Summary: Devices designed to provide protection against injury.
- Cameron I, Cumming R, Kurrle S, Quine S, Lockwood K, Salkeld G, et al. A randomised trial of hip protector use by frail older women living in their own homes. Inj Prev. 2003;9:138-41 pubmed..The overall effectiveness of hip protectors was not established in this study, because of incomplete adherence with use of the protectors, and limited statistical power. ..
- Honkanen L, Schackman B, Mushlin A, Lachs M. A cost-benefit analysis of external hip protectors in the nursing home setting. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53:190-7 pubmed..From a Medicare perspective, hip protectors are a cost-saving intervention in the nursing home setting when hip protector effectiveness is less than or equal to 0.65 over the remaining lifetime of subjects. ..
- Bulat T, Quigley P. External hip protectors and risk of hip fracture. JAMA. 2003;290:883; author reply 884-5 pubmed
- Carrasco J, Lope V, Perez Gomez B, Aragones N, Suárez B, Lopez Abente G, et al. Association between health information, use of protective devices and occurrence of acute health problems in the Prestige oil spill clean-up in Asturias and Cantabria (Spain): a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:1 pubmedThis paper examines the association between use of protective devices, frequency of acute health problems and health-protection information received by participants engaged in the Prestige oil spill clean-up in Asturias and Cantabria, ..
- Hagel B, Lamy A, Rizkallah J, Belton K, Jhangri G, Cherry N, et al. The prevalence and reliability of visibility aid and other risk factor data for uninjured cyclists and pedestrians in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Accid Anal Prev. 2007;39:284-9 pubmed..Further work is required before an overall visibility rating can be used in place of component scores. ..
- Cummings P, Weiss N. External hip protectors and risk of hip fracture. JAMA. 2003;290:884; author reply 884-5 pubmed
- Atkinson J, Bobogare A, Fitzgerald L, Boaz L, Appleyard B, Toaliu H, et al. A qualitative study on the acceptability and preference of three types of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets in Solomon Islands: implications for malaria elimination. Malar J. 2009;8:119 pubmed publisher..The implications of these findings on malaria elimination in Solomon Islands are discussed. ..
- Kendrick D, Smith S, Sutton A, Mulvaney C, Watson M, Coupland C, et al. The effect of education and home safety equipment on childhood thermal injury prevention: meta-analysis and meta-regression. Inj Prev. 2009;15:197-204 pubmed publisher..Home safety education, especially with the provision of safety equipment, is effective in increasing some thermal injury prevention practices, but there is insufficient evidence to show whether this also reduces injury rates. ..
- Lee S, Ha M, Kim E, Jeong W, Hur J, Park S, et al. [The effects of wearing protective devices among residents and volunteers participating in the cleanup of the Hebei Spirit oil spill]. J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42:89-95 pubmed publisherTo assess the protective effects of wearing protective devices among the residents and volunteers who participated in the cleanup of the Hebei Spirit oil spill...
- Bennewith O, Nowers M, Gunnell D. Effect of barriers on the Clifton suspension bridge, England, on local patterns of suicide: implications for prevention. Br J Psychiatry. 2007;190:266-7 pubmed..This study provides evidence for the effectiveness of barriers on bridges in preventing site-specific suicides and suicides by jumping overall in the surrounding area. ..
- Harte J. Looking inside the 2003 CDC dental infection control guidelines. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2004;32:919-30 pubmed..It is not intended to be a comprehensive review. Readers can access the complete document (Figure 1) by visiting www.cdc.gov/oralhealth/ infectioncontrol. ..
- Nordi R, Araki S, Sato H, Yokoyama K, Wan Muda W, Win Kyi D. Effects of safety behaviours with pesticide use on occurrence of acute symptoms in male and female tobacco-growing Malaysian farmers. Ind Health. 2002;40:182-90 pubmed..Safety behaviours in pesticide use in male and female tobacco-growing farmers are discussed in the light of these findings. ..
- Capezuti E. Minimizing the use of restrictive devices in dementia patients at risk for falling. Nurs Clin North Am. 2004;39:625-47 pubmed..New institutional models of care discouraging routine use of restrictive devices also will foster innovative solutions to clinical problems associated with dementia. ..
- Waldegger L, Cranney A, Man Son Hing M, Coyle D. Cost-effectiveness of hip protectors in institutional dwelling elderly. Osteoporos Int. 2003;14:243-50 pubmed..Results were robust to a range of analysis exploring the uncertainty of input parameters. There is sufficient clinical and economic evidence to support the use of hip protectors for institutional dwelling elderly. ..
- Baldi I, Lebailly P, Jean S, Rougetet L, Dulaurent S, Marquet P. Pesticide contamination of workers in vineyards in France. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2006;16:115-24 pubmed..Types of equipment influenced significantly the daily contamination, whereas personal protective equipment only resulted in a limited decrease of contamination. ..
- Hahn S, Puffer S, Torgerson D, Watson J. Methodological bias in cluster randomised trials. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2005;5:10 pubmed..Third, if prior identification is not possible, then an independent recruiter should be used to recruit participants. ..
- Maxwell C, Chambo W, Mwaimu M, Magogo F, Carneiro I, Curtis C. Variation of malaria transmission and morbidity with altitude in Tanzania and with introduction of alphacypermethrin treated nets. Malar J. 2003;2:28 pubmed..Our data support the idea of universal provision of treated nets, not a focus on areas of natural hypo-endemicity. ..
- Mekonnen Y, Agonafir T. Pesticide sprayers' knowledge, attitude and practice of pesticide use on agricultural farms of Ethiopia. Occup Med (Lond). 2002;52:311-5 pubmed..working was considered to be very important by 93% of them, while only 7% suggested the use of personal protective devices (PPD)...
- Sawka A, Boulos P, Beattie K, Papaioannou A, Gafni A, Cranney A, et al. Hip protectors decrease hip fracture risk in elderly nursing home residents: a Bayesian meta-analysis. J Clin Epidemiol. 2007;60:336-44 pubmed..Methodologic limitations of the included trials and a possible herd effect in CRTs may have influenced these results. ..
- Kwan I, Mapstone J. Visibility aids for pedestrians and cyclists: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Accid Anal Prev. 2004;36:305-12 pubmed..However, the impact of visibility aids on pedestrian and cyclist safety is unknown and needs to be determined. ..
- Birks Y, Porthouse J, Addie C, Loughney K, Saxon L, Baverstock M, et al. Randomized controlled trial of hip protectors among women living in the community. Osteoporos Int. 2004;15:701-6 pubmed..12 (95% CI, 0.58 to 2.03; p = 0.83). This study is the largest RCT of hip protectors to date and provides no evidence of an effect of hip protectors among women living independently and at high risk of fracture. ..
- Morgan O, Kuhne M, Nair P, Verlander N, Preece R, McDougal M, et al. Personal protective equipment and risk for avian influenza (H7N3). Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:59-62 pubmed publisher..Rigorous use of PPE by persons managing avian influenza outbreaks may reduce exposure to potentially hazardous infected poultry materials. ..
- Glenngård A, Persson U. Costs associated with sharps injuries in the Swedish health care setting and potential cost savings from needle-stick prevention devices with needle and syringe. Scand J Infect Dis. 2009;41:296-302 pubmed publisher..The cost per reported injury in Sweden seems to be lower than in other EU countries and the US, due to more thorough investigation and treatment procedures in countries with confirmed transmission of pathogens to healthcare workers...
- Roberts H, Curtis K, Liabo K, Rowland D, DiGuiseppi C, Roberts I. Putting public health evidence into practice: increasing the prevalence of working smoke alarms in disadvantaged inner city housing. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004;58:280-5 pubmed..The effectiveness of smoke alarm installation could be improved if alarm manufacturers and those responsible for implementation programmes considered ways of tackling the issues raised in this study. ..
- Oliver D, Connelly J, Victor C, Shaw F, Whitehead A, Genc Y, et al. Strategies to prevent falls and fractures in hospitals and care homes and effect of cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analyses. BMJ. 2007;334:82 pubmed..There is insufficient evidence, however, for the effectiveness of other single interventions in hospitals or care homes or multifaceted interventions in care homes. ..
- Vijayakumar K, Gunasekaran K, Sahu S, Jambulingam P. Knowledge, attitude and practice on malaria: a study in a tribal belt of Orissa state, India with reference to use of long lasting treated mosquito nets. Acta Trop. 2009;112:137-42 pubmed publisher..Since, the tribes are habituated to seek treatment from traditional healers; they could be involved in motivating people to use ITNs/LLINs to protect from mosquito bites and malaria. ..
- Oliver D, Connelly J, Allain T. Economic modeling on cost-effectiveness of hip protectors in institutionalized older people based on contentious interpretation of original effectiveness data. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53:2241-2 pubmed
- Onwujekwe O, Hanson K, Fox Rushby J. Who buys insecticide-treated nets? Implications for increasing coverage in Nigeria. Health Policy Plan. 2003;18:279-89 pubmed..Also, ITNs financing mechanisms are needed that will ensure that lower socioeconomic groups and those at greater risk of malaria are protected. Governments and donors should take the lead to ensure that ITNs programmes are equitable. ..
- Georgopoulos P, Fedele P, Shade P, Lioy P, Hodgson M, Longmire A, et al. Hospital response to chemical terrorism: personal protective equipment, training, and operations planning. Am J Ind Med. 2004;46:432-45 pubmed..Development and coordination of ERPs must include the local emergency planning committee, with clear assignment of tasks, locations, and training in order to prevent exposures to healthcare workers. ..
- van Schoor N, Devillé W, Bouter L, Lips P. Acceptance and compliance with external hip protectors: a systematic review of the literature. Osteoporos Int. 2002;13:917-24 pubmed..Furthermore, methods to improve the compliance should be developed, and their effectiveness tested. ..
- van Schoor N, Smit J, Twisk J, Bouter L, Lips P. Prevention of hip fractures by external hip protectors: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003;289:1957-62 pubmed..77; 95% CI, 0.25-2.38). The hip protector studied was not effective in preventing hip fractures. ..
- Meyer G, Warnke A, Bender R, Mühlhauser I. Effect on hip fractures of increased use of hip protectors in nursing homes: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2003;326:76 pubmed..The introduction of a structured education programme and the provision of free hip protectors in nursing homes increases the use of protectors and may reduce the number of hip fractures. ..
- Trim J, Elliott T. A review of sharps injuries and preventative strategies. J Hosp Infect. 2003;53:237-42 pubmed..More recently, preventative strategies have focused on needle protective devices, which may reduce the rate of sharps injuries...
- Bernard J, Mtove G, Mandike R, Mtei F, Maxwell C, Reyburn H. Equity and coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets in an area of intense transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania. Malar J. 2009;8:65 pubmed publisher..Abolition of this inequity within the foreseeable future is likely to require mass or targeted free distribution, but risks damaging what is otherwise an effective commercial market. ..
- Onwujekwe O, Hanson K, Fox Rushby J. Inequalities in purchase of mosquito nets and willingness to pay for insecticide-treated nets in Nigeria: challenges for malaria control interventions. Malar J. 2004;3:6 pubmed..ITN distribution programmes need to take account of the diversity in WTP for ITNs if they are to ensure equity in access to the nets. This could form part of the overall poverty reduction strategy. ..
- Pedersen E, Mukoko D. Impact of insecticide-treated materials on filaria transmission by the various species of vector mosquito in Africa. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002;96 Suppl 2:S91-5 pubmed..Thus a modest reduction in the numbers of mosquitoes biting humans, attributable to the use of the insecticide-treated nets, strongly suppressed the risk of W. bancrofti transmission. ..
- Msangi S, Lyatuu E, Masenga C, Kihumo E. The effects of washing and duration of use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (PermaNets) on insecticidal effectiveness. Acta Trop. 2008;107:43-7 pubmed publisher..PermaNets caused short-lived irritation and sneezing but appear to be well accepted by the community in which the study was conducted. ..
- Kendrick D, Watson M, Mulvaney C, Smith S, Sutton A, Coupland C, et al. Preventing childhood falls at home: meta-analysis and meta-regression. Am J Prev Med. 2008;35:370-379 pubmed publisher..There was some evidence that the effect of home-safety interventions varied by social group. ..
- Yukich J, Zerom M, Ghebremeskel T, Tediosi F, Lengeler C. Costs and cost-effectiveness of vector control in Eritrea using insecticide-treated bed nets. Malar J. 2009;8:51 pubmed publisher..Operating and sustaining such a system still requires strong donor funding and support as well as a functional and extensive system of health facilities and community health workers already in place. ..
- Daugherty E, Perl T, Needham D, Rubinson L, Bilderback A, Rand C. The use of personal protective equipment for control of influenza among critical care clinicians: A survey study. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:1210-6 pubmed publisher..Improving respiratory virus infection control will likely require closing knowledge gaps and changing organizational factors that influence behavior. ..
- Lahiri S, Levenstein C, Nelson D, Rosenberg B. The cost effectiveness of occupational health interventions: prevention of silicosis. Am J Ind Med. 2005;48:503-14 pubmed..Note that this analysis understates health benefits since only silicosis and not all silica-related diseases are considered. ..
- Koike T, Orito Y, Toyoda H, Tada M, Sugama R, Hoshino M, et al. External hip protectors are effective for the elderly with higher-than-average risk factors for hip fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2009;20:1613-20 pubmed publisher..05) and BMI < or = 19.0 (n = 206; HR, 0.37; 95%CI, 0.14-0.95; p = 0.04). Overall compliance with use of hip protectors was 79.7%. Risk of hip fracture can be reduced by hip protectors among elderly women with fall history and low BMI. ..
- Mendelson M, Lin Chen B, Solomon R, Bailey E, Kogan G, Goldbold J. Evaluation of a safety resheathable winged steel needle for prevention of percutaneous injuries associated with intravascular-access procedures among healthcare workers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003;24:105-12 pubmed..The residual risk of injury associated with this device can be reduced further with increased compliance with proper activation procedures. ..
- Khatib R, Killeen G, Abdulla S, Kahigwa E, McElroy P, Gerrets R, et al. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania. Malar J. 2008;7:98 pubmed publisher..Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily suppressed the net market, illustrating that in this setting that these are complementary rather than mutually exclusive approaches. ..
- Roberts L. Combating malaria. Battling over bed nets. Science. 2007;318:556-9 pubmed
- Pfeifer M, Sinaki M, Geusens P, Boonen S, Preisinger E, Minne H. Musculoskeletal rehabilitation in osteoporosis: a review. J Bone Miner Res. 2004;19:1208-14 pubmed..Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of combined bone- and fall-directed strategies in patients with osteoporosis and an increased propensity to falls. ..
- Parker M, Gillespie W, Gillespie L. Effectiveness of hip protectors for preventing hip fractures in elderly people: systematic review. BMJ. 2006;332:571-4 pubmed..Accumulating evidence indicates that hip protectors are an ineffective intervention for those living at home and that their effectiveness in an institutional setting is uncertain. ..
- Patel S, Ogunremi L, Chinappen U. Acceptability and compliance with hip protectors in community-dwelling women at high risk of hip fracture. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2003;42:769-72 pubmed..Their use should be restricted to highly motivated women who should be carefully identified. ..
- Holzer G, Holzer L. Hip protectors and prevention of hip fractures in older persons. Geriatrics. 2007;62:15-20 pubmed..The design and wearing comfort of hip protectors are also important factors in adherence. Hip protectors with a more patient-friendly design are now available, and new studies should help clarify relevant issues. ..
- Lamontagne F, Abiteboul D, Lolom I, Pellissier G, Tarantola A, Descamps J, et al. Role of safety-engineered devices in preventing needlestick injuries in 32 French hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007;28:18-23 pubmed..88; P<.02). In this French hospital network, the use of SEDs was associated with a significantly lower NSI rate and was probably the most important preventive factor. ..
- Armadans Gil L, Fernández Cano M, Albero Andrés I, Anglés Mellado M, Sánchez García J, Campins Marti M, et al. [Safety-engineered devices to prevent percutaneous injuries: cost-effectiveness analysis on prevention of high-risk exposure]. Gac Sanit. 2006;20:374-81 pubmed..Savings in SI care outweigh additional costs of certain ESIPDs. Cost-effectiveness analysis is useful in assigning priorities; however the risks of SI by every device must be taken into account. ..
- Birks Y, Hildreth R, Campbell P, Sharpe C, Torgerson D, Watt I. Randomised controlled trial of hip protectors for the prevention of second hip fractures. Age Ageing. 2003;32:442-4 pubmed..10, 95% confidence interval 0.62-15.58). Hip protectors had no effect on risk of other fractures or on falls. this trial does not suggest a benefit of the studied hip protector among people living outside residential accommodation. ..
- Honkanen L. External hip protectors and risk of hip fracture. JAMA. 2003;290:883-4; author reply 884-5 pubmed