible paths forward. J Nucl Med. 2013;54:313-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The breadth of technologies and new strategies under development to provide (99)Mo and (99m)Tc reflects both the broad interest in and the importance of the pivotal role of (99m)Tc in diagnostic nuclear medicine. ..
  9. Vucina J, Memedović T, Vuksanovic L. TESLA Accelerator Installation at Vinca. Production of radioisotopes for nuclear-medical applications. Med Pregl. 1993;46 Suppl 1:103-4 pubmed
    ..In the paper these aspects are shown on the example of the production of radioisotope 123I. ..
  10. Herrero P, Hartman J, Green M, Anderson C, Welch M, Markham J, et al. Regional myocardial perfusion assessed with generator-produced copper-62-PTSM and PET. J Nucl Med. 1996;37:1294-300 pubmed
    ..Copper-62-PTSM congeners with less avidity for human albumin may prove more suitable for evaluation of hyperemic flows. ..
  11. Roesch F. Scandium-44: benefits of a long-lived PET radionuclide available from the (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator system. Curr Radiopharm. 2012;5:187-201 pubmed
    44)Ti/(44)Sc radionuclide generators are of interest for molecular imaging. The 3.97 hours half-life of (44)Sc and its high positron branching of 94.27% may stimulate the application of (44)Sc-labeled PET radiopharmaceuticals...
  12. Maxon H, Schroder L, Washburn L, Thomas S, Samaratunga R, Biniakiewicz D, et al. Rhenium-188(Sn)HEDP for treatment of osseous metastases. J Nucl Med. 1998;39:659-63 pubmed
    ..5 mR/hr. Same-day, on-demand, outpatient therapy of disseminated skeletal metastases appears to be feasible with 188Re(Sn)HEDP. ..
  13. Montana R, Gonzalez I, Ramirez A, Garaboldi L, Chinol M. Yttrium-90 -- current status, expected availability and applications of a high beta energy emitter. Curr Radiopharm. 2012;5:253-63 pubmed
    ..As a key example for clinical applications of (90)Y, the use of (90)Y-labeled biotin for intra-operative pre-targeting for radionuclide therapy (IART®) of breast cancer is also described. ..
  14. Dantas A, Ribeiro B, Souza R, Lucena E, Dantas B. Optimization of 99Mo measurement in 99mTc eluate samples using a scintillation detection system. Health Phys. 2010;99:453-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The methodology was validated by measuring a standard solution of 99Mo. It was concluded that the technique is sensitive to detect 99Mo in 99mTc eluates at levels below international limits. ..
  15. Fassbender M, Taylor W, Vieira D, Nortier M, Bach H, John K. Proton beam simulation with MCNPX/CINDER'90: Germanium metal activation estimates below 30MeV relevant to the bulk production of arsenic radioisotopes. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:72-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Good agreement between the measured radiochemical yields and MCNPX/CINDER90 estimates was observed. A target of pentavalent (73,74)As radioarsenic for neutron activation studies was prepared. ..
  16. Crespo M. A review of electrodeposition methods for the preparation of alpha-radiation sources. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:210-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, several interpretations concerning the electrodeposition process as well as a number of practical recommendations are included in the study. ..
  17. Weeks K. Method for determining photonuclear production of radioisotopes using high-energy electron beams. Med Phys. 1999;26:49-54 pubmed
    ..It is found that kilowatt power levels can produce mCi amounts of radioactivity in minutes. This work permits systematic evaluation of the potential for designing linear accelerators for in-house production of radionuclides. ..
  18. Janssen A, van Weeren F, de Goeij J, Wijnhoven G, Witsenboer T. Evaluation method for krypton-81m reservoir administration systems. J Nucl Med. 1989;30:650-8 pubmed
    ..The measured results were confirmed by a mathematic model. The suggested simulator is suitable for use in hospitals and also enables an indirect check on the 81Rb/81mKr generator performance. ..
  19. Hambye A, Vandermeiren R, Vervaet A, Vandevivere J. Failure to label red blood cells adequately in daily practice using an in vivo method: methodological and clinical considerations. Eur J Nucl Med. 1995;22:61-7 pubmed
    ..A significant relationship was found between the use of heparin or chemotherapy and the tagging. The influence of several clinical factors on the labelling was also investigated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  20. Adelstein S, Kassis A, Bodei L, Mariani G. Radiotoxicity of iodine-125 and other auger-electron-emitting radionuclides: background to therapy. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2003;18:301-16 pubmed
    ..We have also learned that radiobiologic responses to Auger-electron emission are particularly sensitive to the site of decay, not only within the cell but also in the nucleus within the fine structure of chromatin. ..
  21. Le V. (68)Ga generator integrated system: elution-purification-concentration integration. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2013;194:43-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Quality control protocols were also developed to evaluate the quality of (68)Ga solution. ..
  22. Petrik M, Schuessele A, Perkhofer S, Lass Florl C, Becker D, Decristoforo C. Microbial challenge tests on nonradioactive TiO2-based 68Ge/68Ga generator columns. Nucl Med Commun. 2012;33:819-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The risks associated with incidental microbial contaminations during the lifetime of such a generator are therefore very low. ..
  23. Yi J, Miller D. Cross sections of natSb(p,x) reactions for 30-46 MeV protons. Int J Rad Appl Instrum A. 1992;43:1103-6 pubmed
    ..In order to minimize the 119m + 119Te interference a minimum proton beam energy of 40 MeV is required. The cross section results are compared with published data and with calculated excitation functions. ..
  24. Breeman W, De Blois E, Sze Chan H, Konijnenberg M, Kwekkeboom D, Krenning E. (68)Ga-labeled DOTA-peptides and (68)Ga-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography: current status of research, clinical applications, and future perspectives. Semin Nucl Med. 2011;41:314-21 pubmed publisher
    ..As soon as these are achieved, a whole new radiopharmacy providing PET radiopharmaceuticals might develop. ..
  25. Goethals P, Coene M, Slegers G, Vogelaers D, Everaert J, Lemahieu I, et al. Production of carrier-free 66Ga and labeling of antimyosin antibody for positron imaging of acute myocardial infarction. Eur J Nucl Med. 1990;16:237-40 pubmed
  26. Issachar D, Abrashkin S, Weininger J, Zemach D, Lubin E, Hellman C, et al. Osmium-191/iridium-191m generator based on silica gel impregnated with tridodecylmethylammonium chloride. J Nucl Med. 1989;30:538-41 pubmed
    ..The buffered eluate is sterile, pyrogen-free, and nontoxic, and contains no 192Ir. It is suitable for first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography with a very low radiation dose to the patient. ..
  27. Bläuenstein P, Pellikka R, Schubiger P. Reinvestigation of a physiological eluate of the 52Fe/52mMn generator. Appl Radiat Isot. 1997;48:1097-101 pubmed
  28. Weininger J, Issachar D, Lubin E, Zabari M, Trumper J. Influence of pH adjustment agents on the biologic behavior of osmium-191 impurity in iridium-191m generator eluates. J Nucl Med. 1990;31:523-5 pubmed
    ..D. at 24 hr postinjection. Preliminary calculations based on these results suggest a significant decrease in the estimated patient radiation dose when lysine buffered 191Os/191mIr generator eluates are used for radionuclide angiography. ..
  29. Schultz M, Mueller D, Baum R, Leonard Watkins G, Breeman W. A new automated NaCl based robust method for routine production of gallium-68 labeled peptides. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013;76:46-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The method produces high peptide-bound % (>97%), and specific activity (>40 MBq nmole(-1) [(68)Ga]DOTATOC) and is well-suited for clinical production of radiopharmaceuticals. ..
  30. Magnus B. Over budget, overdue and, perhaps, overdesigned. CMAJ. 2008;178:813-4 pubmed publisher
  31. McCarthy T, Welch M. The state of positron emitting radionuclide production in 1997. Semin Nucl Med. 1998;28:235-46 pubmed
    ..Development of this technology may well help to further progress in targeted radiotherapy. We present an overview of potentially useful isotopes. ..
  32. Ponto J. The AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents. Radiopharmaceuticals. Radiographics. 1998;18:1395-404 pubmed
  33. Guhlke S, Beets A, Oetjen K, Mirzadeh S, Biersack H, Knapp F. Simple new method for effective concentration of 188Re solutions from alumina-based 188W-188Re generator. J Nucl Med. 2000;41:1271-8 pubmed
    ..Our new approach is based on the use of 0.3 mol/L ammonium acetate as a representative salt of a weak acid instead of saline for generator elution...
  34. Hou X, Jensen M, Nielsen S. Use of (99m)Tc from a commercial (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator as yield tracer for the determination of (99)Tc at low levels. Appl Radiat Isot. 2007;65:610-8 pubmed
    ..3 mBq, which is lower than the detection limit of the radiometric method used for environmental samples. The purified (99m)Tc eluate is used as yield tracer for the determination of low levels of (99)Tc in environmental samples. ..
  35. Sadeghi M, Hashemi N, Afarideh H, Tenreiro C. Prediction of 94mTc production for positron emission tomography studies using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX-2.6. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013;82:347-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The yield of isotopic impurities from the (94)Mo(p,xn)(94g, 93m, 93g)Tc reactions was also calculated by the MCNPX code. ..
  36. Ballard B, Nortier F, Birnbaum E, John K, Phillips D, Fassbender M. Radioarsenic from a portable (72)Se/(72)As generator: a current perspective. Curr Radiopharm. 2012;5:264-70 pubmed
    ..This paper describes available generator concepts, and briefly outlines some current arsenic labeling methodologies for the introduction of radioarsenic into biomolecules. ..
  37. Mueller D, Klette I, Baum R. Purification and labeling strategies for (68)Ga from (68)Ge/ (68)Ga generator eluate. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2013;194:77-87 pubmed publisher
    ..5 mL 1 M ammonium acetate buffer pH 4.5. After heating for 7 min at 90°C, the reaction was finished. Radiochemical purity was higher than 95% without further purification. No (68)Ge breakthrough was found in the final product. ..
  38. Jeong J, Knapp F. Use of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator for preparation of the rhenium-188 HDD/lipiodol complex for trans-arterial liver cancer therapy. Semin Nucl Med. 2008;38:S19-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Methods for the preparation of (188)Re-HDD have been optimized and this agent can be obtained in high yield (80%)...
  39. Mackey D, Burch W, Dance I, Fisher K, Willett G. The observation of fullerenes in a Technegas lung ventilation unit. Nucl Med Commun. 1994;15:430-4 pubmed
    ..Evidence is provided to show that Technegas has structure compatible with the Buckminsterfullerene model C60 in which 99Tcm atoms are trapped. ..
  40. Lacy J, Layne W, Guidry G, Verani M, Roberts R. Development and clinical performance of an automated, portable tungsten-178/tantalum-178 generator. J Nucl Med. 1991;32:2158-61 pubmed
    ..1 +/- 3.6 microCi. This automated, portable, high-yield 178W/178Ta generator represents a major advancement that will significantly facilitate first-pass radionuclide angiography with 178Ta and the multiwire gamma camera. ..
  41. Chakravarty R, Shukla R, Ram R, Venkatesh M, Tyagi A, Dash A. Exploitation of nano alumina for the chromatographic separation of clinical grade 188Re from 188W: a renaissance of the 188W/188Re generator technology. Anal Chem. 2011;83:6342-8 pubmed publisher
    ..999% radionuclidic purity and >99% radiochemical purity. The eluted (188)Re possessed appreciably high radioactive concentration and was compatible for the preparation of (188)Re labeled radiopharmaceuticals. ..
  42. Einstein A. Breaking America's dependence on imported molybdenum. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2009;2:369-71 pubmed publisher
  43. Williams B, Ruff T. Proliferation dangers associated with nuclear medicine: getting weapons-grade uranium out of radiopharmaceutical production. Med Confl Surviv. 2007;23:267-81 pubmed
    ..Health professionals have a strategic opportunity and obligation to progress the elimination of medically-related commerce in HEU, closing one of the most vulnerable pathways to the much-feared 'terrorist bomb'. ..
  44. Manabe K, Yokoyama S. Ratio of tritiated water and hydrogen generated in mercury through a nuclear reaction. Appl Radiat Isot. 2008;66:122-5 pubmed
    ..The ratio between [3H]H2O and [3H]H2 generated in lithium amalgam was 4:6 under these experimental conditions. ..
  45. Melville G, Fan Liu S, Allen B. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by photon-induced transmutation of Ra-226. Appl Radiat Isot. 2006;64:979-88 pubmed
    ..However, a high power linac with high current, pulse length and frequency is needed to produce practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226. ..
  46. Saw M. Early experience with (68)Ga-DOTATATE preparation. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2013;194:177-88 pubmed publisher
    ..68)Ga-DOTATATE scan could detect all known sites of NETs and in one case previously unknown peritoneal metastasis. Early regulatory consideration is important for routine clinical use. ..
  47. Hofer K. Biophysical aspects of Auger processes--A review. Acta Oncol. 1996;35:789-96 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the molecular and cellular mechanism(s) responsible for the cytotoxic effects of Auger emitters remain obscure. ..
  48. Tosi G, Brambilla M, Invernizzi S, Leone R, Pertosa M. [A new biological irradiator for the laboratory]. Radiol Med. 1993;86:127-34 pubmed
    ..The system can produce beams with satisfactory characteristics for this specific problem. Moreover, its use may greatly reduce administrative radioprotection problems. ..
  49. Boschi S, Lodi F, Malizia C, Cicoria G, Marengo M. Automation synthesis modules review. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013;76:38-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of automated systems for (68)Ga radiochemistry, different engineering and software strategies and post-processing of the eluate were discussed along with impact of automation with regulations. ..
  50. Lambrecht R, Sajjad M. Aluminum and nickel targets for rubidium-81 production. Int J Rad Appl Instrum A. 1988;39:1081-3 pubmed
    ..Nickel is superior to aluminum for the cyclotron targetry utilized in 81Rb production. Ni gives consistent and predictable yields in routine use...
  51. Saha G, Go R, MacIntyre W, Marwick T, Beachler A, King J, et al. Use of the 82Sr/82Rb generator in clinical PET studies. Int J Rad Appl Instrum B. 1990;17:763-8 pubmed
    ..Patients with coronary artery disease were studied for myocardial perfusion abnormalities by the 82Rb PET technique and images of excellent diagnostic quality were obtained. ..
  52. Bonardi M, Birattari C, Groppi F, Gini L, Ghioni A, Mainardi H, et al. Preparation of "high specific activity" radiochemical forms of vanadium, manganese and thallium for metallo-toxicological studies. Ann Chim. 2003;93:363-72 pubmed
    ..The experimental determination of specific activity, chemical and radiochemical purities is mandatory for all these kinds of applications. ..
  53. Fujibayashi Y, Matsumoto K, Yonekura Y, Konishi J, Yokoyama A. A new zinc-62/copper-62 generator as a copper-62 source for PET radiopharmaceuticals. J Nucl Med. 1989;30:1838-42 pubmed
    ..9%, respectively. Copper in glycine solution showed rapid complex formation with dithiosemicarbazone, which is one of the established Cu-binding agents for bifunctional chelating radiopharmaceutical. ..