particle accelerators


Summary: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.

Top Publications

  1. Prendergast B, Fiveash J, Popple R, Clark G, Thomas E, Minnich D, et al. Flattening filter-free linac improves treatment delivery efficiency in stereotactic body radiation therapy. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2013;14:4126 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, treatment with a FFF linac is associated with less physician-ordered image guidance, which contributes to further improvement in treatment delivery efficiency. ..
  2. Merchant M, Jeynes J, Grime G, Palitsin V, Tullis I, Barber P, et al. A focused scanning vertical beam for charged particle irradiation of living cells with single counted particles. Radiat Res. 2012;178:182-90 pubmed
    ..We discuss future commissioning steps necessary to achieve submicron targeting accuracy with this beamline. ..
  3. Dzierma Y, Licht N, Nuesken F, Ruebe C. Beam properties and stability of a flattening-filter free 7 MV beam-an overview. Med Phys. 2012;39:2595-602 pubmed publisher
    ..5 MeV and higher fluence beyond, with a slightly higher mean energy. The 7XU beam has been commissioned for clinical use after successful modeling, stability checks, and dosimetric verification. ..
  4. Kragl G, Albrich D, Georg D. Radiation therapy with unflattened photon beams: dosimetric accuracy of advanced dose calculation algorithms. Radiother Oncol. 2011;100:417-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The slightly improved dose calculation accuracy observed for off-axis profiles for single FFF beams did not directly translate into better verification results for composite IMRT plans. ..
  5. Sørensen B, Vestergaard A, Overgaard J, Præstegaard L. Dependence of cell survival on instantaneous dose rate of a linear accelerator. Radiother Oncol. 2011;101:223-5 pubmed publisher
    ..V79 and FaDu(DD) cells were irradiated with doses in a range from 1 to 10 Gy in order to obtain dose response curves. For both cell lines, there is not observed any effect of the instantaneous dose rate on cell survival. ..
  6. Wong J, Grimm L, Uematsu M, Oren R, Cheng C, Merrick S, et al. Image-guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer by CT-linear accelerator combination: prostate movements and dosimetric considerations. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;61:561-9 pubmed
    ..This technique has significant implications for dose escalation and for decreasing rectal complications in the treatment of prostate cancer. ..
  7. Heiss M, Fischer B, Jakob B, Fournier C, Becker G, Taucher Scholz G. Targeted irradiation of Mammalian cells using a heavy-ion microprobe. Radiat Res. 2006;165:231-9 pubmed
  8. Durante M, Loeffler J. Charged particles in radiation oncology. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2010;7:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review considers the present clinical results in the field, and identifies and discusses the research questions that have resulted with this technique. ..
  9. Tacke M, Nill S, Häring P, Oelfke U. 6 MV dosimetric characterization of the 160 MLC, the new Siemens multileaf collimator. Med Phys. 2008;35:1634-42 pubmed
    ..The experimental results presented in this article indicate that the dosimetric characteristics of the 160 MLC are capable of improving the quality of dose delivery with respect to precision and dose conformity. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Coldwell K, Cutts S, Ognibene T, Henderson P, Phillips D. Detection of Adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:e100 pubmed publisher
    ..This method has been shown to be highly reproducible for the measurement of Adriamycin-DNA adducts in tumour cells in culture and can now be applied to the detection of these adducts in human tissues. ..
  2. Kry S, Titt U, Pönisch F, Vassiliev O, Salehpour M, Gillin M, et al. Reduced neutron production through use of a flattening-filter-free accelerator. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;68:1260-4 pubmed
    ..This reduces the risk of negative effects from such exposure (e.g., second cancers). ..
  3. Ling C, Zhang P, Archambault Y, Bocanek J, Tang G, LoSasso T. Commissioning and quality assurance of RapidArc radiotherapy delivery system. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;72:575-81 pubmed publisher
    ..4%. The results of these tests provide strong evidence that DMLC movement, variable dose-rates and gantry speeds can be precisely controlled during RapidArc. ..
  4. Herzen J, Todorovic M, Cremers F, Platz V, Albers D, Bartels A, et al. Dosimetric evaluation of a 2D pixel ionization chamber for implementation in clinical routine. Phys Med Biol. 2007;52:1197-208 pubmed
    ..From these investigations it can be concluded that the detector is a suitable device for quality assurance and 2D dose verifications. ..
  5. Kapanen M, Tenhunen M, Hämäläinen T, Sipilä P, Parkkinen R, Järvinen H. Analysis of quality control data of eight modern radiotherapy linear accelerators: the short- and long-term behaviours of the outputs and the reproducibility of quality control measurements. Phys Med Biol. 2006;51:3581-92 pubmed
    ..5%. The proposed empirical model fitting of QC data facilitates the recognition of erroneous QC measurements and abnormal output behaviour, caused by malfunctions, offering a tool to improve dose control. ..
  6. Wiezorek T, Georg D, Schwedas M, Salz H, Wendt T. Experimental determination of peripheral photon dose components for different IMRT techniques and linear accelerators. Z Med Phys. 2009;19:120-8 pubmed
    ..The treatment head design of a linac has a large impact on PD in IMRT as well as for open beams. PD can be minimized by proper selection of treatment delivery method and photon beam energy. ..
  7. Hall E. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy, protons, and the risk of second cancers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;65:1-7 pubmed
    ..The benefit of protons is only achieved if a scanning beam is used in which the doses are 10 times lower than with IMRT. ..
  8. Klein E, Hanley J, Bayouth J, Yin F, Simon W, Dresser S, et al. Task Group 142 report: quality assurance of medical accelerators. Med Phys. 2009;36:4197-212 pubmed
  9. Antoch G, Kaiser G, Mueller A, Metz K, Zhang H, Kuehl H, et al. Intraoperative radiation therapy in liver tissue in a pig model: monitoring with dual-modality PET/CT. Radiology. 2004;230:753-60 pubmed
    ..By enabling the integration of functional and morphologic data, PET/CT may have an important role in monitoring radiation treatment. ..
  10. Hauptner A, Dietzel S, Drexler G, Reichart P, Krücken R, Cremer T, et al. Microirradiation of cells with energetic heavy ions. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2004;42:237-45 pubmed
    ..In spite of single ion irradiation, we frequently observed split fluorescence foci which might be explained by small-scale chromatin movements. ..
  11. Perks J, St George E, El Hamri K, Blackburn P, Plowman P. Stereotactic radiosurgery XVI: Isodosimetric comparison of photon stereotactic radiosurgery techniques (gamma knife vs. micromultileaf collimator linear accelerator) for acoustic neuroma--and potential clinical importance. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;57:1450-9 pubmed
    ..In these circumstances, the minor differences in isodosimetry between the two techniques will become important. ..
  12. Lappin G, Garner R. Big physics, small doses: the use of AMS and PET in human microdosing of development drugs. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2003;2:233-40 pubmed
    ..Microdosing allows safer human studies as well as reducing the use of animals in preclinical toxicology. ..
  13. Veronesi U, Orecchia R, Luini A, Gatti G, Intra M, Zurrida S, et al. A preliminary report of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in limited-stage breast cancers that are conservatively treated. Eur J Cancer. 2001;37:2178-83 pubmed
    ..However, a longer follow-up is needed for a better evaluation of the possible late side-effects. ..
  14. Stathakis S, Esquivel C, Gutierrez A, Buckey C, Papanikolaou N. Treatment planning and delivery of IMRT using 6 and 18MV photon beams without flattening filter. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:1629-37 pubmed publisher
    ..There was however a significant decrease in the number of monitor units required for unflattened beam treatment plans due to the increase in linac output-approximately two times and four times higher for the 6 and 18 MV, respectively. ..
  15. Litzenberg D, Moran J, Fraass B. Incorporation of realistic delivery limitations into dynamic MLC treatment delivery. Med Phys. 2002;29:810-20 pubmed
  16. Bigelow A, Garty G, Funayama T, Randers Pehrson G, Brenner D, Geard C. Expanding the question-answering potential of single-cell microbeams at RARAF, USA. J Radiat Res. 2009;50 Suppl A:A21-8 pubmed
    ..Additionally, an update on the status of the other biology oriented microbeams in the Americas is provided. ..
  17. Van Esch A, Clermont C, Devillers M, Iori M, Huyskens D. On-line quality assurance of rotational radiotherapy treatment delivery by means of a 2D ion chamber array and the Octavius phantom. Med Phys. 2007;34:3825-37 pubmed
    ..Quality control of TomoTherapy patients was reduced to a total of approximately 25 min per patient. ..
  18. Myint W, Niedbala M, Wilkins D, Gerig L. Investigating treatment dose error due to beam attenuation by a carbon fiber tabletop. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2006;7:21-7 pubmed
    ..5% following the periodic nature of the support structure. Based on these findings, we propose the routine incorporation of the treatment tabletop into patient treatment planning dose calculations. ..
  19. Poppe B, Djouguela A, Blechschmidt A, Willborn K, Rühmann A, Harder D. Spatial resolution of 2D ionization chamber arrays for IMRT dose verification: single-detector size and sampling step width. Phys Med Biol. 2007;52:2921-35 pubmed
    ..The insights obtained are also applied in the discussion of other available two-dimensional detector arrays. ..
  20. Sheng K, Molloy J, Read P. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry of the head and neck: a comparison of treatment plans using linear accelerator-based IMRT and helical tomotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;65:917-23 pubmed
  21. Kry S, Salehpour M, Followill D, Stovall M, Kuban D, White R, et al. Out-of-field photon and neutron dose equivalents from step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;62:1204-16 pubmed
    ..This information is useful in determining the dose to critical structures and in evaluating the risk of associated carcinogenesis. ..
  22. Brown K, Dingley K, Turteltaub K. Accelerator mass spectrometry for biomedical research. Methods Enzymol. 2005;402:423-43 pubmed
  23. Vogel J, Love A. Quantitating isotopic molecular labels with accelerator mass spectrometry. Methods Enzymol. 2005;402:402-22 pubmed
    ..AMS is available from several facilities that offer services and new spectrometers that are affordable. Detailed examples of designing AMS studies are provided, and the methods of analyzing AMS data are outlined. ..
  24. Cashmore J. The characterization of unflattened photon beams from a 6 MV linear accelerator. Phys Med Biol. 2008;53:1933-46 pubmed publisher
  25. Chiu C, Fomytskyi M, Grigsby F, Raischel F, Downer M, Tajima T. Laser electron accelerators for radiation medicine: a feasibility study. Med Phys. 2004;31:2042-52 pubmed
    ..This enables a repetition rate of approximately 100 Hz or more using existing laser technology, and thus dose rates (several Gy/min) in the range required for medical radiation applications. ..
  26. Murphy M, Chang S, Gibbs I, Le Q, Hai J, Kim D, et al. Patterns of patient movement during frameless image-guided radiosurgery. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;55:1400-8 pubmed
    ..8 mm, which satisfies the prevailing standard for radiosurgical dose alignment precision, but maintaining this margin of error throughout a treatment fraction requires regular monitoring of the target site's position. ..
  27. Groh B, Siewerdsen J, Drake D, Wong J, Jaffray D. A performance comparison of flat-panel imager-based MV and kV cone-beam CT. Med Phys. 2002;29:967-75 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, kV CBCT with an FPI offers the potential of combined volumetric and radiographic/fluoroscopic imaging using the same device. ..
  28. Cashmore J, Ramtohul M, Ford D. Lowering whole-body radiation doses in pediatric intensity-modulated radiotherapy through the use of unflattened photon beams. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;80:1220-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Removal of the flattening filter is recommended for IMRT treatments. ..
  29. Schell S, Wilkens J. Advanced treatment planning methods for efficient radiation therapy with laser accelerated proton and ion beams. Med Phys. 2010;37:5330-40 pubmed
    ..The authors show how some of the differences to conventional beams can be overcome and efficiently used for radiation treatment. ..
  30. Kragl G, Baier F, Lutz S, Albrich D, Dalaryd M, Kroupa B, et al. Flattening filter free beams in SBRT and IMRT: dosimetric assessment of peripheral doses. Z Med Phys. 2011;21:91-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients may benefit by decreased exposure of normal tissue to scattered dose outside the field. ..
  31. Jacob V, Bayer W, Astner S, Busch R, Kneschaurek P. A planning comparison of dynamic IMRT for different collimator leaf thicknesses with helical tomotherapy and RapidArc for prostate and head and neck tumors. Strahlenther Onkol. 2010;186:502-10 pubmed publisher
    ..For prostate and head and neck cases, all investigated IMRT techniques provide highly conformal treatment plans in terms of both target coverage and critical structure sparing. ..
  32. Vogel J. Accelerator mass spectrometry for quantitative in vivo tracing. Biotechniques. 2005;Suppl:25-9 pubmed
    ..Absorption, metabolism, distribution, binding, and elimination are all quantifiable with high precision after appropriate sample definition. ..
  33. Goldberg Z, Rocke D, Schwietert C, Berglund S, Santana A, Jones A, et al. Human in vivo dose-response to controlled, low-dose low linear energy transfer ionizing radiation exposure. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:3723-9 pubmed
    ..The ability to detect a distinct radiation response pattern following LDIR exposure has important implications for risk assessment in both therapeutic and national defense contexts. ..
  34. Das I, Cheng C, Watts R, Ahnesjö A, Gibbons J, Li X, et al. Accelerator beam data commissioning equipment and procedures: report of the TG-106 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the AAPM. Med Phys. 2008;35:4186-215 pubmed
    ..By combining practical experience with theoretical discussion, this document sets a new standard for beam data commissioning. ..
  35. Narayanasamy G, Saénz D, Cruz W, Ha C, Papanikolaou N, Stathakis S. Commissioning an Elekta Versa HD linear accelerator. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2016;17:179-191 pubmed publisher
    ..Commissioning data provided us a valuable insight into the dosimetric characteristics of the beam. This set of commissioning data can provide comparison data to others performing Versa HD commissioning, thereby improving patient safety. ..
  36. Barish R. Shielding design for multiple-energy linear accelerators. Health Phys. 2014;106:614-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This method is particularly useful when considering the requirements for possible modifications to an existing vault when new equipment is to be installed as a replacement for a previous unit. ..
  37. Wu Z, Fisher A, Goodfellow J, Fuchs M, Daranciang D, Hogan M, et al. Intense terahertz pulses from SLAC electron beams using coherent transition radiation. Rev Sci Instrum. 2013;84:022701 pubmed publisher
    ..2 and 0.6 mJ. The peak electric field at a THz focus has reached 4.4 GV/m (0.44 V/Å) at LCLS. This paper presents measurements of the terahertz pulses and preliminary observations of nonlinear materials response. ..
  38. Doche A, Beekman C, Corde S, Allen J, Clarke C, Frederico J, et al. Acceleration of a trailing positron bunch in a plasma wakefield accelerator. Sci Rep. 2017;7:14180 pubmed publisher
    ..The results thus mark the first acceleration of a distinct positron bunch in plasma-based particle accelerators.
  39. Liu P, Suchowerska N, Lambert J, Abolfathi P, McKenzie D. Plastic scintillation dosimetry: comparison of three solutions for the Cerenkov challenge. Phys Med Biol. 2011;56:5805-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, the strengths and weaknesses of each dosimetry system are identified and recommendations for the optimum method for common clinical dosimetry situations are made. ..
  40. Mullins J, Herman M. Systematic offset of kV and MV localization systems as a function of gantry angle. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2010;12:3314 pubmed
    ..Since these trends are persistent over time for each machine, online correction for image offsets as a function of gantry angle could improve the margin of positioning uncertainty. ..
  41. Chang Z, Bowsher J, Cai J, Yoo S, Wang Z, Adamson J, et al. Imaging system QA of a medical accelerator, Novalis Tx, for IGRT per TG 142: our 1 year experience. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2012;13:3754 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we share our one-year experience and performance evaluation of an OBI capable linear accelerator, Novalis Tx, per TG 142 guidelines. ..
  42. Barazzuol L, Jena R, Burnet N, Jeynes J, Merchant M, Kirkby K, et al. In vitro evaluation of combined temozolomide and radiotherapy using X? rays and high-linear energy transfer radiation for glioblastoma. Radiat Res. 2012;177:651-62 pubmed
    ..It is also possible that new fractionation schedules could be designed to exploit the change in DNA repair kinetics when MGMT-methylated cells respond to high-LET radiation. ..
  43. Yu Z, Vanstalle M, La Tessa C, Jiang G, Durante M. Biophysical characterization of a relativistic proton beam for image-guided radiosurgery. J Radiat Res. 2012;53:620-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The very low lateral scattering of relativistic protons and the possibility of using online proton radiography during the treatment make them attractive for image-guided plateau (non-Bragg peak) stereotactic radiosurgery. ..
  44. Wu J, Ruan D, Cho B, Sawant A, Petersen J, Newell L, et al. Electromagnetic detection and real-time DMLC adaptation to target rotation during radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82:e545-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The beam-target rotational alignment difference was mostly within 1°. Dose distributions to fixed and actively rotating targets with DMLC tracking were significantly superior to those without tracking. ..
  45. Kasabasic M, Rajevac V, Jurkovic S, Ivkovic A, Sobat H, Faj D. [Influence of daily set-up errors on dose distribution during pelvis radiotherapy]. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2011;62:261-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, HI was not as sensitive to set-up errors as CIPTV. Our results have confirmed the need to minimise daily set-up errors through quality assurance programmes...
  46. Biju K, Sunil C, Sarkar P. Estimation of (41)Ar production in 0.1-1.1.0-GeV proton accelerator vaults using FLUKA Monte Carlo code. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;157:437-41 pubmed publisher
    ..025 and 1 eV. A modified factor is suggested for the use in the empirical expression to estimate the (41)Ar activity 0.1-1.0-GeV proton accelerator enclosures. ..
  47. Furukawa T, Inaniwa T, Hara Y, Mizushima K, Shirai T, Noda K. Patient-specific QA and delivery verification of scanned ion beam at NIRS-HIMAC. Med Phys. 2013;40:121707 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors established a patient-specific QA program and additional check of delivery constancy in every treatment session. Fluence comparison is a strong tool for constancy checking of the delivery system. ..
  48. Li N, Yang B, Li J, Zhu J, Zou B, Wang Y, et al. [Clinical features and prognostic factors in patients with leptomeningeal metastases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2013;35:867-70 pubmed
    ..Systemic chemotherapy or targeted therapy can prolong the survival time. Systemic treatment (chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy) combined with radiation therapy or intrathecal injection may further improve the clinical outcomes. ..
  49. Hernández Durán S, Hanft S, Komotar R, Manzano G. The role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of intramedullary spinal cord neoplasms: a systematic literature review. Neurosurg Rev. 2016;39:175-83; discussion 183 pubmed publisher
  50. Camilleri J, Mazurier J, Franck D, Dudouet P, Latorzeff I, Franceries X. 2D EPID dose calibration for pretreatment quality control of conformal and IMRT fields: A simple and fast convolution approach. Phys Med. 2016;32:133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the mean gamma values were always less than 0.5 whatever the treatment technique. These results confirm that our algorithm is an accurate and suitable tool for clinical use in a context of IMRT quality assurance programmes. ..
  51. Andreozzi J, Zhang R, Gladstone D, Williams B, Glaser A, Pogue B, et al. Cherenkov imaging method for rapid optimization of clinical treatment geometry in total skin electron beam therapy. Med Phys. 2016;43:993-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..This work suggests that there could be an expanded role for Cherenkov imaging as a tool to efficiently improve treatment protocols and as a potential verification tool for routine monitoring of unique patient treatments. ..
  52. Faltermeier J, Simon P, Reicheneder C, Proff P, Faltermeier A. The influence of electron beam irradiation on colour stability and hardness of aesthetic brackets. Eur J Orthod. 2012;34:427-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, clinical use of electron beam post-curing might be restricted because of unacceptable colour changes. ..
  53. Able C, Baydush A, Nguyen C, Gersh J, Ndlovu A, Rebo I, et al. A model for preemptive maintenance of medical linear accelerators-predictive maintenance. Radiat Oncol. 2016;11:36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our PdM model shows promise in providing a means for reducing unscheduled downtime. Long term monitoring will be required to establish the effectiveness of the model. ..