maxillofacial prosthesis


Summary: A prosthetic appliance for the replacement of areas of the maxilla, mandible, and face, missing as a result of deformity, disease, injury, or surgery. When the prosthesis replaces portions of the mandible only, it is referred to as MANDIBULAR PROSTHESIS.

Top Publications

  1. Singare S, Liu Y, Li D, Lu B, Wang J, He S. Individually Prefabricated Prosthesis for Maxilla Reconstuction. J Prosthodont. 2008;17:135-40 pubmed
    ..These cases show that the prefabrication of a prosthesis using modern manufacturing technology is an effective method for maxillofacial defect reconstruction...
  2. Mancuso D, Goiato M, Santos D. Color stability after accelerated aging of two silicones, pigmented or not, for use in facial prostheses. Braz Oral Res. 2009;23:144-8 pubmed
    ..The cosmetic powder used in this study was the pigment that most altered the color of the test specimens. ..
  3. Goiato M, Pesqueira A, dos Santos D, Antenucci R, Ribeiro P. Evaluation of dimensional change and detail reproduction in silicones for facial prostheses. Acta Odontol Latinoam. 2008;21:85-8 pubmed
    ..Regarding detail reproduction, no alteration of values was observed in any of the materials analyzed, regardless of storage period or disinfection. ..
  4. Haddad M, Goiato M, dos Santos D, Pesqueira A, Moreno A, Pellizzer E. Influence of pigment and opacifier on dimensional stability and detail reproduction of maxillofacial silicone elastomer. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:1612-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Accelerated aging is responsible for most of the dimensional changes in Silastic MDX4 4210, but all dimensional changes measured in this study remained within the limits of stability necessary for this application. ..
  5. Bellamy K, Limbert G, Waters M, Middleton J. An elastomeric material for facial prostheses: synthesis, experimental and numerical testing aspects. Biomaterials. 2003;24:5061-6 pubmed
    ..This preliminary study will serve as a basis to introduce more complex features such as viscoelasticity and wrinkling of the soft polymeric structure in order to optimise the performances of the final prosthetic material. ..
  6. Goiato M, Pesqueira A, Santos D, Dekon S. Evaluation of hardness and surface roughness of two maxillofacial silicones following disinfection. Braz Oral Res. 2009;23:49-53 pubmed
    ..MDX 4-4210 (28.59 Shore A, 0.789 Ra) presented higher values than Silastic 732 RTV (18.08 Shore A, 0.656 Ra) for both properties. Regarding the disinfection period, there was no significant difference in any of the materials tested. ..
  7. Goiato M, Haddad M, Santos D, Pesqueira A, Moreno A. Hardness evaluation of prosthetic silicones containing opacifiers following chemical disinfection and accelerated aging. Braz Oral Res. 2010;24:303-8 pubmed
    ..All groups displayed greater hardness after 1,008 hours of accelerated aging independent of disinfectant type. All of the hardness values were within the clinically acceptable range. ..
  8. Tsuji M, Noguchi N, Ihara K, Yamashita Y, Shikimori M, Goto M. Fabrication of a maxillofacial prosthesis using a computer-aided design and manufacturing system. J Prosthodont. 2004;13:179-83 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the digital data obtained is easy to store and transmit, and mirror-images can be readily generated by computer processing. This method offers an objective, quantified approach for fabricating maxillofacial prostheses. ..
  9. Mancuso D, Goiato M, Dekon S, Gennari Filho H. Visual evaluation of color stability after accelerated aging of pigmented and nonpigmented silicones to be used in facial prostheses. Indian J Dent Res. 2009;20:77-80 pubmed
    ..Silastic 732 RTV and Silastic MDX 4-4210, behaved similarly, they can therefore be indicated for use in maxillofacial prosthesis. The time factor of aging influenced negatively, independently of the pigmentation, or lack of it, and of ..

More Information


  1. Kiat amnuay S, Lemon J, Powers J. Effect of opacifiers on color stability of pigmented maxillofacial silicone A-2186 subjected to artificial aging. J Prosthodont. 2002;11:109-16 pubmed
    ..Yellow ochre and burnt sienna had an effect only on 15% kaolin powder calcined. Among all the pigment groups tested, yellow ochre remained the most color stable over time. ..
  2. Kiat amnuay S, Gettleman L, Khan Z, Goldsmith L. Effect of adhesive retention of maxillofacial prostheses. Part 2: Time and reapplication effects. J Prosthet Dent. 2001;85:438-41 pubmed
    ..After removal of the silicone rubber strip and reapplication of Secure(2) Medical Adhesive over the existing adhesive, bond strengths increased. ..
  3. Goiato M, Pesqueira A, Ramos da Silva C, Gennari Filho H, Micheline Dos Santos D. Patient satisfaction with maxillofacial prosthesis. Literature review. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009;62:175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..aimed to search information in database and conduct a literature review on patient satisfaction with maxillofacial prosthesis. The problems experienced by these patients may decrease when specialists keep the patient on regular ..
  4. Kiat amnuay S, Gettleman L, Khan Z, Goldsmith L. Effect of adhesive retention on maxillofacial prostheses. Part I: skin dressings and solvent removers. J Prosthet Dent. 2000;84:335-40 pubmed
    ..SP improved adhesion of both SMA (15%) and E3 (27%). SMA was still far more retentive. US had no effect on retention. SMA remained on the prostheses, whereas E3 left a difficult-to-remove residue on the skin. ..
  5. Eleni P, Krokida M, Frangou M, Polyzois G, Maroulis Z, Marinos Kouris D. Structural damages of maxillofacial biopolymers under solar aging. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2007;18:1675-81 pubmed
    ..A decrement in their melting points and heats was observed as irradiation time was increasing. Finally, experimental results demonstrated that solar radiation has a severe effect on the structural stability of the examined biomaterials. ..
  6. Goiato M, Fernandes A, dos Santos D, Barão V. Positioning magnets on a multiple/sectional maxillofacial prosthesis. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2007;8:101-7 pubmed
    ..An edentulous patient presented for a post-surgical evaluation of a maxillofacial prosthesis used to repair a partial maxillectomy and left orbital exoneration which removed all adjacent tissues ..
  7. Chang P, Hansen N, Phoenix R, Schneid T. The effects of primers and surface bonding characteristics on the adhesion of polyurethane to two commonly used silicone elastomers. J Prosthodont. 2009;18:23-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on T-peel strength, peel distance, and peak load data, the combination of silicone A-2000 and Sofreliner MS primer resulted in the greatest mean bond strength for silicone-to-polyurethane applications. ..
  8. Goiato M, Pesqueira A, dos Santos D, Zavanelli A, Ribeiro P. Color stability comparison of silicone facial prostheses following disinfection. J Prosthodont. 2009;18:242-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Disinfection with Efferdent did not statistically influence the mean color values. The factors of storage time and disinfection statistically influenced color stability; disinfection acts as a bleaching agent in silicone materials. ..
  9. Kiat amnuay S, Gettleman L, Goldsmith L. Effect of multi-adhesive layering on retention of extraoral maxillofacial silicone prostheses in vivo. J Prosthet Dent. 2004;92:294-8 pubmed
    ..Both E3 groups left a difficult-to-remove residue on the skin. SMA/E3 left a halo-like residue on the skin at the periphery of the strips from the E3 leaking around the SMA. SMA remained adherent to the prosthetic material. ..
  10. Han Y, Kiat amnuay S, Powers J, Zhao Y. Effect of nano-oxide concentration on the mechanical properties of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer. J Prosthet Dent. 2008;100:465-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Incorporation of Ti, Zn, or Ce nano-oxides at concentrations of 2.0% and 2.5% improved the overall mechanical properties of the silicone A-2186 maxillofacial elastomer. ..
  11. Kiat amnuay S, Waters P, Roberts D, Gettleman L. Adhesive retention of silicone and chlorinated polyethylene for maxillofacial prostheses. J Prosthet Dent. 2008;99:483-8 pubmed publisher
    ..005). The adhesive bond strengths of both SMA and E3, with and without the presence of SP, were not significantly different between A/M-U and CPE maxillofacial prosthetic materials. Adhesive failure occurred at the skin interface. ..
  12. Guiotti A, Goiato M, dos Santos D. Marginal deterioration of the silicone for facial prosthesis with pigments after effect of storage period and chemical disinfection. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:142-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of disinfection did not contribute to the marginal deterioration of polymer (silicone), regardless of the pigmentation and artificial aging. ..
  13. Hatamleh M, Watts D. Bonding of maxillofacial silicone elastomers to an acrylic substrate. Dent Mater. 2010;26:387-95 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Cosmesil Z004 along with primer A330-G gave the optimum silicone/primer combination to select on the basis of bond strengths. ..
  14. Lai J, Wang L, Ko C, DeLong R, Hodges J. New organosilicon maxillofacial prosthetic materials. Dent Mater. 2002;18:281-6 pubmed
    ..The presence of methacrylate groups in MPDS-MF enhances its adhesion to non-silicone based adhesive. Based on the present study, it appears that MPDS-MF is suitable for use in fabricating of clinical prostheses. ..
  15. Dahl J, Polyzois G. Irritation test of tissue adhesives for facial prostheses. J Prosthet Dent. 2000;84:453-7 pubmed
    ..On the basis of a test for eye irritation, the irritant potential of tissue adhesives varied from non to severe. The most severe reactions were mainly seen in products containing the solvent ethyl acetate. ..
  16. Kiat amnuay S, Mekayarajjananonth T, Powers J, Chambers M, Lemon J. Interactions of pigments and opacifiers on color stability of MDX4-4210/type A maxillofacial elastomers subjected to artificial aging. J Prosthet Dent. 2006;95:249-57 pubmed
    ..Dry pigment Ti white remained the most color stable over time, followed by the pigments mixed with kaolin powder calcined, Georgia kaolin, Artskin white, and Ti white artists' oil color. ..
  17. Autelitano L, Rabbiosi D, Poggio A, Biglioli F. Pericranium graft in reconstructive surgery of atrophied maxillary bones. Minerva Stomatol. 2008;57:265-71, 271-4 pubmed
    ..Considering its potential protective capability towards bone grafts and the lack of donor site morbidity, this technique should be considered as a standard procedure in preprosthetic reconstructive surgery. ..
  18. Sykes L, Du Plessis F, Essop R. Cancrum Oris--prosthetic aspects of treatment. SADJ. 2004;59:14-7 pubmed
  19. Heliövaara A, Ranta R, Hukki J, Rintala A. Skeletal stability of Le Fort I osteotomy in patients with isolated cleft palate and bilateral cleft lip and palate. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;31:358-63 pubmed
    ..8% (1.3 mm) vertically. The skeletal stability and relapse were similar in both cleft types although BCLP patients had more residual cleft problems and their mean surgical advancement was greater. There was great individual variation. ..
  20. Haddad M, Goiato M, Santos D, Crepaldi N, Pesqueira A, Bannwart L. Bond strength between acrylic resin and maxillofacial silicone. J Appl Oral Sci. 2012;20:649-54 pubmed
    The development of implant dentistry improved the possibilities of rehabilitation with maxillofacial prosthesis. However, clinically it is difficult to bond the silicone to the attachment system...
  21. Han Y, Powers J, Kiat amnuay S. Effect of opacifiers and UV absorbers on pigmented maxillofacial silicone elastomer, part 1: color stability after artificial aging. J Prosthet Dent. 2013;109:397-401 pubmed publisher
    ..05). All 3 opacifiers at all concentrations protected pigmented silicone MDX4-4210/Type A from color degradation. The LP group showed the smallest color changes. ..
  22. Peckitt N. Stereoscopic lithography: customized titanium implants in orofacial reconstruction. A new surgical technique without flap cover. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1999;37:353-69 pubmed
    ..There are implications for surgery in general, and further research and development is advocated. ..
  23. Goiato M, de Carvalho Dekon S, de Faria Almeida D, Sánchez D, dos Santos D, Pellizzer E. Patients' satisfaction after surgical facial reconstruction or after rehabilitation with maxillofacial prosthesis. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:766-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of this, the objective of the present article was to evaluate patient's satisfaction rating after surgical facial reconstruction or rehabilitation with oral and maxillofacial prosthesis, by means of reviewing the literature.
  24. Goiato M, Haddad M, Pesqueira A, Moreno A, dos Santos D, Bannwart L. Effect of chemical disinfection and accelerated aging on color stability of maxillofacial silicone with opacifiers. J Prosthodont. 2011;20:566-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color stability of MDX4-4210 maxillofacial elastomer with opacifier addition submitted to chemical disinfection and accelerated aging...
  25. Liu Q, Shao L, Xiang H, Zhen D, Zhao N, Yang S, et al. Biomechanical characterization of a low density silicone elastomer filled with hollow microspheres for maxillofacial prostheses. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2013;24:1378-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The composite with a volume fraction of 5% exhibited the optimal properties for use as a maxillofacial prosthesis, though its tear strength was markedly lower than that of silicone elastomer...
  26. Polyzois G, Tarantili P, Frangou M, Andreopoulos A. Physical properties of a silicone prosthetic elastomer stored in simulated skin secretions. J Prosthet Dent. 2000;83:572-7 pubmed
    ..The silicone specimens aged for a period, which simulates 1.5 years of clinical service, showed minimal changes with respect to the properties studied. ..
  27. Tran N, Scarbecz M, Gary J. In vitro evaluation of color change in maxillofacial elastomer through the use of an ultraviolet light absorber and a hindered amine light stabilizer. J Prosthet Dent. 2004;91:483-90 pubmed
    ..Additives did not affect color change in the alizarin red group. UVA and HALS were shown to be effective in retarding color change in some circumstances. ..
  28. Mothopi M, Owen C, Howes D, Naidoo L. The need for versatility in the prosthodontic treatment of maxillofacial defects. SADJ. 2012;67:420-3 pubmed
    ..The need for versatility in the prosthodontic treatment of maxillofacial defects. ..
  29. Tipton D, Lewis J. Effects of a hindered amine light stabilizer and a UV light absorber used in maxillofacial elastomers on human gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts. J Prosthet Dent. 2008;100:220-31 pubmed publisher
  30. Lai J, Hodges J. Effects of processing parameters on physical properties of the silicone maxillofacial prosthetic materials. Dent Mater. 1999;15:450-5 pubmed
    ..In fabricating clinical prostheses, special attention should be exercised to avoid contamination of A-2186 with impurities that could inhibit curing and produce inferior prostheses. ..
  31. Guttal S, Patil N, Shetye A. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a midfacial defect resulting from lethal midline granuloma--a clinical report. J Oral Rehabil. 2006;33:863-7 pubmed
    ..Secondarily the prosthesis also provided acceptable aesthetics and psychological benefit to the patient...
  32. Golovin R, Nabiev F, Grigor ian A, Rabukhina N, Perfil ev S. [Efficacy of use of X-ray contrast carbon material in maxillo-facial surgery]. Stomatologiia (Mosk). 2005;84:28-32 pubmed
    ..It was successful and the samples were visualized. In these cases spiral computed tomography is the optimal tool to make all deformation volume clear, to plan operative interventions and to observe the treatment results. ..
  33. Oki M, Ozawa S, Taniguchi H. A maxillary lip prosthesis retained by an obturator with attachments: A clinical report. J Prosthet Dent. 2002;88:135-8 pubmed
    ..The thin margin of the lip prosthesis ensured that it adapted well to functional movements. ..
  34. Janson M, Janson G, Santana E, de Castro R, de Freitas M. Orthodontic-surgical treatment of Class III malocclusion with extraction of an impacted canine and multi-segmented maxillary surgery. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010;137:840-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This treatment approach allowed correction of the maxillary dental midline discrepancy to the midsagittal plane and establishment of good occlusion and optimal esthetics. ..
  35. Eggbeer D, Bibb R, Evans P, Ji L. Evaluation of direct and indirect additive manufacture of maxillofacial prostheses. Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2012;226:718-28 pubmed
    ..This paper presents research into the evaluation of direct and indirect additive manufacture of a maxillofacial prosthesis against conventional laboratory-based techniques...
  36. Matsuura M, Ohno K, Michi K, Egawa K. Clinicoanatomic study on the craniofacial bones used for cranio- and maxillofacial implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2002;17:121-9 pubmed
    ..8 mm, and the mean width was 8.3 mm. Useful data have been obtained for the selection of the placements sites, direction, length, and external diameter of cranio- and maxillofacial implants. ..
  37. Schneider U, Gellrich N. [Magnet-retained orbital-zygomatic prosthesis--a case report]. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed. 2002;112:342-54 pubmed
  38. Bernhart B, Huryn J, Disa J, Shah J, Zlotolow I. Hard palate resection, microvascular reconstruction, and prosthetic restoration: a 14-year retrospective analysis. Head Neck. 2003;25:671-80 pubmed
    ..Normal speech can be anticipated with a high degree of certainty, and a high percentage of prosthetically restored free-flap patients achieved per oral diets. ..
  39. Klammert U, Gbureck U, Vorndran E, Rödiger J, Meyer Marcotty P, Kubler A. 3D powder printed calcium phosphate implants for reconstruction of cranial and maxillofacial defects. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2010;38:565-70 pubmed publisher
    ..3D powder printing of calcium phosphate cement material provides a promising new method for the manufacturing of biodegradable synthetic patient-specific craniofacial implants. ..
  40. Murata H, Hong G, Hamada T, Polyzois G. Dynamic mechanical properties of silicone maxillofacial prosthetic materials and the influence of frequency and temperature on their properties. Int J Prosthodont. 2003;16:369-74 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that a maxillofacial prosthesis should have a laminate or hybrid structure consisting of both the material with a greater cushioning ..
  41. Cao Y, Weischer T. Comparison of maxillary implant-supported prosthesis in irradiated and non-irradiated patients. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2003;23:209-12 pubmed
    ..01). It was concluded that the implants and prostheses in irradiated patients have significantly lower survival rates than in non-irradiated patients. ..
  42. Oh W, Roumanas E, Beumer J. Maxillofacial restoration after head and neck tumor therapy. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2007;28:70-6; quiz 77, 101 pubmed
    ..This article reviews current treatment modalities of tumor therapy, their consequences, and the restoration of maxillofacial defects. ..
  43. Abdulhadi L. Multiple retentive means for prosthetic restoration of a large facial defect - a case report. Chin J Dent Res. 2010;13:61-6 pubmed
    ..Multiple retentive techniques may be used to fix heavy external prostheses as an alternative to conventional implants or biological adhesives. ..
  44. Sykes L, Parrott A, Owen C, Snaddon D. Applications of rapid prototyping technology in maxillofacial prosthetics. Int J Prosthodont. 2004;17:454-9 pubmed
    ..The disadvantage of equipment costs could be overcome by establishing a centralized service. ..
  45. Reitemeier B, Unger M, Richter G, Ender B, Range U, Markwardt J. Clinical test of masticatory efficacy in patients with maxillary/mandibular defects due to tumors. Onkologie. 2012;35:170-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A nutritional guideline for patients with resection prostheses was developed, which is available for downloading free of charge on the Internet. ..
  46. Pellacchia V, Terenzi V, Moricca L, Buonaccorsi S, Indrizzi E, Fini G. Brain abscess by mycotic and bacterial infection in a diabetic patient: clinical report and review of literature. J Craniofac Surg. 2006;17:578-84 pubmed
    ..The authors decided to position an intraoral prosthesis to restore palatal integrity and masticatory function and inserted four titanium fixtures for the retention of the bone-anchored facial prosthesis...
  47. Mattos B, Montagna M, Fernandes C, Sabóia A. The pediatric patient at a maxillofacial service: Eye prosthesis. Braz Oral Res. 2006;20:247-51 pubmed
    ..However, the etiology of eye loss varied according to the considered gender and age bracket. ..
  48. Hulterström A, Ruyter I. Changes in appearance of silicone elastomers for maxillofacial prostheses as a result of aging. Int J Prosthodont. 1999;12:498-504 pubmed
    ..However, for a proper choice of material in a given case, these factors have to be related to biologic and mechanical properties of the material. ..
  49. Grayson B, Maull D. Nasoalveolar molding for infants born with clefts of the lip, alveolus, and palate. Clin Plast Surg. 2004;31:149-58, vii pubmed
    ..Preservation of these presurgical changes is achieved through the coordinated and modified surgical technique of the primary cleft repair. ..
  50. Crăciun A, Antohe M, Garbea C, Forna N. [Biomechanical behaviour of oro-maxillofacial prostheses]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2009;113:570-4 pubmed
    ..We may not speak of a successful prosthetic implant if we do not pay special attention to the mucous-bony deficit by specific prosthetic techniques. ..
  51. Tatarciuc M, Grădinaru I, Viţalariu A. [Dento-stomato-facial rehabilitation of young patients. Practical alternatives]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2004;108:690-5 pubmed
  52. Katyayan P, Katyayan M, Kalavathy N. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a maxillofacial defect in a chondrosarcoma patient. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2011;12:398-403 pubmed
    ..This article explains postsurgical prosthetic rehabilitation of a chondrosarcoma patient by means of intraoral acrylic, and extraoral silicone prosthesis for restoration of normal orofacial function and appearance. ..
  53. Granstrom G. Measurement of bone metal contact (BMC) in retrieved maxillofacial osseointegrated implants. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2000;543:114-7 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that extraoral osseointegrated implants in humans may integrate morphologically as well as clinically. By microradiography it was possible to define bone metal contact in the region of implant installation. ..