orbital implants


Summary: Rounded objects made of coral, teflon, or alloplastic polymer and covered with sclera, and which are implanted in the orbit following enucleation. An artificial eye (EYE, ARTIFICIAL) is usually attached to the anterior of the orbital implant for cosmetic purposes.

Top Publications

  1. Shoamanesh A, Pang N, Oestreicher J. Complications of orbital implants: a review of 542 patients who have undergone orbital implantation and 275 subsequent PEG placements. Orbit. 2007;26:173-82 pubmed
    To inform patients and physicians of the complications associated with three commonly used orbital implants, as well as associated anophthalmic socket issues...
  2. Hicks C, Morrison D, Lou X, Crawford G, Gadjatsy A, Constable I. Orbital implants: potential new directions. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2006;3:805-15 pubmed
    This article reviews orbital implants used to replace an eye after enucleation or evisceration. Advantages of implant placement are described, with discussion of implant and wrap material, and design features that affect clinical outcomes...
  3. Migliori M. Enucleation versus evisceration. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2002;13:298-302 pubmed
    ..The choice of procedure to accomplish this is best made by an informed patient. Enucleation and evisceration can each achieve the desired goals, but several factors must be considered in choosing the most appropriate procedure. ..
  4. Morel X, Bourgade J, D Hermies F, Renard G. [Modified evisceration for biocolonizable orbital implant: the four-square technique]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2004;27:903-6 pubmed
    ..Evisceration with the four-square technique is a safe and quick method, which can be used for most patients, except those with an intraocular neoplasia. ..
  5. Sadiq S, Mengher L, Lowry J, Downes R. Integrated orbital implants--a comparison of hydroxyapatite and porous polyethylene implants. Orbit. 2008;27:37-40 pubmed publisher
    ..cosmetic results and rate of serious complications between hydroxyapatite (HA) and porous polyethylene (PP) orbital implants. Patients who had undergone orbital implant surgery during the period 1993 to 1997 by a single surgeon were ..
  6. Blaydon S, Shepler T, Neuhaus R, White W, Shore J. The porous polyethylene (Medpor) spherical orbital implant: a retrospective study of 136 cases. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;19:364-71 pubmed
    ..Our series revealed no significant difference in exposure rate between wrapped and unwrapped PP sphere implants, nor was the exposure rate affected by whether an eye was eviscerated or enucleated. ..
  7. Ramey N, Gupta D, Price K, Husain A, Richard M, Woodward J. Comparison of complication rates of porous anophthalmic orbital implants. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2011;42:434-40 pubmed publisher
    Porous anophthalmic orbital implants are used widely...
  8. Nam S, Bae Y, Moon J, Kang Y. Analysis of the postoperative outcome in 405 cases of orbital fracture using 2 synthetic orbital implants. Ann Plast Surg. 2006;56:263-7 pubmed
    ..the possible alterative data in postoperative outcome in change with the application of 2 synthetic orbital implants: porous polyethylene (Medpor) and hydroxyapatite (Biocoral)...
  9. Wang J, Lai P. Bioceramic orbital implant exposure repaired by a retroauricular myoperiosteal graft. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2008;39:399-403 pubmed
    ..The graft contains myofibrovascularized tissue, provides durable and vascularized coverage of exposed implants, and only requires a nearby harvesting site. The exposure completely resolved without recurrence after 2 years of follow-up. ..

More Information


  1. Jordan D, Klapper S, Gilberg S. The use of vicryl mesh in 200 porous orbital implants: a technique with few exposures. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;19:53-61 pubmed
    To report the results of a wrapping technique for porous orbital implants by using polyglactin 910 (Vicryl) mesh (Ethicon Inc., Somerville, NJ, U.S.A.)...
  2. O Donnell B, Kersten R, McNab A, Rose G, Rosser P. Enucleation versus evisceration. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;33:5-9 pubmed
    ..Case two has had postoperative endophthalmitis, and the possibility of implant infection following insertion of an orbital implant with evisceration and enucleation is discussed. ..
  3. Su G, Yen M. Current trends in managing the anophthalmic socket after primary enucleation and evisceration. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;20:274-80 pubmed
    ..A total of 2,779 primary orbital implants were reported, comprising 1,919 (69.1%) enucleations and 860 (30.9%) eviscerations...
  4. Custer P, Kennedy R, Woog J, Kaltreider S, Meyer D. Orbital implants in enucleation surgery: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:2054-61 pubmed
    ..This includes the use of wrapping materials and what procedural modifications, both surgical and prosthetic, are most effective in reducing these complications. ..
  5. You J, Seo J, Kim Y, Choi W. Six cases of bacterial infection in porous orbital implants. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2003;47:512-8 pubmed
    ..hydroxyapatite implants were removed 14 days to 41 months postoperatively, and synthetic porous polyethylene orbital implants were inserted...
  6. Leonardi A, Buonaccorsi S, Pellacchia V, Moricca L, Indrizzi E, Fini G. Maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation using extraoral implants. J Craniofac Surg. 2008;19:398-405 pubmed publisher
    ..According to our experience, the indication to epithesis is when the conventional reconstructive interventions is inapplicable. ..
  7. Kim J, Chung H, Kim N, Lee M, Khwarg S. The effect of autologous serum eye drops on the conjunctivalization over exposed porous polyethylene orbital implant (Medpor(®)) in the rabbit model. Orbit. 2011;30:83-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the efficacy of autologous serum eye drops (AS) in enhancing conjunctivalization over a scleral patch graft on exposed porous polyethylene orbital implant (Medpor(®))...
  8. Yoon J, Lew H, Kim S, Lee S. Exposure rate of hydroxyapatite orbital implants a 15-year experience of 802 cases. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:566-572.e2 pubmed
    To document the long-term experience with hydroxyapatite (HA) orbital implants (Bio-Eye) and analyze the factors influencing implant exposure, including surgical type, procedural modification, use of different wrapping materials and peg ..
  9. Tawfik H, Budin H. Evisceration with primary implant placement in patients with endophthalmitis. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:1100-3 pubmed
    ..This would avoid a secondary surgical intervention in most patients, as opposed to delayed secondary implantation, in which case 100% of the patients would require, at least theoretically, another intervention. ..
  10. Karsloğlu S, Serin D, Şimşek İ, Ziylan S. Implant infection in porous orbital implants. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;22:461-6 pubmed
    To analyze implant infection in patients with porous orbital implants. A retrospective analysis of 212 patients with one of five types of porous orbital implants (bone-derived hydroxyapatite [HA], coralline HA, synthetic HA, porous ..
  11. Trichopoulos N, Augsburger J. Enucleation with unwrapped porous and nonporous orbital implants: a 15-year experience. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;21:331-6 pubmed
    ..Implant exposure occurred at a low rate that was not significantly different in the two subgroups. ..
  12. Choi Y, Park C, Jin H, Choung H, Lee M, Kim N, et al. Outcome of smooth surface tunnel porous polyethylene orbital implants (Medpor SST) in children with retinoblastoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013;97:1530-3 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the surgical outcome after the insertion of smooth surface tunnel porous polyethylene orbital implants (Medpor SST) in children with retinoblastoma.
  13. Kim J, Khwarg S, Choung H, Yu Y. Management of porous polyethylene implant exposure in patients with retinoblastoma following enucleation. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2004;35:446-52 pubmed
    ..Porous polyethylene implant exposure does not seem to be resolved by conservative management. We recommend early surgical management, such as scleral patch graft, as opposed to supportive management. ..
  14. Cheng M, Liao S, Lin L. Late porous polyethylene implant exposure after motility coupling post placement. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138:420-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, longer postoperative follow-up is needed after insertion of a motility coupling post. ..
  15. Kim N, Choung H, Khwarg S. The survival of freely grafted orbital fat on porous polyethylene orbital implants in the rabbit. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2006;20:143-6 pubmed
    ..However, fat amounts were significantly reduced at 8 weeks, and viable fat was barely visible at 12 weeks. In rabbits, orbital fat grafted on Medpor implants was gradually resorbed, and the fat-occupied volume was not maintained. ..
  16. Viswanathan P, Sagoo M, Olver J. UK national survey of enucleation, evisceration and orbital implant trends. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:616-9 pubmed
    ..55% used porous orbital implants (porous polyethylene, hydroxyapatite or alumina) as their first choice and 42% used acrylic...
  17. Sagoo M, Olver J. Autogenous temporalis fascia patch graft for porous polyethylene (Medpor) sphere orbital implant exposure. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:942-6 pubmed
    ..This technique is useful, the graft easy to harvest, and did not lead to prolonged socket inflammation, infection, or extrusion. ..
  18. Chang T, Garrett N, Roumanas E, Beumer J. Treatment satisfaction with facial prostheses. J Prosthet Dent. 2005;94:275-80 pubmed
    ..The implant-retained facial prosthesis offers significant enhancement over an adhesive-retained prosthesis with respect to ease of use and retention during a variety of daily activities, resulting in greater use of the prosthesis. ..
  19. Lu L, Shi W, Luo M, Sun Y, Fan X. Repair of exposed hydroxyapatite orbital implants by subconjunctival tissue flaps. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:1452-6 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of the use of subconjunctival tissue flaps to repair exposed hydroxyapatite (HA) orbital implants.
  20. Chalasani R, Poole Warren L, Conway R, Ben Nissan B. Porous orbital implants in enucleation: a systematic review. Surv Ophthalmol. 2007;52:145-55 pubmed
    b>Orbital implants have been used for cosmesis following surgical removal of the eyeball, or enucleation, for over a century...
  21. Liao S, Kao S, Tseng J, Lin L. Surgical coverage of exposed hydroxyapatite implant with retroauricular myoperiosteal graft. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89:92-5 pubmed
    With the increasing use of hydroxyapatite orbital implants, the complication of exposure has become apparent to oculoplastic surgeons...
  22. Choi H, Lee J, Park H, Oum B, Kim H, Park D. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of fibrovascular ingrowth into porous polyethylene orbital implants. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;34:354-9 pubmed
    To evaluate fibrovascular ingrowth into porous polyethylene orbital implants, using serial gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 40 rabbits were divided into two groups, according to the surgical techniques used...
  23. Hui J. Outcomes of orbital implants after evisceration and enucleation in patients with endophthalmitis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2010;21:375-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent findings indicate enucleation and evisceration are performed for blind eyes with endophthalmitis and both porous and nonporous implants may be placed primarily with acceptable outcomes in these patients. ..
  24. Massry G, Holds J. Evisceration with scleral modification. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;17:42-7 pubmed
    ..Evisceration with scleral modification is a simple and effective procedure that allows placement of any size orbital implant. Surgical results are excellent with few complications. ..
  25. Schoen P, Raghoebar G, van Oort R, Reintsema H, van der Laan B, Burlage F, et al. Treatment outcome of bone-anchored craniofacial prostheses after tumor surgery. Cancer. 2001;92:3045-50 pubmed
    ..Radiotherapy is not a contraindication for the use of osseointegrated implants in the maxillofacial region, but the loss of implants is higher than in nonirradiated sites. ..
  26. Inkster C, Ng S, Leatherbarrow B. Primary banked scleral patch graft in the prevention of exposure of hydroxyapatite orbital implants. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:389-92 pubmed
    ..It thereby reduces the morbidity resulting from the procedure and obviates the need for further surgery when there is breakdown of the conjunctival wound postoperatively. ..
  27. Jordan D, Brownstein S, Gilberg S, Coupal D, Kim S, Mawn L. Hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate coatings on aluminium oxide orbital implants. Can J Ophthalmol. 2002;37:7-13 pubmed
    ..We carried out a study to examine uncoated and coated aluminium oxide (alumina) spherical orbital implants and assess whether the coatings influence fibrovascular ingrowth...
  28. Suter A, Molteno A, Bevin T, Fulton J, Herbison P. Long term follow up of bone derived hydroxyapatite orbital implants. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86:1287-92 pubmed
    To document the long term experience of bone derived hydroxyapatite orbital implants and compare results using scleral wrapped implants with those not using sclera...
  29. Mawn L, Jordan D, Gilberg S. Proliferation of human fibroblasts in vitro after exposure to orbital implants. Can J Ophthalmol. 2001;36:245-51 pubmed
    Porous orbital implants allow fibrovascular ingrowth and integration with the extraocular muscles. The available implants have different structural characteristics, which may influence orbital response...
  30. Goiato M, Fernandes A, dos Santos D, Barão V. Positioning magnets on a multiple/sectional maxillofacial prosthesis. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2007;8:101-7 pubmed
    ..This treatment is one successful approach to the restoration of oral function and increases the patient's quality of life. ..
  31. Obuchowska I, Mariak Z, Elmdhm S. [Surgical technique and complications of enucleation]. Klin Oczna. 2005;107:163-6 pubmed
    ..In this review, the authors discuss the current surgical technique of enucleation with orbital implant placement and their complications. ..
  32. Klein M, Weisz I, Camerer C, Menneking H, Kim D. Therapy of percutaneous infection around craniofacial implants. Int J Prosthodont. 2009;22:594-6 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that sulcus fluid flow rate measurements could serve as a simple and reliable objective parameter for recall examinations. ..
  33. Benatiya Andaloussi I, Bhallil S, Abdellaoui M, Chraibi F, Tahri H. [Tolerance of porous polyethylene orbital implants in children]. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol. 2012;:61-7 pubmed
    ..Using a porous polyethylene implant uncovered remains an appropriate technique in children under 15 years for the reconstruction of the anophthalmic cavity, provided a rigorous surgical technique. ..
  34. Shome D, Honavar S, Raizada K, Raizada D. Implant and prosthesis movement after enucleation: a randomized controlled trial. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:1638-44 pubmed publisher
  35. Su G, Harris G. Combined inferior and medial surgical approaches and overlapping thin implants for orbital floor and medial wall fractures. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;22:420-3 pubmed
  36. Chuah C, Chee S, Fong K, Por Y, Choo C, Luu C, et al. Integrated hydroxyapatite implant and non-integrated implants in enucleated Asian patients. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2004;33:477-83 pubmed
    This study compares the outcome and complications of integrated hydroxyapatite implant and non-integrated orbital implants following enucleation in Asian patients...
  37. Shields C, Kancherla S, Bianciotto C, Lally S, Shields J. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (squamous cell carcinoma) of the socket: management of extensive tumors with interferon. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;27:247-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients wearing ophthalmic prosthesis over a socket should be monitored for the development of OSSN. Combined topical and injection IFNa2b could represent a potentially effective therapy for this condition. ..
  38. Yoshida K, Takagi A, Tsuboi Y, Bessho K. Modified hygienic Epitec System abutment for magnetic retention of orbital prostheses. J Prosthodont. 2008;17:219-22 pubmed
    ..The patients could maintain good hygiene and healthy periimplant soft tissue. This type of freestanding retentive component may be advantageous for the hygiene maintenance of periimplant soft tissue. ..
  39. Musadiq M, Bhatt R, Mudhar H, Sandramouli S. Abscessed porous polyethylene (Medpor) orbital implant: a case report. Orbit. 2008;27:127-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Explanation of the implant resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. Histopathological examination confirmed focal necrotising acute inflammation with the presence of colonies of the organism in the deep substance of the implant...
  40. Schittkowski M. [Therapy options for blind microphthalmos and clinical anophthalmos]. Ophthalmologe. 2012;109:1122-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Highly hydrophilic osmotic expanders allow prostheses to be fitted in the first year of life to compensate for the volume deficit and the substantial aesthetic disadvantages and to stimulate lid development. ..
  41. Han D, Chi M. Comparison of the outcomes of blowout fracture repair according to the orbital implant. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:1422-5 pubmed publisher
    The clinical outcomes of blowout fracture repair classified by 2 types of orbital implants (Macropore and Medpor) were compared.
  42. Quaranta Leoni F. Congenital anophthalmia: current concepts in management. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2011;22:380-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Dermis-fat grafts are another reasonable option as an orbital implant, following adequate lid and socket expansion. ..
  43. Cho R, Elner V. Closure of mid-posterior Tenon's capsule in enucleation. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;26:462-6 pubmed publisher
  44. Goiato M, Haddad M, dos Santos D, Pesqueira A, Ribeiro P, Moreno A. Orbital implants insertion to improve ocular prostheses motility. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:870-5 pubmed publisher
    The objectives of this study were, through a literature review, to point the differences between orbital implants and their advantages and disadvantages, to evaluate prosthesis motility after orbital implants are inserted, and to point ..
  45. Custer P, McCaffery S. Complications of sclera-covered enucleation implants. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;22:269-73 pubmed
    ..The potential benefits of this technique must be balanced by the increased cost of the wrapping material and the rare but potential risk of transmitting infectious disease. ..
  46. Goiato M, Ribeiro P, Pellizzer E, Garcia Júnior I, Pesqueira A, Haddad M. Photoelastic analysis of stress distribution in different retention systems for facial prosthesis. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:757-61 pubmed publisher
  47. Frodel J. Computer-designed implants for fronto-orbital defect reconstruction. Facial Plast Surg. 2008;24:22-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The advantages of such implants created with computer assistance will be reviewed as well as indications for their use. ..
  48. Brandão S, Schellini S, Moraes A, Padovani C, Pellizzon C, Peitl O, et al. Biocompatibility analysis of bioglass® 45S5 and biosilicate® implants in the rabbit eviscerated socket. Orbit. 2012;31:143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors agree these implants might be useful in the management of the anophthalmic socket. ..
  49. Nunery W, Tao J, Johl S. Nylon foil "wraparound" repair of combined orbital floor and medial wall fractures. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;24:271-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The "wraparound" technique for 0.4-mm nylon foil implantation continuously across orbital floor and medial wall fractures was associated with almost no enophthalmos and diplopia in this series. ..
  50. Ding J, Chen T, Hou Z, Qin Y, Hao L, Li D. Cosmetic shell fitting over a sensitive cornea in mild phthisis bulbi using total conjunctival flap. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2013;37:398-401 pubmed publisher
    ..For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 . ..
  51. Subramaniam N, Udhay P, Mahesh L. Prepucial skin graft for forniceal and socket reconstruction in complete cryptophthalmos with congenital cystic eye. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;24:227-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the technique of socket reconstruction with autologous prepucial skin graft used in this patient. ..
  52. Jordan D. Localization of extraocular muscles during secondary orbital implantation surgery: the tunnel technique: experience in 100 patients. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:1048-54 pubmed
    ..Surgical outcomes were excellent, with few complications and high patient satisfaction. ..
  53. Defossez T, Garson S, Benabid L, Berthout A, Malthieu D, Milazzo S. [Reconstruction of anophthalmic socket by adipocyte grafting using the Coleman technique, after extrusion of an orbital implant: a case study]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2007;30:610-5 pubmed
    ..This technique seems simpler and avoids an unsightly scar on the harvest site (contrary to the traditional dermis-fat graft). On the other hand, it is more expensive and requires a minimum of training. ..