respiratory protective devices


Summary: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.

Top Publications

  1. Cummings K, Van Sickle D, Rao C, Riggs M, Brown C, Moolenaar R. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to mold exposure among residents and remediation workers in posthurricane New Orleans. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2006;61:101-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, they suggest that targeted approaches may benefit Spanish-speaking workers and the self-employed. ..
  2. Yang L, Shen H, Wu G. Racial differences in respirator fit testing: a pilot study of whether American fit panels are representative of Chinese faces. Ann Occup Hyg. 2007;51:415-21 pubmed
    ..The results can also help to construct new RFTPs for Chinese in the future. Further studies are needed to verify whether the results in this study would be in agreement with those of facial anthropometric survey in wider samples. ..
  3. Rozzi T, Snyder J, Novak D. Pilot study of aromatic hydrocarbon adsorption characteristics of disposable filtering facepiece respirators that contain activated carbon. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2012;9:624-9 pubmed publisher
    ..While the results of this pilot study hold promise, there is a need for further investigation and validation to determine the effectiveness of nuisance FFRs in mitigating organic vapors such as benzene, toluene, and xylene. ..
  4. Chen H, Yang C, Lin M. Removal efficiency of vapour/particulate phase PAHs by using alternative protective respirators in PAHs exposure workers. J Hazard Mater. 2012;219-220:190-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study suggests that future work focus on developing an appropriate and comfortable respirator with high removal efficiency for ultrafine particulates and vapour phase PAHs simultaneously in PAH work environments. ..
  5. Loeb M, Dafoe N, Mahony J, John M, Sarabia A, Glavin V, et al. Surgical mask vs N95 respirator for preventing influenza among health care workers: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2009;302:1865-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Among nurses in Ontario tertiary care hospitals, use of a surgical mask compared with an N95 respirator resulted in noninferior rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Identifier: NCT00756574 ..
  6. Tellier R. Review of aerosol transmission of influenza A virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1657-62 pubmed
  7. Aiello A, Murray G, Perez V, Coulborn R, Davis B, Uddin M, et al. Mask use, hand hygiene, and seasonal influenza-like illness among young adults: a randomized intervention trial. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that face masks and hand hygiene may reduce respiratory illnesses in shared living settings and mitigate the impact of the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. identifier: NCT00490633. ..
  8. Bałazy A, Toivola M, Adhikari A, Sivasubramani S, Reponen T, Grinshpun S. Do N95 respirators provide 95% protection level against airborne viruses, and how adequate are surgical masks?. Am J Infect Control. 2006;34:51-7 pubmed
    ..It should be noted that the surgical masks are primarily designed to protect the environment from the wearer, whereas the respirators are supposed to protect the wearer from the environment. ..
  9. Cowling B, Zhou Y, Ip D, Leung G, Aiello A. Face masks to prevent transmission of influenza virus: a systematic review. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:449-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies in controlled settings and studies of natural infections in healthcare and community settings are required to better define the effectiveness of face masks and respirators in preventing influenza virus transmission. ..

More Information


  1. OESTENSTAD R, Bartolucci A. Factors affecting the location and shape of face seal leak sites on half-mask respirators. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2010;7:332-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This would have implications for the design of respirator facepieces and in the selection of respirators for individual wearers. ..
  2. Banauch G, Hall C, Weiden M, Cohen H, Aldrich T, Christodoulou V, et al. Pulmonary function after exposure to the World Trade Center collapse in the New York City Fire Department. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174:312-9 pubmed
    ..001). Similar findings were observed for adjusted average FVC. World Trade Center exposure produced a substantial reduction in pulmonary function in New York City Fire Department rescue workers during the first year after 09/11/2001. ..
  3. Fent K, Gaines L, Thomasen J, Flack S, Ding K, Herring A, et al. Quantification and statistical modeling--part I: breathing-zone concentrations of monomeric and polymeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate. Ann Occup Hyg. 2009;53:677-89 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the mixed models identify ways to reduce polyisocyanate BZCs and, hence, protect painters from potential adverse health effects. ..
  4. Johnson A, Koh F, Jamshidi S, Rehak T. Human subject testing of leakage in a loose-fitting PAPR. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2008;5:325-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As long as the blower purges contamination from inside the face piece during exhalation, the 1.1 L acts as a buffer against contaminants leaked due to overbreathing of blower flow rate. ..
  5. Liu Y, Stowe M, Bello D, Woskie S, Sparer J, Gore R, et al. Respiratory protection from isocyanate exposure in the autobody repair and refinishing industry. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2006;3:234-49 pubmed
  6. Reeb Whitaker C, Whittaker S, Ceballos D, Weiland E, Flack S, Fent K, et al. Airborne isocyanate exposures in the collision repair industry and a comparison to occupational exposure limits. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2012;9:329-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, half-face air-purifying respirators, which are most commonly used and have an assigned protection factor of 10, do not afford adequate respiratory protection. ..
  7. Chen B, Hu Y, Zheng L, Wang Q, Zhou Y, Jin T. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. Am J Ind Med. 2007;50:657-63 pubmed
    ..1). Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents. ..
  8. Brankston G, Gitterman L, Hirji Z, Lemieux C, Gardam M. Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7:257-65 pubmed
    ..Further research is required to better define conditions under which the influenza virus may transmit via the airborne route. ..
  9. Chen H, Chung S, Jhuo M. Efficiency of different respiratory protective devices for removal of particulate and gaseous reactive oxygen species from welding fumes. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2013;68:101-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to determine the performance of filters used as respiratory protective devices by welding personnel to simultaneously mitigate particulate and gaseous inhalation hazards...
  10. Coffey C, Lawrence R, Zhuang Z, Duling M, Campbell D. Errors associated with three methods of assessing respirator fit. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2006;3:44-52 pubmed
  11. Tellier R. Aerosol transmission of influenza A virus: a review of new studies. J R Soc Interface. 2009;6 Suppl 6:S783-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These recent results and their implication for infection control of influenza are discussed in this review. ..
  12. Campbell D, Coffey C, Jensen P, Zhuang Z. Reducing respirator fit test errors: a multi-donning approach. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2005;2:391-99 pubmed
    ..Further trials with human subjects are recommended in order to validate the proposed multi-donning approach. ..
  13. Bolsover J, Rajan Sithamparanadarajah B, Vaughan N. Workplace protection of air-fed visors used in paint spraying operations. Ann Occup Hyg. 2006;50:219-29 pubmed
    ..Observations made during the field tests indicate that there may be other activities associated with the spraying process that need to be taken into consideration when looking for sources of respiratory sensitization. ..
  14. MacIntyre C, Wang Q, Seale H, Yang P, Shi W, Gao Z, et al. A randomized clinical trial of three options for N95 respirators and medical masks in health workers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187:960-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides further data to inform occupational policy options for HCWs. Clinical trial registered with Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12609000778280). ..
  15. Lawrence R, Duling M, Calvert C, Coffey C. Comparison of performance of three different types of respiratory protection devices. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2006;3:465-74 pubmed
    ..0 for the elastomeric respirators and 20.5 for the filtering-facepiece respirators. The data supports fit testing as an essential element of a complete respiratory protection program. ..
  16. Lee S, Grinshpun S, Reponen T. Respiratory performance offered by N95 respirators and surgical masks: human subject evaluation with NaCl aerosol representing bacterial and viral particle size range. Ann Occup Hyg. 2008;52:177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..An exhalation valve on the N95 respirator does not affect the respiratory protection; it appears to be an appropriate alternative to reduce the breathing resistance. ..
  17. Coyne K, Caretti D, Scott W, Johnson A, Koh F. Inspiratory flow rates during hard work when breathing through different respirator inhalation and exhalation resistances. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2006;3:490-500 pubmed
    ..9% of the predicted peak and instantaneous flow rates from this study and would more accurately reflect human respiration during strenuous exercise. ..
  18. Johnson A, Mackey K, Scott W, Koh F, Chiou K, Phelps S. Exercise performance while wearing a tight-fitting powered air purifying respirator with limited flow. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2005;2:368-73 pubmed
    ..Significant differences in breathing apparatus comfort and facial thermal comfort were found as flow rate varied. It was concluded that inadequate blower flow rate decreases performance time, facial cooling, and respirator comfort. ..
  19. Balazy A, Toivola M, Reponen T, Podgórski A, Zimmer A, Grinshpun S. Manikin-based performance evaluation of N95 filtering-facepiece respirators challenged with nanoparticles. Ann Occup Hyg. 2006;50:259-69 pubmed
    ..096 m(3)) test chamber and in a large (24.3 m(3)) walk-in chamber were found essentially the same, thus, suggesting that laboratory-based evaluations have a good potential to adequately represent the respirator field performance. ..
  20. Chughtai A, Seale H, MacIntyre C. Availability, consistency and evidence-base of policies and guidelines on the use of mask and respirator to protect hospital health care workers: a global analysis. BMC Res Notes. 2013;6:216 pubmed publisher
    ..Health organizations and countries should jointly evaluate the available evidence, prioritize research to inform evidence gaps, and develop consistent policy on masks and respirator use in the health care setting. ..
  21. MacIntyre C, Wang Q, Cauchemez S, Seale H, Dwyer D, Yang P, et al. A cluster randomized clinical trial comparing fit-tested and non-fit-tested N95 respirators to medical masks to prevent respiratory virus infection in health care workers. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2011;5:170-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), ACTRN: ACTRN12609000257268 ( ..
  22. Heederik D, Henneberger P, Redlich C. Primary prevention: exposure reduction, skin exposure and respiratory protection. Eur Respir Rev. 2012;21:112-24 pubmed publisher
    ..There is strong evidence to recommend not using powdered allergen-rich natural rubber latex gloves. There is weak evidence that suggests workers should minimise skin exposure to asthma-inducing agents. ..
  23. Currie J, Caseman D, Anthony T. The evaluation of CBRN canisters for use by firefighters during overhaul. Ann Occup Hyg. 2009;53:523-38 pubmed publisher
  24. Zhuang Z, Coffey C, Ann R. The effect of subject characteristics and respirator features on respirator fit. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2005;2:641-9 pubmed
    ..Based on the findings from this and previous studies, face length and face width are recommended measurements that should be used for defining the panel for half-facepiece respirators. ..
  25. Cummings K, Cox Ganser J, Riggs M, Edwards N, Kreiss K. Respirator donning in post-hurricane New Orleans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:700-7 pubmed
    ..99, 95% CI, 1.20-3.28); and having participated in mold clean-up (OR 1.82; 95% CI,1.00-3.41). Interventions to improve respirator donning should be considered in planning for influenza epidemics and disasters. ..
  26. Van Der Sande M, Teunis P, Sabel R. Professional and home-made face masks reduce exposure to respiratory infections among the general population. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2618 pubmed publisher
    ..Masks worn by patients may not offer as great a degree of protection against aerosol transmission. ..
  27. Biscotto C, Pedroso E, Starling C, Roth V. Evaluation of N95 respirator use as a tuberculosis control measure in a resource-limited setting. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005;9:545-9 pubmed
  28. Ruchirawa M, Mahidol C, Tangjarukij C, Pui ock S, Jensen O, Kampeerawipakorn O, et al. Exposure to genotoxins present in ambient air in Bangkok, Thailand--particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and biomarkers. Sci Total Environ. 2002;287:121-32 pubmed
    ..However, for people who spend their working day in offices, the exposure is similar to people living in other metropolitan areas. ..
  29. Clayton M, Bailey A, Vaughan N, Rajan R. Performance of power assisted respirators during simulated asbestos removal. Ann Occup Hyg. 2002;46:49-59 pubmed
    ..This study re-emphasises that careful selection, facepiece fit testing and correct use and maintenance of RPE are essential to ensure optimum protection to the wearer. ..
  30. Lippy B. Safety and health of heavy equipment operators at Ground Zero. Am J Ind Med. 2002;42:539-42 pubmed
  31. Derrick J, Chan Y, Gomersall C, Lui S. Predictive value of the user seal check in determining half-face respirator fit. J Hosp Infect. 2005;59:152-5 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the user seal check should not be used as a surrogate fit test. Its usefulness as a pre-use test must also be questioned. ..
  32. Dharmarajan V, Lingg R, Myer H. Evaluation of organic-vapor respirator cartridge efficiency for hexamethylene diisocyanate vapor in the presence of organic solvents. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2001;16:397-404 pubmed
    ..Solvent breakthrough and breathing resistance, rather than HDI breakthrough, would be the key parameters in life expectancy calculations for cartridge change out schedules. ..
  33. Qian Y, Willeke K, Grinshpun S, Donnelly J, Coffey C. Performance of N95 respirators: filtration efficiency for airborne microbial and inert particles. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1998;59:128-32 pubmed
    ..02% for large particle distributions to 1.8% for submicrometer-size welding fumes. Thus, N95 respirators provide excellent protection against airborne particles when there is a good face seal. ..
  34. Prezant D, Weiden M, Banauch G, McGuinness G, Rom W, Aldrich T, et al. Cough and bronchial responsiveness in firefighters at the World Trade Center site. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:806-15 pubmed
    ..Clinical and physiological severity was related to the intensity of exposure. ..
  35. Martyny J, Glazer C, Newman L. Respiratory protection. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:824-30 pubmed
  36. Kim H, Han D, Roh Y, Kim K, Park Y. Facial anthropometric dimensions of Koreans and their associations with fit of quarter-mask respirators. Ind Health. 2003;41:8-18 pubmed
    ..To improve respirator fit for Koreans, these different facial characteristics need to be considered in the design of quarter mask respirators. ..
  37. Zhuang Z, Coffey C, Jensen P, Campbell D, Lawrence R, Myers W. Correlation between quantitative fit factors and workplace protection factors measured in actual workplace environments at a steel foundry. AIHA J (Fairfax, Va). 2003;64:730-8 pubmed
    ..8. The WPFs were found to be significantly correlated with the FFs (R(2)=.55 and p-value=.0001). Therefore, FF was shown to be a meaningful indicator of respirator performance in actual workplace environments. ..
  38. Coffey C, Lawrence R, Campbell D, Zhuang Z, Calvert C, Jensen P. Fitting characteristics of eighteen N95 filtering-facepiece respirators. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2004;1:262-71 pubmed
    ..The highest level of protection was provided by passing a fit-test with a respirator having good fitting characteristics. ..
  39. Lau J, Yang X, Tsui H, Pang E, Kim J. SARS preventive and risk behaviours of Hong Kong air travellers. Epidemiol Infect. 2004;132:727-36 pubmed
    ..Education programmes, special services and effective thermal screening are required to minimize the chance of the spread of SARS by air travellers. ..
  40. Nelson M, Haykowsky M, Mayne J, Jones R, Petersen S. Effects of self-contained breathing apparatus on ventricular function during strenuous exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106:395-402 pubmed publisher
  41. Jones L, Burgess J, Evans H, Lutz E. Respiratory protection for firefighters--Evaluation of CBRN canisters for use during overhaul II: In mask analyte sampling with integrated dynamic breathing machine. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2016;13:177-84 pubmed publisher
    ..However, caution should be applied when using CBRN filters as the ambient formaldehyde level in the current study was 8.9 times lower than during the previous work. ..
  42. Alghamri A, Murray S, Samaranayake V. The effects of wearing respirators on human fine motor, visual, and cognitive performance. Ergonomics. 2013;56:791-802 pubmed publisher
    ..The full-face respirator was found to affect human cognitive performance negatively. ..
  43. Rosenberg C, Hämeilä M, Tornaeus J, Säkkinen K, Puttonen K, Korpi A, et al. Exposure to flame retardants in electronics recycling sites. Ann Occup Hyg. 2011;55:658-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the exposures should be minimized by adequate control measures and maintaining good occupational hygiene practice. ..
  44. Janssen L, Weber R. The effect of pressure drop on respirator faceseal leakage. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2005;2:335-40 pubmed
    ..Results of this study do not support the concept of increased faceseal leakage with increased pressure drop. The evidence does not suggest increased risk of contaminant exposure through the face seal as pressure drop increases. ..
  45. Schumacher J, Gray S, Weidelt L, Brinker A, Prior K, Stratling W. Comparison of powered and conventional air-purifying respirators during simulated resuscitation of casualties contaminated with hazardous substances. Emerg Med J. 2009;26:501-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Powered air-purifying respirators improve the ease of breathing and do not appear to reduce mobility or delay treatment during a simulated resuscitation scenario inside an ambulance vehicle with a single CBRN casualty. ..
  46. Wallen E, Mulloy K. Computer-based training for safety: comparing methods with older and younger workers. J Safety Res. 2006;37:461-7 pubmed
    ..Computer-based safety programs should be designed and selected based on their ability to effectively train older as well as younger learners. ..
  47. Roberge R, Coca A, Williams W, Palmiero A, Powell J. Surgical mask placement over N95 filtering facepiece respirators: physiological effects on healthcare workers. Respirology. 2010;15:516-21 pubmed publisher
  48. Harber P, Santiago S, Bansal S, Liu Y, Yun D, Wu S. Respirator physiologic impact in persons with mild respiratory disease. J Occup Environ Med. 2010;52:155-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of respirator type differ according to the category of respiratory disease. ..
  49. Crump K. Statistical issues with respect to workplace protection factors for respirators. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2007;4:208-14 pubmed
    ..Results from applying this expanded model to two new WPF studies suggest that an APF of 10 would be sufficiently protective in these studies using the OSHA criterion but more marginally so using the Nicas and Neuhaus criterion. ..
  50. Barrera M. PPE-volution. Occup Health Saf. 2007;76:50-4, 56, 58 pubmed
  51. Liu H, Chen C, Lan C, Chang C, Peng C. Effects of a powered air-purifying respirator intervention on indium exposure reduction and indium related biomarkers among ITO sputter target manufacturing workers. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2016;13:346-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have practical applications for minimizing occupational exposure to indium and for managing the health of workers exposed to indium. ..
  52. Hu C, Harber P, Su J. Predicting future protection of respirator users: Statistical approaches and practical implications. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2016;13:393-400 pubmed publisher
  53. Boggia B, Graziuso G, Carbone U. [Respiratory function evaluation in welders taking into account tecnological evolution of individual protection dispositive and risk specific information]. G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2011;33:16-8 pubmed
    ..Results shown that the correct use of DPI could reduce the effects of welding fumes on respiratory tract making these effects equal to the exposure to industrial dusts. ..