Summary: Devices for accelerating charged particles in a spiral path by a constant-frequency alternating electric field. This electric field is synchronized with the movement of the particles in a constant magnetic field.

Top Publications

  1. Fujibuchi T, Yamaguchi I, Watanabe H, Kimura K, Tanaka S, Kida T, et al. Nationwide survey on the operational status of medical compact cyclotrons in Japan. Radiol Phys Technol. 2009;2:126-32 pubmed publisher
    ..radioactivity of the cyclotron itself and structures is an important issue in decommissioning of medical compact cyclotrons. To obtain basic data on the actual operational conditions of cyclotrons, we performed nationwide survey...
  2. Fujibuchi T, Yamaguchi I, Kasahara T, Iimori T, Masuda Y, Kimura K, et al. Measurement of thermal neutron fluence distribution with use of 23Na radioactivation around a medical compact cyclotron. Radiol Phys Technol. 2009;2:159-65 pubmed publisher
  3. Lucio M, Fekete A, Weigert C, Wägele B, Zhao X, Chen J, et al. Insulin sensitivity is reflected by characteristic metabolic fingerprints--a Fourier transform mass spectrometric non-targeted metabolomics approach. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13317 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings offer future prospects for novel insights in the pathogenesis of the pre-diabetic phase. ..
  4. Southam A, Payne T, Cooper H, Arvanitis T, Viant M. Dynamic range and mass accuracy of wide-scan direct infusion nanoelectrospray fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry-based metabolomics increased by the spectral stitching method. Anal Chem. 2007;79:4595-602 pubmed
    ..18 ppm and detected over 3000 peaks in liver extract. This novel approach increases metabolome coverage, has very high mass accuracy, and at 5.5 min/sample is conducive for high-throughput metabolomics. ..
  5. Ohta D, Kanaya S, Suzuki H. Application of Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to metabolic profiling and metabolite identification. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2010;21:35-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we discuss both the advantages and difficulties encountered in the FT-ICR/MS metabolomics studies. ..
  6. Matters D, Cooper H, McDonnell L, Iniesta J, Heptinstall J, Derrick P, et al. Mass spectrometry in demonstrating the site-specific nitration of hen egg white lysozyme by an improved electrochemical method. Anal Biochem. 2006;356:171-81 pubmed
    ..Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and electrospray ionization time-of-flight analysis of the tryptic peptides of mononitrated lysozyme identified the site of nitration as Tyr23. ..
  7. Ma C, Maughan R. Within the next decade conventional cyclotrons for proton radiotherapy will become obsolete and replaced by far less expensive machines using compact laser systems for the acceleration of the protons. Med Phys. 2006;33:571-3 pubmed
  8. Cooper H, Hakansson K, Marshall A. The role of electron capture dissociation in biomolecular analysis. Mass Spectrom Rev. 2005;24:201-22 pubmed
    ..The application of ECD to the analysis of polymers, peptide nucleic acids, and oligonucleotides is also discussed. ..
  9. Hertel N, Shannon M, Wang Z, Valenzano M, Mengesha W, Crowe R. Neutron measurements in the vicinity of a self-shielded PET cyclotron. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;108:255-61 pubmed
    ..The neutron measurements reported were made during the production of 18F via the 18O(p,n)18F reaction (Q = -2.4 MeV). Neutron spectra were obtained with the BUMS unfolding code and converted to dose equivalent rates. ..

More Information


  1. McQuade P, Rowland D, Lewis J, Welch M. Positron-emitting isotopes produced on biomedical cyclotrons. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12:807-18 pubmed
  2. Carlsohn E, Nyström J, Karlsson H, Svennerholm A, Nilsson C. Characterization of the outer membrane protein profile from disease-related Helicobacter pylori isolates by subcellular fractionation and nano-LC FT-ICR MS analysis. J Proteome Res. 2006;5:3197-204 pubmed
    ..pylori strains. In addition, presence of Omp30 and absence of Omp6 seemed to be associated with H. pylori strains causing duodenal ulcer. ..
  3. Kasbollah A, Eu P, Cowell S, Deb P. Review on production of 89Zr in a medical cyclotron for PET radiopharmaceuticals. J Nucl Med Technol. 2013;41:35-41 pubmed publisher
  4. Gagnon K, Jensen M, Thisgaard H, Publicover J, Lapi S, McQuarrie S, et al. A new and simple calibration-independent method for measuring the beam energy of a cyclotron. Appl Radiat Isot. 2011;69:247-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The monitor foil activities were read using a dose calibrator set to an arbitrary calibration setting. Excellent agreement was noted between the nominal and measured proton energies. ..
  5. Waldeland E, Hole E, Stenerlow B, Grusell E, Sagstuen E, Malinen E. Radical formation in lithium formate EPR dosimeters after irradiation with protons and nitrogen ions. Radiat Res. 2010;174:251-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings indicate that the local radical density in lithium formate is increased after high-LET irradiation. ..
  6. Kurisu Y, Kiriyama R, Takenaka T, Nozaki D, Sato F, Kato Y, et al. Dependence of ion beam current on position of mobile plate tuner in multi-frequencies microwaves electron cyclotron resonance ion source. Rev Sci Instrum. 2012;83:02A310 pubmed publisher
    ..We obtained the result that the variation of the plasma density contributes largely to the variation of the I(FC) when we change the position of the mobile plate tuner. ..
  7. Gagnon K, Benard F, Kovacs M, Ruth T, Schaffer P, Wilson J, et al. Cyclotron production of (99m)Tc: experimental measurement of the (100)Mo(p,x)(99)Mo, (99m)Tc and (99g)Tc excitation functions from 8 to 18 MeV. Nucl Med Biol. 2011;38:907-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the cyclotron production of (99m)Tc may be a feasible alternative to the current reactor-based production strategy. ..
  8. Fleming D, Mills C. A 4 x 500 mm2 cloverleaf detector system for in vivo bone lead measurement. Med Phys. 2007;34:945-51 pubmed
    ..4 GBq, measurement of the phantom resulted in an average bone lead uncertainty of 0.79 microg/g and a reproducibility of 0.84 microg/g. These results represent the highest precision yet reported from a bone lead x-ray fluorescence system...
  9. An D, Jung I, Kang J, Chang H, Hong B, Hong S, et al. The negative hydrogen Penning ion gauge ion source for KIRAMS-13 cyclotron. Rev Sci Instrum. 2008;79:02A520 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper presents the results of the dc H-extraction measurement and the expansion gap experiment. ..
  10. Marjasvaara A, Torvinen M, Kinnunen H, Vainiotalo P. Laccase-catalyzed polymerization of two phenolic compounds studied by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociati. Biomacromolecules. 2006;7:1604-9 pubmed
    ..The CID experiments were extremely useful for structural studies of oligomers and verified that the variability of the products was due to the end groups; the phenolic hydroxyl group was modified during the oxidation. ..
  11. Thisgaard H, Jensen M, Elema D. Medium to large scale radioisotope production for targeted radiotherapy using a small PET cyclotron. Appl Radiat Isot. 2011;69:1-7 pubmed publisher
  12. Taban I, van der Burgt Y, Duursma M, Takats Z, Seynen M, Konijnenburg M, et al. A novel workflow control system for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry allows for unique on-the-fly data-dependent decisions. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2008;22:1245-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of this workflow-based system for imaging FTICR-MS using a desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) source demonstrates the possibility of external control of the workflow by feedback from an imaging sample stage. ..
  13. Uchida T, Racz R, Muramatsu M, Kato Y, Kitagawa A, Biri S, et al. Two-chamber configuration of Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source for fullerene modification. Rev Sci Instrum. 2016;87:02A720 pubmed publisher
    ..Both analytical methods show the presence of modified fullerenes such as fullerene-chlorine, fullerene-iron, and fullerene-chlorine-iron. ..
  14. Belotti M. Endogenous cyclotron ion resonance therapy for keratoconus: preliminary results. Electromagn Biol Med. 2007;26:289-91 pubmed
    ..Despite the limited number of patients in this preliminary study, the positive results suggest a larger follow up study of the effects of ICR treatment for keratoconus. ..
  15. Sadeghi M, Zali A, Aboudzadeh M, Sarabadani P, Aslani G, Majdabadi A. Targetry of SrCO(3) on a copper substrate by sedimentation method for the cyclotron production no-carrier-added (86)Y. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:2029-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Target quality control was done by SEM photomicrograph and thermal shock test. The deposited target was irradiated at 30 microA current and 15 MeV proton beam for 12 min. ..
  16. Bouchoux G, Guillemin J, Lemahieu N, McMahon T. Protonation thermochemistry of aminoacetonitrile. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2006;20:1187-91 pubmed
    ..6 J x mol(-1) x K(-1). Combining this value with experimental GB(1) leads to an 'experimental' proton affinity of 819.2 kJ x mol(-1), in close agreement with the G2 expectation. ..
  17. Altieri K, Turpin B, Seitzinger S. Composition of dissolved organic nitrogen in continental precipitation investigated by ultra-high resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:6950-5 pubmed
    ..Known contributors to secondary organic aerosol with anthropogenic sources were also identified including organonitrate compounds and nitrooxy organosulfates. ..
  18. Dinesh Mayani D. Proton therapy for cancer treatment. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2011;17:186-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Because healthy tissue is largely spared, oncologists can, in theory, deliver much higher doses of radiation, while improving local control and reducing the risk for recurrence and morbidities. ..
  19. Hasegawa M, Tanaka K, Takenaka S. Metabolic fingerprinting of amniotic fluid from the streptozotocin-induced diabetic pregnant rat using Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2008;48:137-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The alteration of biochemical composition in the diabetic amniotic fluid suggests the presence of potential biomarkers to indicate progression of malformation under the diabetic pregnancy. ..
  20. Bowden L, Vintró L, Mitchell P, O Donnell R, Seymour A, Duffy G. Radionuclide impurities in proton-irradiated [18O]H2O for the production of 18F-: activities and distribution in the [18F]FDG synthesis process. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses of the synthesised [(18)F]FDG confirm the radiochemical purity of the product, both for (3)H and for gamma-emitting radionuclides in the energy range 25-1650 keV. ..
  21. Foletti A, Lisi A, Ledda M, de Carlo F, Grimaldi S. Cellular ELF signals as a possible tool in informative medicine. Electromagn Biol Med. 2009;28:71-9 pubmed publisher
  22. Fuchtner F, Preusche S, Mäding P, Zessin J, Steinbach J. Factors affecting the specific activity of [18F]fluoride from a [18O]water target. Nuklearmedizin. 2008;47:116-9 pubmed
    ..By replacing PTFE tubes of the target dispensing system with PP tubes, the content of 19F was reduced considerably resulting in an increase of SA of the radiotracer [18F]ZK811460 by factor of two. ..
  23. Baidoo E, Benke P, Neusüss C, Pelzing M, Kruppa G, Leary J, et al. Capillary electrophoresis-fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for the identification of cationic metabolites via a pH-mediated stacking-transient isotachophoretic method. Anal Chem. 2008;80:3112-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection limits for selected amino acids were between 0.1 and 2 microM. Furthermore, FT-ICR MS detection consistently demonstrated good mass resolution and sub-ppm mass accuracy. ..
  24. Li X, Fekete A, Englmann M, Frommberger M, Lv S, Chen G, et al. At-line coupling of UPLC to chip-electrospray-FTICR-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007;389:1439-46 pubmed
    ..More reliable assignments were achieved by use of at-line coupling of UPLC and FTICR-MS compared with off-line measurements. ..
  25. Hashii N, Kawasaki N, Nakajima Y, Toyoda M, Katagiri Y, Itoh S, et al. Study on the quality control of cell therapy products. Determination of N-glycolylneuraminic acid incorporated into human cells by nano-flow liquid chromatography/Fourier transformation ion cyclotron mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1160:263-9 pubmed
    ..Our method needs only 2.5x10(3) cells for one injection and would be applicable to the determination of NeuGc in cell therapy products. ..
  26. German M, Pollock H, Zhao B, Tobin M, Hammiche A, Bentley A, et al. Characterization of putative stem cell populations in the cornea using synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:2417-21 pubmed
    ..This finding is consistent with recent theories suggesting that the control of differentiation is related to major changes in chromatin structure. ..
  27. Schmidt A, Kalkhof S, Ihling C, Cooper D, Sinz A. Mapping protein interfaces by chemical cross-linking and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: application to a calmodulin / adenylyl cyclase 8 peptide complex. Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester). 2005;11:525-34 pubmed
    ..The identified intermolecular cross-linking products will give further insight into calmodulin/adenylyl cyclase 8 interaction. ..
  28. Martínez Serrano J, Díez de los Ríos A. Prediction of neutron induced radioactivity in the concrete walls of a PET cyclotron vault room with MCNPX. Med Phys. 2010;37:6015-21 pubmed
  29. Eberl S, Eriksson T, Svedberg O, Norling J, Henderson D, Lam P, et al. High beam current operation of a PETtrace™ cyclotron for 18F- production. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:922-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Production of >1 TBq of (18)F(-) in a single run was achieved. Reliability, saturation and synthesis yields were not adversely affected. ..
  30. Jónasdóttir H, Nicolardi S, Jonker W, Derks R, Palmblad M, Ioan Facsinay A, et al. Detection and structural elucidation of esterified oxylipids in human synovial fluid by electrospray ionization-fourier transform ion-cyclotron mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-ion trap-MS(3): detection of esterified hydroxylated docosapen. Anal Chem. 2013;85:6003-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The approach led to the structural elucidation of hydroxylated docosapentaenoic acid-containing diacyl-phosphatidylcholine type phospholipids in human synovial fluid. ..
  31. Hsu Y, Lai B, Sheu R. Neutron yield and induced radioactivity: a study of 235-MeV proton and 3-GeV electron accelerators. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2016;168:124-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting residual activities and remnant dose rates as a function of time were examined and discussed. ..
  32. Weisbrod C, Kaiser N, Skulason G, Bruce J. Trapping ring electrode cell: a FTICR mass spectrometer cell for improved signal-to-noise and resolving power. Anal Chem. 2008;80:6545-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed frequency drift during signal acquisition over long time periods was also significantly reduced, resulting in improved resolving power. ..
  33. Wong R, Amster I. Sub part-per-million mass accuracy by using stepwise-external calibration in fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2006;17:1681-91 pubmed
    ..9 ppm. The errors appear to have a Gaussian distribution; 99.3% of the mass errors are shown to lie within three times the sample standard deviation (2.6 ppm) of their true value. ..
  34. Fani M, André J, Maecke H. 68Ga-PET: a powerful generator-based alternative to cyclotron-based PET radiopharmaceuticals. Contrast Media Mol Imaging. 2008;3:67-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Kit-formulated precursors along with the generator may be provided, similar to the (99)Mo/(99m)Tc-based radiopharmacy, still the mainstay of nuclear medicine...
  35. Iniesta J, Cooper H, Marshall A, Heptinstall J, Walton D, Peterson I. Specific electrochemical iodination of horse heart myoglobin at tyrosine 103 as determined by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;474:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..More extensive sequence coverage was obtained with electron capture dissociation (ECD), allowing unambiguous assignment of the site of iodination to Tyr103. ..
  36. Kato D, Sekioka N, Ueda A, Kurita R, Hirono S, Suzuki K, et al. A nanocarbon film electrode as a platform for exploring DNA methylation. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:3716-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This film allowed us to perform both C- and mC-positive assays solely by using the electrochemical oxidation of oligonucleotides without bisulfite or labeling processes. ..
  37. Somuramasami J, KENTTAMAA H. Evaluation of a novel approach for peptide sequencing: laser-induced acoustic desorption combined with P(OCH(3))(2)(+) chemical ionization and collision-activated dissociation in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2007;18:525-40 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms of the reactions of peptides with P(OCH(3))(2)(+) and the dissociation of the (peptide + P - 2H)(+) ions were examined by using model peptides and molecular orbital calculations. ..
  38. Gjedde A. [PET in Aarhus: the origins of a laboratory]. Dan Medicinhist Arbog. 2006;34:156-78 pubmed
    ..U.S. researchers played unique roles in the three former areas, while Danish researchers made important contributions to the latter two areas. ..
  39. Hyyryläinen A, Pakarinen J, Vainiotalo P, Stájer G, Fulop F. Diastereochemical differentiation of beta-amino acids using host-guest complexes studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2007;18:1038-45 pubmed
    ..Hydrogen bonding was crucial for the calculated lowest energy structures, and sterical considerations satisfactorily explained the ion-molecule reaction results. ..
  40. Morone M, Calabretta L, Cuttone G, Fiorini F. Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the contamination in an energy modulated carbon ion beam for hadron therapy delivered by cyclotron. Phys Med Biol. 2008;53:6045-53 pubmed publisher
    Protons and carbon ion beams for hadron therapy can be delivered by cyclotrons with a fixed energy. In order to treat patients, an energy degrader along the beam line will be used to match the particle range with the target depth...
  41. Marjasvaara A, Kruus K, Vainiotalo P. A laccase study by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance MS: copper depletion, glycoforms and stability. J Mass Spectrom. 2006;41:91-7 pubmed
    ..Different stabilities of the glycoforms were observed in the denaturation triggered in acid and organic solvents. ..
  42. Bilkova Z, Stefanescu R, Cecal R, Korecká L, Ouzká S, Jezová J, et al. Epitope extraction technique using a proteolytic magnetic reactor combined with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry as a tool for the screening of potential vaccine lead peptides. Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester). 2005;11:489-95 pubmed
    ..In this way, the epitope extraction technique combined with mass spectrometric analysis is shown to be an excellent base for molecular screening of potential vaccine lead proteins. ..
  43. Ciafaloni A. Cyclotronic ion resonance therapy and arthralgia. Electromagn Biol Med. 2007;26:299-303 pubmed
    ..Similar improvements in pain reduction were observed in this smaller group. ..
  44. Liboff A. A role for the geomagnetic field in cell regulation. Electromagn Biol Med. 2010;29:105-12 pubmed publisher
  45. Kamata T, Kato D, Hirono S, Niwa O. Structure and electrochemical performance of nitrogen-doped carbon film formed by electron cyclotron resonance sputtering. Anal Chem. 2013;85:9845-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The oxidation potentials of guanosine and adenosine decreased about 0.1 V, suggesting that the N-ECR electrode is suitable for use as a biosensing platform. ..
  46. Han F, Li Y, Mao X, Zhang X, Guan J, Song A, et al. Metabolic profile of salidroside in rats using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2016;408:1975-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, results obtained in this study may contribute to the better understanding of the safety and mechanism of action of salidroside. ..
  47. Boschi A, Martini P, Pasquali M, Uccelli L. Recent achievements in Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical direct production by medical cyclotrons. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2017;43:1402-1412 pubmed publisher
    ..This review reports some achievements about 99mTc produced by medical cyclotrons. In particular, the available technologies for target design, the most efficient extraction and separation ..
  48. Nyakas A, Han J, Peru K, Headley J, Borchers C. Comprehensive analysis of oil sands processed water by direct-infusion Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry with and without offline UHPLC sample prefractionation. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:4471-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Liquid-liquid extraction followed by offline UHPLC fractionation thus holds enormous potential for a more comprehensive profiling of OSPW, which may provide a deeper understanding of its chemical nature and environmental impact. ..
  49. McCarthy M, Yuan J, Campbell A, Lenzo N, Butler Henderson K. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging in brain tumours: the Western Australia positron emission tomography/cyclotron service experience. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2008;52:564-9 pubmed publisher
    ..With a positive predictive value of 87%, a positive FDG study indicates a high likelihood that there is brain tumour present. A negative study does not exclude the presence of tumour. ..
  50. Bakalarski C, Elias J, Villen J, Haas W, Gerber S, Everley P, et al. The impact of peptide abundance and dynamic range on stable-isotope-based quantitative proteomic analyses. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:4756-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that S/N can be a useful surrogate for relative abundance ratios when only a single species is detected. ..
  51. Ouvry Patat S, Torres M, Quek H, Gelfand C, O Mullan P, Nissum M, et al. Free-flow electrophoresis for top-down proteomics by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Proteomics. 2008;8:2798-808 pubmed publisher
    ..As an application of this technique, chicken erythrocyte histone H2A-IV and its major modified forms were enriched by IEF-FFE. Top-down analysis revealed Lys-5 to be a major acetylation site, in addition to N-terminal acetylation. ..
  52. Baskaran R, Selvakumaran T, Rodrigues G, Kanjilal D, Roy A. Measurements and analysis of bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrum obtained in NANOGAN electron cyclotron resonance ion source. Rev Sci Instrum. 2008;79:02A324 pubmed publisher
    ..The wall bremsstrahlung components are studied in these cases for understanding the hot electron confinement conditions. ..
  53. Römpp A, Dekker L, Taban I, Jenster G, Boogerd W, Bonfrer H, et al. Identification of leptomeningeal metastasis-related proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with breast cancer by a combination of MALDI-TOF, MALDI-FTICR and nanoLC-FTICR MS. Proteomics. 2007;7:474-81 pubmed
    ..Several of these proteins have been mentioned in the literature in relation to cancer. The identified proteins alpha1-antichymotrypsin and apolipoprotein E have been described in relation to Alzheimer's disease and brain cancer. ..