nuclear reactors


Summary: Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Gilbert E, Thierry Chef I, Cardis E, Fix J, Marshall M. External dose estimation for nuclear worker studies. Radiat Res. 2006;166:168-73 pubmed
    ..Based on these efforts, facility- and calendar year-specific adjustment factors have been developed, which will allow risks to be expressed as functions of organ doses with reasonable confidence. ..
  2. Telle Lamberton M, Samson E, Caer S, Bergot D, Bard D, Bermann F, et al. External radiation exposure and mortality in a cohort of French nuclear workers. Occup Environ Med. 2007;64:694-700 pubmed
    ..The risk of leukaemia increases with increasing exposure to external radiation; this is consistent with published results on other nuclear workers cohorts. ..
  3. Daniels R, Taulbee T, Chen P. Radiation exposure assessment for portsmouth naval shipyard health studies. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;111:139-50 pubmed
    ..The maximum cumulative dose is estimated at 649.39 mSv from 15 person-years of exposure. The collective dose was 277.42 person-Sv with 96.8% attributed to employment at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. ..
  4. White Koning M, Hemon D, Laurier D, Tirmarche M, Jougla E, Goubin A, et al. Incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear sites in France, 1990-1998. Br J Cancer. 2004;91:916-22 pubmed
    ..No evidence was found of a generally increased risk of childhood leukaemia around the 29 French nuclear sites under study during 1990-1998...
  5. Cardis E, Vrijheid M, Blettner M, Gilbert E, Hakama M, Hill C, et al. The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry: estimates of radiation-related cancer risks. Radiat Res. 2007;167:396-416 pubmed
    ..Further studies will be important to better assess the role of tobacco and other occupational exposures in our risk estimates. ..
  6. Labutina E, Kuznetsova I, Hunter N, Harrison J, Koshurnikova N. Radiation risk of malignant neoplasms in organs of main deposition for plutonium in the cohort of Mayak workers with regard to histological types. Health Phys. 2013;105:165-76 pubmed publisher
    ..7; 95% CI= 3.0; 58.5) was found among unmonitored female plutonium workers who were employed in the most hazardous plutonium production facility commissioned prior to 1950. ..
  7. Nussbaum R. Childhood leukemia and cancers near German nuclear reactors: significance, context, and ramifications of recent studies. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2009;15:318-23 pubmed
    ..Studies with results contradictory to those of KiKK lack statistical power to invalidate its findings. The KiKK study's ramifications add to the urgency for a public policy debate regarding the health impact of nuclear power generation. ..
  8. Sokolnikov M, Gilbert E, Preston D, Ron E, Shilnikova N, Khokhryakov V, et al. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality in Mayak workers. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:905-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These results will play an important role in plutonium risk assessment...
  9. Richardson D, Wing S. Leukemia mortality among workers at the Savannah River Site. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166:1015-22 pubmed
    ..The temporal patterns of association appear consistent with those in studies of populations exposed at higher dose rates. ..

More Information


  1. Schubauer Berigan M, Daniels R, Fleming D, Markey A, Couch J, Ahrenholz S, et al. Risk of chronic myeloid and acute leukemia mortality after exposure to ionizing radiation among workers at four U.S. nuclear weapons facilities and a nuclear naval shipyard. Radiat Res. 2007;167:222-32 pubmed
    ..This large study is among the first to jointly evaluate benzene and ionizing radiation risk. ..
  2. Boice J, Cohen S, Mumma M, Dupree Ellis E, Eckerman K, Leggett R, et al. Mortality among radiation workers at Rocketdyne (Atomics International), 1948-1999. Radiat Res. 2006;166:98-115 pubmed
    ..Radiation exposure has not caused a detectable increase in cancer deaths in this population, but results are limited by small numbers and relatively low career doses. ..
  3. Howe G, Zablotska L, Fix J, Egel J, Buchanan J. Analysis of the mortality experience amongst U.S. nuclear power industry workers after chronic low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiat Res. 2004;162:517-26 pubmed
  4. Thierry Chef I, Marshall M, Fix J, Bermann F, Gilbert E, Hacker C, et al. The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry: study of errors in dosimetry. Radiat Res. 2007;167:380-95 pubmed
    ..Doses from "lower-energy" photons (<100 keV) and from "higher-energy" photons (>3 MeV) were estimated to be small. ..
  5. Lopez Abente G, Aragones N, Pollan M, Ruiz M, Gandarillas A. Leukemia, lymphomas, and myeloma mortality in the vicinity of nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel facilities in Spain. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999;8:925-34 pubmed
    ..More specific studies are called for in areas near installations that have been fully operational for longer periods. In this connection, stress should be laid on the importance of using dosimetric information in all future studies...
  6. Kinlen L, Hudson C, Stiller C. Contacts between adults as evidence for an infective origin of childhood leukaemia: an explanation for the excess near nuclear establishments in west Berkshire?. Br J Cancer. 1991;64:549-54 pubmed
    ..The findings are consistent with other evidence supporting the above hypothesis; they also suggest that contacts between adults may influence the incidence of leukaemia in children. ..
  7. Iwasaki T, Murata M, Ohshima S, Miyake T, Kudo S, Inoue Y, et al. Second analysis of mortality of nuclear industry workers in Japan, 1986-1997. Radiat Res. 2003;159:228-38 pubmed
    ..This population must be studied for a longer time and with a consideration of the possible effects of confounding factors. ..
  8. Boutou O, Guizard A, Slama R, Pottier D, Spira A. Population mixing and leukaemia in young people around the La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant. Br J Cancer. 2002;87:740-5 pubmed
    ..5, 95%BCI=1.4-23.3). These findings provide further support for a possible infective basis of childhood leukaemia. ..
  9. Anderson J, Daniels R. Bone marrow dose estimates from work-related medical x-ray examinations given between 1943 and 1966 for personnel from five U.S. nuclear facilities. Health Phys. 2006;90:544-53 pubmed
    ..8 mGy, respectively. Results suggest that bone marrow dose from work-related photofluorographic and lumbar spine x-ray examinations given during the time period of this study may be significant compared to occupational bone marrow dose. ..
  10. von Hippel F. Rethinking nuclear fuel recycling. Sci Am. 2008;298:88-93 pubmed
    ..So reprocessing invites the possibility that terrorists might steal plutonium and construct an atom bormb. The authors argue against reprocessing and for storing the waste in casks until an underground repository is ready. ..
  11. Krahenbuhl M, Bess J, Wilde J, Vostrotin V, Suslova K, Khokhryakov V, et al. Uncertainties analysis of doses resulting from chronic inhalation of plutonium at the Mayak production association. Health Phys. 2005;89:33-45 pubmed
    ..First, these results provide a further definition and characterization of the cohort and, second, they provide uncertainty estimates for these plutonium exposure categories...
  12. Niculae C, French S, Carter E. Emergency management: does it have a sufficiently comprehensive understanding of decision-making, process and context?. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;109:97-100 pubmed
  13. Bilski P, Blomgren J, D ERRICO F, Esposito A, Fehrenbacher G, Fernandez F, et al. The problems associated with the monitoring of complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;126:491-6 pubmed
    ..The paper provides an overview of the report, which will be available as CERN Yellow Report. ..
  14. Lyons P. Sixth Warren K. Sinclair keynote address: The role of a strong regulator in safe and secure nuclear energy. Health Phys. 2011;100:5-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The vital area of safety culture is discussed in some detail, and its importance is emphasized. ..
  15. Dizès S, Maro D, Hebert D, Gonze M, Aulagnier C. TOCATTA: a dynamic transfer model of ¹?C from the atmosphere to soil-plant systems. J Environ Radioact. 2012;105:48-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The need to increase the temporal resolution of the model has been identified in order to simulate the impact of intermittent ¹?C releases occurring either the day or night, such as those recorded by the AREVA NC plant. ..
  16. Schonfeld S, Tsareva Y, Preston D, Okatenko P, Gilbert E, Ron E, et al. Cancer mortality following in utero exposure among offspring of female Mayak Worker Cohort members. Radiat Res. 2012;178:160-5 pubmed
    ..As the offspring cohort is relatively young, subsequent analyses based on larger case numbers are expected to provide more precise estimates of adult cancer mortality risk following in utero exposure to ionizing radiation. ..
  17. Metz Flamant C, Samson E, Caër Lorho S, Acker A, Laurier D. Leukemia risk associated with chronic external exposure to ionizing radiation in a French cohort of nuclear workers. Radiat Res. 2012;178:489-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with those found in other studies of nuclear workers. However, confidence intervals are still wide. Further analyses should be conducted in pooled cohorts of nuclear workers. ..
  18. Vaughan G. Review of the HSE's safety assessment principles for nuclear facilities. J Radiol Prot. 2007;27:501-2; author reply 502-3 pubmed
  19. Son J, Kim H, Kong T, Ko J, Lee G. Radiological effluents released and public doses from nuclear power plants in Korea. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;155:517-21 pubmed publisher
    As of the end of 2010, there were 20 commercially operating nuclear reactors in Korea...
  20. Thomas G, Smith S, Turcotte J. Using public relations strategies to prompt populations at risk to seek health information: the Hanford Community Health Project. Health Promot Pract. 2009;10:92-101 pubmed publisher
    ..The campaign was successful in increasing the number of unique visitors to HCHP Web site and educating and activating the medical community around the releases of I-131 and patient care choices. ..
  21. Yadegarfar G, McNamee R. Shift work, confounding and death from ischaemic heart disease. Occup Environ Med. 2008;65:158-63 pubmed
    ..No excess risk of death from IHD for shift workers was found. The potential for confounding by social class in this relatively homogeneous cohort underlines the need to consider such confounding in more heterogeneous populations. ..
  22. Daniels R, Lodwick C, Schubauer Berigan M, Spitz H. Assessment of plutonium exposures for an epidemiological study of US nuclear workers. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;118:43-55 pubmed
    ..1 person-Sv for 2,822 exposure-years, compared with 29.8 person-Sv estimated from photon exposures. Modelling uncertainties were examined by comparison of results from independent analyses and by Monte Carlo simulation...
  23. Lebaron Jacobs L, Gaillard Lecanu E, Briot F, Distinguin S, Boisson P, Exmelin L, et al. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation. Health Phys. 2007;92:S98-104 pubmed
    ..This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation. ..
  24. Yoo S, Jang H, Lee J, Noh S, Cho G. External dose-rate conversion factors of radionuclides for air submersion, ground surface contamination and water immersion based on the new ICRP dosimetric setting. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;156:7-24 pubmed publisher
    ..For radionuclides considered in this study, the new DCFs for the three exposure settings were within ±10 % when compared with DCFs in FGR 13. ..
  25. Zhumadilov K, Ivannikov A, Stepanenko V, Zharlyganova D, Toyoda S, Zhumadilov Z, et al. ESR dosimetry study of population in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site. J Radiat Res. 2013;54:775-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The highest dose was 123 ± 32 mGy. ..
  26. Hou X. Analysis of urine for pure beta emitters: methods and application. Health Phys. 2011;101:159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Tritium and (14)C are important radionuclides for workers in nuclear reactors and radiopharmaceutical laboratories...
  27. Uematsu M, Kurosawa M, Haruguchi Y. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in structural material of Toshiba Training Reactor 'TTR1'. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;116:276-9 pubmed
    ..The obtained results for radioactivities such as 60Co, 65Zn, 54Mn and 152Eu were compared with measured ones, and the present calculational method was confirmed to have enough accuracy. ..
  28. Kontogeorgakos D, Tzika F, Valakis S, Stamatelatos I. Occupational radiation exposure during removal of radioactive reactor components from GRR-1 pool. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;144:632-5 pubmed publisher
    ..02 mSv, and the maximum extremity equivalent dose was 0.09 mSv. The discussed method provides a useful tool enabling work planning during reactor decommissioning and renovation activities ensuring that exposures will be maintained ALARA. ..
  29. Kim D. Imaginary Savior: the image of the nuclear bomb in Korea, 1945-1960. Hist Sci (Tokyo). 2009;19:105-18 pubmed
    ..This paper will analyze how and why the savior image of the nuclear bomb originated and spread in Korea during the 1950s. ..
  30. Duvinage C, Nagels S, Hampel G, Kratz J, Aguilar A, Minouchehr S, et al. Determination of the irradiation field at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz for BNCT. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:S242-6 pubmed publisher
  31. González A. Chernobyl vis-à-vis the nuclear future: an international perspective. Health Phys. 2007;93:571-92 pubmed
    ..The paper concludes with an appeal to the radiation protection community to resolve once and for all the difficult issues of attributing health effects to low-level radiation exposure. ..
  32. Mengolini A, Debarberis L. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations. J Hazard Mater. 2008;155:243-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well. ..
  33. Perkins A, Hilson A, Hall J. Global shortage of medical isotopes threatens nuclear medicine services. BMJ. 2008;337:a1577 pubmed publisher
  34. Mihailescu L, Borcea C, Plompen A. Measurement of neutron inelastic scattering cross sections for 52Cr from threshold up to 18 MeV. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;115:136-8 pubmed
    ..77 MeV excitation energy. Progress on the implementation of a new acquisition system based on a fast digitiser is presented in this paper...
  35. Hobson J, Cooper A. Radiation protection and shielding design--strengthening the link. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;115:251-3 pubmed
    ..The holistic processes being developed in BNFL to realise these benefits are described in the paper and will be illustrated by case studies. ..
  36. Hu J, Reciniello R, Holden N. Decommissioning of the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Health Phys. 2012;103:S151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Details of the HFBR's cleanup performed during 1999-2009, to allow the BNL facilities to be re-accessed by the public, will be described in the paper. ..
  37. Bergelson B, Gerasimov A, Tikhomirov G. Radiotoxicity and decay heat power of spent nuclear fuel of VVER type reactors at long-term storage. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;115:445-7 pubmed
    ..Radiotoxicity determines the radiological hazard of radwaste after its leakage and penetration into the environment. ..
  38. Hill R, Nutt W, Laidler J. Advanced reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities: safety and environmental impacts. Health Phys. 2011;100:20-31 pubmed publisher
    ..For a closed fuel cycle, potential benefits in waste management are significant, and key waste form technology alternatives are described. ..
  39. Blando J, Robertson C, Pearl K, Dixon C, Valcin M, Bresnitz E. Assessment of potassium iodide (KI) distribution program among communities within the emergency planning zones (EPZ) of two nuclear power plants. Health Phys. 2007;92:S18-26 pubmed
  40. Woda C, Jacob P, Ulanovsky A, Fiedler I, Mokrov Y, Rovny S. Evaluation of external exposures of the population of Ozyorsk, Russia, with luminescence measurements of bricks. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2009;48:405-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the study demonstrates the detection limit for anthropogenic doses in ca. 60-year-old bricks to be about 24 mGy, if luminescence methods are used. ..
  41. Komeda M, Kumada H, Ishikawa M, Nakamura T, Yamamoto K, Matsumura A. Performance measurement of the scintillator with optical fiber detector for boron neutron capture therapy. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:S254-7 pubmed publisher
    ..3%. This report presents investigations on the deterioration of the SOF detector in irradiation experiments. ..
  42. Skelcher B. Cancer risk among nuclear workers. J Radiol Prot. 2006;26:237-8 pubmed
  43. Bergelson B, Gerasimov A, Tikhomirov G. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;116:675-8 pubmed
    ..CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides. ..
  44. Liu Y, Nievaart S, Tsai P, Liu H, Moss R, Jiang S. Neutron spectra measurement and comparison of the HFR and THOR BNCT beams. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:S137-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The epithermal neutron flux of the THOR beam is about three times of HB11. The thermal neutron flux, boron and gold reaction rates along the central axis of a PMMA phantom are calculated for both adjusted spectra for comparison. ..
  45. Simister D, Finnerty M, Warburton S, Thomas E, Macphail M. HSE's safety assessment principles for criticality safety. J Radiol Prot. 2008;28:237-47 pubmed publisher ..
  46. Shandala N, Sneve M, Titov A, Smith G, Novikova N, Romanov V, et al. Radiological criteria for the remediation of sites for spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the Russian Northwest. J Radiol Prot. 2008;28:479-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposals made here may serve as a basis for corresponding standards at other sites. ..
  47. Coeck M, Vermeersch F, Vanhavere F. Evaluation of the neutron spectrum and dose assessment around the venus reactor. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;115:76-9 pubmed
    ..The MCNPX model developed easily allows core adaptations in order to evaluate the effect of future core configuration on the neutron dose to the operators. ..
  48. Lacoste V, Gressier V, Muller H, Lebreton L. Characterisation of the IRSN graphite moderated Americium-Beryllium neutron field. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;110:135-9 pubmed
    ..As a whole, the experimental data and the MCNP calculation are in a good agreement. ..
  49. Jaiswal D, Singh I, Nair S, Dang H, Garg S, Pradhan A. Comparison of observed lung retention and urinary excretion of thorium workers and members of the public in India with the values predicted by the ICRP biokinetic model. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;112:237-43 pubmed
    ..These studies, thus, validate the new biokinetic model of Th in natural as well as in occupational exposures in Indian conditions. ..
  50. Matsson I, Grapengiesser B, Andersson B. On-site gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements of fission gas release in irradiated nuclear fuel. Appl Radiat Isot. 2007;65:36-45 pubmed
    ..Measurements clearly indicate the low FGR in more modern fuel designs in comparison to older fuel types. ..
  51. Osso J, Catanoso M, Barrio G, Brambilla T, Teodoro R, Dias C, et al. Technetium-99m -- new production and processing strategies to provide adequate levels for SPECT imaging. Curr Radiopharm. 2012;5:178-86 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this work is to do a brief story of the availability of (99)Mo in the world followed by an overview of the production routes of (99)Mo and the generators technology. ..
  52. Rowan D. Bioaccumulation factors and the steady state assumption for cesium isotopes in aquatic foodwebs near nuclear facilities. J Environ Radioact. 2013;121:2-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the steady state approach should be used with caution in any situation where reactor releases are episodic or pulse in nature, even if the magnitude of these releases is small...
  53. Kok Y, Eleveld H, Schnadt H, Gering F, Gregor J, Bottger H, et al. Comparative study of Dutch and German emergency-management models for near border nuclear accidents. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;113:381-91 pubmed
    ..Finally, the methodology of calculating cloudshine is not comparable among the models, which causes the effective dose near the source to show large deviations for high emission sources. ..