ear protective devices


Summary: Personal devices for protection of the ears from loud or high intensity noise, water, or cold. These include earmuffs and earplugs.

Top Publications

  1. Richardson A, Allsop M, Coghill E, Turnock C. Earplugs and eye masks: do they improve critical care patients' sleep?. Nurs Crit Care. 2007;12:278-86 pubmed
    ..Offering patient's earplugs and eye masks to improve sleep should be considered as a matter of routine nursing practice, this should include time to show patients how to use and try them out for comfort. ..
  2. Scotto C, McClusky C, Spillan S, Kimmel J. Earplugs improve patients' subjective experience of sleep in critical care. Nurs Crit Care. 2009;14:180-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The negligible cost and low level of invasiveness of earplugs makes this preferable as a primary intervention to promote sleep while avoiding unnecessary sedating medications. ..
  3. Abou Turk C, Williams A, Lasky R. A randomized clinical trial evaluating silicone earplugs for very low birth weight newborns in intensive care. J Perinatol. 2009;29:358-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Their head circumferences were 2.59 cm (95% CI: 0.97, 4.21) larger. Earplugs may facilitate weight gain in VLBW newborns. Better outcomes may persist at 18 to 22 months at least in ELBW infants. ..
  4. Irving S, Moore D, Liberman M, Sumner C. Olivocochlear efferent control in sound localization and experience-dependent learning. J Neurosci. 2011;31:2493-501 pubmed publisher
    ..Lesions in all reported cases were verified histologically. The results suggest the OC system is not needed for accurate localization, but that it is involved in relearning localization during unilateral conductive hearing loss. ..
  5. Kumpik D, Kacelnik O, King A. Adaptive reweighting of auditory localization cues in response to chronic unilateral earplugging in humans. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4883-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the mature auditory system can accommodate abnormal inputs and maintain a stable spatial percept by reweighting different cues according to how informative they are. ..
  6. Hu R, Jiang X, Zeng Y, Chen X, Zhang Y. Effects of earplugs and eye masks on nocturnal sleep, melatonin and cortisol in a simulated intensive care unit environment. Crit Care. 2010;14:R66 pubmed publisher
    ..05) and elevated melatonin levels (P = 0.002). Earplugs and eye masks promote sleep and hormone balance in healthy subjects exposed to simulated ICU noise and light, making their promotion in ICU patients reasonable. ..
  7. Lee K, Casali J. Effects of low speed wind on the recognition/identification and pass-through communication tasks of auditory situation awareness afforded by military hearing protection/enhancement devices and tactical communication and protective systems. Int J Audiol. 2016;55 Suppl 1:S21-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the various devices performed differently as the test sound signal speaker location was varied and it appears that physical as well as electronic features may have contributed to this directional result. ..
  8. Arezes P, Geraldes J. Assessing differences in methodologies for effective noise exposure calculation. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2009;15:183-91 pubmed
    ..The application of the several methods considered and the comparison of the obtained estimations seem to demonstrate that there are significant differences between effective exposure levels estimated with the different methods analysed. ..
  9. Brammer A, Laroche C. Noise and communication: a three-year update. Noise Health. 2012;14:281-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Suggestions for future work are also discussed. ..

More Information


  1. Simpson B, Bolia R, McKinley R, Brungart D. The impact of hearing protection on sound localization and orienting behavior. Hum Factors. 2005;47:188-98 pubmed
    ..Potential applications of this research include high-noise military, aerospace, and industrial settings in which HPDs are necessary but wearing double protection may compromise safety and/or performance. ..
  2. Svensson E, Morata T, Nylen P, Krieg E, Johnson A. Beliefs and attitudes among Swedish workers regarding the risk of hearing loss. Int J Audiol. 2004;43:585-93 pubmed
    ..These issues must be addressed to make HPD use more effective. ..
  3. Pawlaczyk Luszczyńska M, Dudarewicz A, Bak M, Fiszer M, Kotyło P, Sliwinska Kowalska M. Temporary changes in hearing after exposure to shooting noise. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2004;17:285-93 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the use of earmuffs is strongly recommended, because most of them seem to effectively attenuate impulse noise from small-calibre firearms. ..
  4. Miłoński J, Olszewski J. [The evaluation of usefullnes of hearing protectors while exposure to impulse noise]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2007;61:877-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Hong O, Chin D, Samo D. Hearing loss and use of hearing protection among career firefighters in the United States. J Occup Environ Med. 2013;55:960-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated a considerable NIHL problem and low use of HPDs in firefighters. More comprehensive hearing conservation programs should be implemented to reduce NIHL for firefighters. ..
  6. Carbonell R, Ruiz Garcia V. Ventilation tubes after surgery for otitis media with effusion or acute otitis media and swimming. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2002;66:281-9 pubmed
    ..40 to 7.05. There is no evidence to suggest that protection when swimming with earplugs, swimming caps or ear drops in children with ventilation tubes reduces the risk of AOM. Ear drops may even increase this risk. ..
  7. Koo Y, Koh H. [Effects of eye protective device and ear protective device application on sleep disorder with coronary disease patients in CCU]. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2008;38:582-92 pubmed
    ..61, p=.000). It is cost effective and a simple eye protective device and ear protective device should be applied to patients according to their preference and characteristics in the clinical setting. ..
  8. Olszewski J, Miłońiski J, Olszewski S. [Analysis of hearing threshold shift measured by otoacoustic emissions in soldiers after shooting with use hearing protectors]. Med Pr. 2006;57:109-14 pubmed
    ..The results showed that post-exposure changes in soldiers who used ear-muffs were not significant. The use of hearing protectors is strongly recommended because most of them seem to sufficiently attenuate impulse noise from firearms. ..
  9. McCullagh M. Effects of a low intensity intervention to increase hearing protector use among noise-exposed workers. Am J Ind Med. 2011;54:210-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Post-intervention mean use of HPDs was 64%, an increase of 41% (t?=?5.26, P?<?000). Results of this study suggest that overall, hearing protectors were acceptable to farm operators, and that a brief mailed intervention is feasible. ..
  10. Lusk S, Ronis D, Baer L. Gender differences in blue collar workers' use of hearing protection. Women Health. 1997;25:69-89 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of these differences will aid development of more effective interventions and may increase the use of hearing protection. ..
  11. Brusis T. [From the expert's office: could a medical expert be hold liable for the results of his expertise?]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2008;87:349-51 pubmed publisher
  12. Abel S, Boyne S, Roesler Mulroney H. Sound localization with an army helmet worn in combination with an in-ear advanced communications system. Noise Health. 2009;11:199-205 pubmed publisher
    ..However, overall percent correct was higher than observed in a previous study with conventional and level-dependent hearing protection devices, using the same array. ..
  13. Ologe F, Olajide T, Nwawolo C, Oyejola B. Deterioration of noise-induced hearing loss among bottling factory workers. J Laryngol Otol. 2008;122:786-94 pubmed
    ..It is necessary to enforce existing occupational health laws in our industries in order to prevent noise-induced hearing loss, since it is eminently preventable. ..
  14. Lipper J. Active noise reduction. Occup Health Saf. 2007;76:96, 98-9 pubmed
  15. Eric Lupo J, Koka K, Thornton J, Tollin D. The effects of experimentally induced conductive hearing loss on spectral and temporal aspects of sound transmission through the ear. Hear Res. 2011;272:30-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon ear plugging with acoustic foam, a mild CHL is induced. Furthermore, the CHL induced by acoustic foam results in substantial changes in the magnitudes of both the ITD and ILD cues to sound location. ..
  16. Toppila E, Pyykko I, Pääkkönen R. Evaluation of the increased accident risk from workplace noise. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2009;15:155-62 pubmed
    ..For both methods, efficiency must be evaluated through proper risk assessment. Because practical guidelines are not available, this paper presents principles for accident risk evaluation techniques. ..
  17. Van Campen L, Morata T, Kardous C, Gwin K, Wallingford K, Dallaire J, et al. Ototoxic occupational exposures for a stock car racing team: I. Noise surveys. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2005;2:383-90 pubmed
    ..Peak levels reached 140 dB SPL. NIOSH REL was exceeded for every personal noise dosimetry measurement. Recommendations for hearing protection and communication are presented. ..
  18. Berger E. Ear plug article failed the test. Occup Health Saf. 2005;74:10, 12; author reply 12 pubmed
  19. Liener K, Wunderlich A, Ehret G, Bachor E. [Measurement of noise protection in functional magnetic resonance imaging]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2005;84:108-12 pubmed
    ..If in the future higher gradient fields are applied at faster slew rates, acoustic stimuli can safely be applied only in combination with increased hearing protection systems in order to minimize the risk of noise trauma. ..
  20. Prince M, Colligan M, Stephenson C, Bischoff B. The contribution of focus groups in the evaluation of hearing conservation program (HCP) effectiveness. J Safety Res. 2004;35:91-106 pubmed
  21. Stewart M, Borer S, Lehman M. Shooting habits of U.S. waterfowl hunters. Noise Health. 2009;11:8-13 pubmed
    ..Information provided by this study may help hearing conservationists and hearing healthcare providers understand and better educate these shooters regarding the risk of acquiring NIHL. ..
  22. Młyński R, Kozłowski E, Zera J. Attenuation of noise by motorcycle safety helmets. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2009;15:287-93 pubmed
    ..Attenuation measured in this study does not take into account noise generated by turbulent wind around the helmet. Thus, the measured values of attenuation represent a motorcycle rider's best conditions of hearing. ..
  23. Von Gierke H, Mohler S. "Vibroacoustic disease". Aviat Space Environ Med. 2002;73:828-9; author reply 829-30 pubmed
  24. Nakai T, Kamiya N, Sone M, Muranaka H, Tsuchihashi T, Yamada N, et al. A survey analysis of acoustic trauma related to MR scans. Magn Reson Med Sci. 2012;11:253-64 pubmed
    ..It is recommended to more systematically follow up PATC cases and clarify the risk factors. ..
  25. Fillenham G, Liden C, Anveden Berglind I. Skin exposure to epoxy in the pipe relining trade - an observational study. Contact Dermatitis. 2012;67:66-72 pubmed publisher
  26. Neitzel R, Somers S, Seixas N. Variability of real-world hearing protector attenuation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg. 2006;50:679-91 pubmed
    ..UFs ranged from 8.8 to 13.5 dB. These findings highlight the importance of evaluating variability in individual-specific protection results for personal protective equipment like HPDs, rather than relying on single measurements. ..
  27. Hong O, Samo D. Hazardous decibels: hearing health of firefighters. AAOHN J. 2007;55:313-9 pubmed
    ..This article describes occupational noise exposure, hearing loss, and strategies to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among firefighters. ..
  28. Barkokébas Junior B, Lago E, Vasconcelos B, Oliveira E. Study on the impact of exposure to noise in professional snipers. Work. 2012;41 Suppl 1:3269-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Six (6) shots were fired off each gun, separated by a 30-second pause. In the end, it has been concluded that the noise level the 1st CIOE snipers are submitted to is considered to be normal by Brazilian legislation. ..
  29. Wagstaff A, Woxen O. Double hearing protection and speech intelligibility-room for improvement. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2001;72:400-4 pubmed
    ..Custom made ear plugs might therefore be a good alternative to other forms of enhanced noise protection in helicopters. ..
  30. Kotarbińska E, Kozłowski E. Measurement of effective noise exposure of workers wearing ear-muffs. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2009;15:193-200 pubmed
    ..The main causes of exposure to noise higher by over 3 dB(A) than that theoretically predicted were the bad technical condition of ear-muffs (32.2% of the cases) and an incorrect way of wearing them (15.2%). ..
  31. Nageris B, Raveh E, Zilberberg M, Attias J. Asymmetry in noise-induced hearing loss: relevance of acoustic reflex and left or right handedness. Otol Neurotol. 2007;28:434-7 pubmed
    ..The asymmetry in hearing loss severity may be attributed to the cortical pathways, specifically to the more pronounced efferent auditory system on the right side, which reduces the susceptibility of the right ear to cochlear insult. ..
  32. Hoglin S. "Thunder-sticks are fun, but...". J Am Acad Audiol. 2003;14:56 pubmed
  33. Sbihi H, Teschke K, MacNab Y, Davies H. Determinants of use of hearing protection devices in Canadian lumber mill workers. Ann Occup Hyg. 2010;54:319-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that this was feasible even in the absence of complete determinant information. ..
  34. Xue C, Shi X, Fang X, Tao H, Zhu H, Yu F, et al. The "Pure Marriage" between 3D Printing and Well-Ordered Nanoarrays by Using PEALD Assisted Hydrothermal Surface Engineering. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2016;8:8393-400 pubmed publisher
    ..This work, exemplified with earplugs and implant scaffolds, oriented the development direction of 3D printing in biomedical devices, which precisely integrated customized architecture and tailored surface performance. ..
  35. Treharne L, van der Meulen J. Unblocking the nose by unplugging the ear: the use of foam ear defenders as a splint following secondary cleft rhinoplasty. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2009;46:6-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Foam ear defenders are a simple, cheap, and comfortable method to provide splintage to the nasal vestibule following secondary cleft rhinoplasty. ..
  36. Breinbauer H, Anabalón J, Gutiérrez D, Cárcamo R, Olivares C, Caro J. Output capabilities of personal music players and assessment of preferred listening levels of test subjects: outlining recommendations for preventing music-induced hearing loss. Laryngoscope. 2012;122:2549-56 pubmed publisher
    ..High background noise attenuating earphones may help in reducing comfortable listening levels and should be preferred. A risk table was elaborated, presenting time limits before reaching a risky exposure. ..
  37. Starck J, Toppila E, Pyykko I. Impulse noise and risk criteria. Noise Health. 2003;5:63-73 pubmed
    ..There is an urgent task to develop risk assessment method and risk criteria for impulsive noise to meet the requirements of the upcoming European Union noise directive. ..
  38. Kushnir T, Avin L, Neck A, Sviatochevski A, Polak S, Peretz C. Dysfunctional thinking patterns and immigration status as predictors of hearing protection device usage. Ann Behav Med. 2006;32:162-7 pubmed
    ..Immigration status was not a significant predictor. HPD usage is associated with both rational and irrational motivations. The role of LFT in hearing protection should be further investigated. ..
  39. Devlin T, Leandro S. Protect your hearing. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003;134:274 pubmed
  40. Beach E, Williams W, Gilliver M. A qualitative study of earplug use as a health behavior: the role of noise injury symptoms, self-efficacy and an affinity for music. J Health Psychol. 2012;17:237-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Awareness of the benefits of earplugs and appreciation of the long-term implications of hearing damage, affinity for music and high self-efficacy were also key variables underlying this health behaviour. ..
  41. Franks J, Murphy W, Harris D, Johnson J, Shaw P. Alternative field methods for measuring hearing protector performance. AIHA J (Fairfax, Va). 2003;64:501-9 pubmed
    ..The FCH method is limited to testing earplugs, and the FCSF requires additional equipment to outfit the test booth, but could be used for testing all types of protectors. ..
  42. Richter B, Zander M, Hohmann B, Spahn C. [Hearing protectors in musicians]. HNO. 2011;59:538-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The present article gives an outline of the recent state of knowledge about sound pressure levels, hearing risks, as well as the use of hearing protection for musicians. ..
  43. Bouserhal R, Macdonald E, Falk T, Voix J. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study. Int J Audiol. 2016;55 Suppl 1:S13-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This implies that a model can be developed to better understand speech production for the occluded ear. ..
  44. McCullagh M, Banerjee T, Cohen M, Yang J. Effects of interventions on use of hearing protectors among farm operators: A randomized controlled trial. Int J Audiol. 2016;55 Suppl 1:S3-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Interactive and static information delivered via web were similarly effective. Programs interested in increasing HPD use among farmers should consider making hearing protectors more available to farmers. ..
  45. McCullagh M, Lusk S, Ronis D. Factors influencing use of hearing protection among farmers: a test of the pender health promotion model. Nurs Res. 2002;51:33-9 pubmed
    ..Information from this study can be used to design and evaluate interventions to promote hearing protection device use among farmers and reduce the level of noise-induced hearing loss in this high-risk and underserved worker group. ..
  46. Champoux F, Houde M, Gagne J, Kelly J. Uniform degradation of auditory acuity in subjects with normal hearing leads to unequal precedence effects. Ear Hear. 2009;30:377-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The outcome suggests that variable perception of the precedence effect by individuals with clinically diagnosed hearing loss might be due to factors other than a reduction in auditory acuity per se. ..
  47. Berger E, Voix J, Kieper R, Le Cocq C. Development and validation of a field microphone-in-real-ear approach for measuring hearing protector attenuation. Noise Health. 2011;13:163-75 pubmed publisher
  48. Davis R, Shaw P. Heat and humidity buildup under earmuff-type hearing protectors. Noise Health. 2011;13:93-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrates that relatively inexpensive tools and a low-exertion task can provide important information about the under-earmuff environment, which can inform assumptions about comfort during use. ..
  49. Neitzel R, Meischke H, Daniell W, Trabeau M, Somers S, Seixas N. Development and pilot test of hearing conservation training for construction workers. Am J Ind Med. 2008;51:120-9 pubmed
    ..Pre- and post-training data from participating workers demonstrated that HPD use can be increased significantly with basic model-based training, even in industries with complex noise exposures such as construction. ..
  50. El Dib R, Atallah A, Andriolo R, Soares B, Verbeek J. A systematic review of the interventions to promote the wearing of hearing protection. Sao Paulo Med J. 2007;125:362-9 pubmed
    ..Better interventions to enhance the use of hearing protection need to be developed and evaluated in order to increase the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss among workers. ..
  51. Lindhardt B. [Hearing disorders and rock music]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2008;170:4233-5 pubmed
    ..It seems as if some sort of resistance against further hearing loss is developed over time. The use of ear protection devices have not been studied systematically but appears to be associated with diminished hearing loss. ..
  52. Kotowski M, Smith S, Johnstone P, Pritt E. Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to create and evaluate the effectiveness of brochures to reduce the risk for noise-induced hearing loss in college students. Noise Health. 2011;13:261-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In this case, however, intentions to use over-the-ear headphones increased. Results are discussed in terms of future research and practical applications. ..
  53. Olson A, Gooding L, Shikoh F, Graf J. Hearing Health in College Instrumental Musicians and Prevention of Hearing Loss. Med Probl Perform Art. 2016;31:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Noise dosage information, HPD information, and prevention education grounded in theories like the Health Belief Model may increase awareness and promote greater use of HPDs in this population. ..