Genomes and Genes
Summary: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
- Tran T, Shi X, Zaia J, Ai X. Heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatases (Sulfs) coordinate the Wnt signaling pathways to regulate myoblast fusion during skeletal muscle regeneration. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32651-64 pubmed..Together, our findings uncover a critical role of Sulfs in myoblast fusion by promoting antagonizing canonical Wnt signaling activities against the noncanonical Wnt pathway during skeletal muscle regeneration. ..
- Bian S, Akyüz N, Bernreuther C, Loers G, Laczynska E, Jakovcevski I, et al. Dermatan sulfotransferase Chst14/D4st1, but not chondroitin sulfotransferase Chst11/C4st1, regulates proliferation and neurogenesis of neural progenitor cells. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:4051-63 pubmed publisher..By contrast, deficiency in Chst11 did not influence NSC proliferation, migration or differentiation. These observations indicate for the first time that CSs and DSs play distinct roles in the self-renewal and differentiation of NSCs. ..
- Soto Liebe K, Murillo A, Krock B, Stucken K, Fuentes Valdés J, Trefault N, et al. Reassessment of the toxin profile of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii T3 and function of putative sulfotransferases in synthesis of sulfated and sulfonated PSP toxins. Toxicon. 2010;56:1350-61 pubmed publisher..This is a significantly revised view of the genetic mechanisms underlying synthesis of sulfated and sulfonated STX analogues in toxigenic cyanobacteria...
- Wada T, Ihunnah C, Gao J, Chai X, Zeng S, Philips B, et al. Estrogen sulfotransferase inhibits adipocyte differentiation. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1612-23 pubmed publisher..In vivo, overexpression of EST in the adipose tissue of female transgenic mice resulted in smaller adipocyte size. Taken together, our results suggest that EST functions as a negative regulator of adipogenesis. ..
- Utriainen P, Laakso S, Jääskeläinen J, Voutilainen R. Polymorphisms of POR, SULT2A1 and HSD11B1 in children with premature adrenarche. Metabolism. 2012;61:1215-9 pubmed publisher..61 vs 0.49 mmol/L; P=.013). Common polymorphisms at POR, SULT2A1 or HSD11B1 were not associated with PA in a Finnish Caucasian population. ..
- Sheng J, Liu R, Xu Y, Liu J. The dominating role of N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 1 in forming domain structures in heparan sulfate. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19768-76 pubmed publisher..The study demonstrates the regulating role of NDST-1 in mapping the sulfation patterns of HS. ..
- McCarthy J, Eisman E, Kulkarni S, Gerwick L, Gerwick W, Wipf P, et al. Structural basis of functional group activation by sulfotransferases in complex metabolic pathways. ACS Chem Biol. 2012;7:1994-2003 pubmed publisher..activity was characterized and crystal structures were determined for two such "activating" sulfotransferases (STs) that sulfonate ?-hydroxyacyl thioester substrates...
- Yalcin E, Stangl H, Pichu S, Mather T, King R. Monoamine neurotransmitters as substrates for novel tick sulfotransferases, homology modeling, molecular docking, and enzyme kinetics. ACS Chem Biol. 2011;6:176-84 pubmed publisher..Genome screening reported transcripts coding for two putative sulfotransferases in whole tick extracts of the nymphal and larval stages...
- Lai J, Sandhu D, Yu C, Moser C, Hu C, Shire A, et al. Sulfatase 2 protects hepatocellular carcinoma cells against apoptosis induced by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and ERK and JNK kinase inhibitors. Liver Int. 2010;30:1522-8 pubmed publisher..The prosurvival, anti-apoptotic effect of SULF2 in HCC is mediated through activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. ..
- Sherry D, Murray A, Kanan Y, Arbogast K, Hamilton R, Fliesler S, et al. Lack of protein-tyrosine sulfation disrupts photoreceptor outer segment morphogenesis, retinal function and retinal anatomy. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;32:1461-72 pubmed publisher..sulfation in the retina, we examined retinal function and structure in mice lacking tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST) 1 and 2...
- Stiborova M, Mares J, Frei E, Arlt V, Martinek V, Schmeiser H. The human carcinogen aristolochic acid i is activated to form DNA adducts by human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase without the contribution of acetyltransferases or sulfotransferases. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2011;52:448-59 pubmed publisher..Because reduced aromatic nitro-compounds are often further activated by sulfotransferases (SULTs) or N,O-acetlytransferases (NATs), their roles in AAI activation were investigated...
- Croix J, Bhatia S, Gaskins H. Inflammatory cues modulate the expression of secretory product genes, Golgi sulfotransferases and sulfomucin production in LS174T cells. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2011;236:1402-12 pubmed publisher..the effects of selected microbial and host factors on expression of goblet cell secretory product genes, sulfotransferases and sulfomucin production...
- Lai J, Oseini A, Moser C, Yu C, Elsawa S, Hu C, et al. The oncogenic effect of sulfatase 2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma is mediated in part by glypican 3-dependent Wnt activation. Hepatology. 2010;52:1680-9 pubmed publisher..Opposite effects were observed in SULF2-knockdown models. In vivo, nude mouse xenografts established from SULF2-transfected Hep3B cells showed enhanced GPC3, Wnt3a, and ?-catenin levels...
- Hosono Fukao T, Ohtake Niimi S, Hoshino H, Britschgi M, Akatsu H, Hossain M, et al. Heparan sulfate subdomains that are degraded by Sulf accumulate in cerebral amyloid ß plaques of Alzheimer's disease: evidence from mouse models and patients. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:2056-67 pubmed publisher..These results indicate that formation of highly sulfated HS domains may be upregulated in conjunction with AD pathogenesis, and that these domains can be enzymatically remodeled in AD brains. ..
- Langsdorf A, Schumacher V, Shi X, Tran T, Zaia J, Jain S, et al. Expression regulation and function of heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatases in the spermatogonial stem cell niche. Glycobiology. 2011;21:152-61 pubmed publisher..Together, our studies not only identify Sulfs as essential regulators of GDNF signaling in the SSC niche, but also as direct downstream targets of WT1, thus establishing a physiological role of WT1 in Sertoli cells. ..
- Fernández Vega I, García O, Crespo A, Castañón S, Menendez P, Astudillo A, et al. Specific genes involved in synthesis and editing of heparan sulfate proteoglycans show altered expression patterns in breast cancer. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:24 pubmed publisher..In addition, the anti-proliferative molecule heparanase 2 experiences strong deregulation, thus highlighting it as a potentially interesting diagnostic factor. ..
- Takano M, Hikishima K, Fujiyoshi K, Shibata S, Yasuda A, Konomi T, et al. MRI characterization of paranodal junction failure and related spinal cord changes in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52904 pubmed publisher..These findings demonstrate the potential of using MRI and DTI to evaluate white matter disorders that involve paranodal junction failure. ..
- Patnode M, Yu S, Cheng C, Ho M, Tegesjö L, Sakuma K, et al. KSGal6ST generates galactose-6-O-sulfate in high endothelial venules but does not contribute to L-selectin-dependent lymphocyte homing. Glycobiology. 2013;23:381-94 pubmed publisher..Only two sulfotransferases have been shown to generate Gal6S, namely keratan sulfate galactose 6-O-sulfotransferase (KSGal6ST) and ..
- Karumbaiah L, Anand S, Thazhath R, Zhong Y, McKeon R, Bellamkonda R. Targeted downregulation of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase significantly mitigates chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-mediated inhibition. Glia. 2011;59:981-96 pubmed publisher..These findings reveal that selective attenuation of CS-E via siRNA targeting of GalNAc4S6ST significantly mitigates CSPG-mediated inhibition of neurons, potentially offering a novel intervention strategy for CNS injury. ..
- Bai Q, Xu L, Kakiyama G, Runge Morris M, Hylemon P, Yin L, et al. Sulfation of 25-hydroxycholesterol by SULT2B1b decreases cellular lipids via the LXR/SREBP-1c signaling pathway in human aortic endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis. 2011;214:350-6 pubmed publisher..Our data indicate that sulfation of 25HC by SULT2B1b plays an important role in the maintenance of intracellular lipid homeostasis via the LXR/SREBP-1c signaling pathway in HAECs. ..
- Dong D, Ako R, Wu B. Crystal structures of human sulfotransferases: insights into the mechanisms of action and substrate selectivity. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2012;8:635-46 pubmed publisherCytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) are the enzymes that catalyze the sulfonation reaction, an important metabolic pathway for numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds...
- Zhang X, Bai Q, Kakiyama G, Xu L, Kim J, Pandak W, et al. Cholesterol metabolite, 5-cholesten-3?-25-diol-3-sulfate, promotes hepatic proliferation in mice. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;132:262-70 pubmed publisher..25HC3S may be a potent regulator of hepatocyte proliferation and oxysterol sulfation may represent a novel regulatory pathway in liver proliferation via inactivating LXR signaling. ..
- Neugebauer J, Cadwallader A, Amack J, Bisgrove B, Yost H. Differential roles for 3-OSTs in the regulation of cilia length and motility. Development. 2013;140:3892-902 pubmed publisher..We propose that individual 3-OST isozymes create distinct modified domains or 'glycocodes' on cell surface proteoglycans, which in turn regulate the response to diverse cell signaling pathways. ..
- Hayano S, Kurosaka H, Yanagita T, Kalus I, Milz F, Ishihara Y, et al. Roles of heparan sulfate sulfation in dentinogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:12217-29 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate that Sulf-mediated desulfation of cellular HSPGs is an important modification that is critical for the activation of the Wnt signaling in odontoblasts and for production of the dentin matrix. ..
- Ji W, Yang J, Wang D, Cao L, Tan W, Qian H, et al. hSulf-1 gene exhibits anticancer efficacy through negatively regulating VEGFR-2 signaling in human cancers. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23274 pubmed publisher..Therefore, hSulf-1-mediated antiproliferation and antiangiogenesis could be a reasonable approach for cancer therapy. ..
- Kajigaya H, Tanaka K, Hayashi A, Suzuki A, Ishibashi T, Ikenaka K, et al. Increased numbers of oligodendrocyte lineage cells in the optic nerves of cerebroside sulfotransferase knockout mice. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2011;87:415-24 pubmed..However, BrdU(+) proliferating OPCs were more abundant in CST-deficient mice. These results suggest that sulfated glycolipids may be involved in proliferation of OPCs in vivo. ..
- Zhou Z, Thiagarajan P, Udden M, Lopez J, Guchhait P. Erythrocyte membrane sulfatide plays a crucial role in the adhesion of sickle erythrocytes to endothelium. Thromb Haemost. 2011;105:1046-52 pubmed publisher..Similarly, the extent of adhesion of sulfatide-deficient erythrocytes was lower than normal erythrocytes. These findings suggest an important role for membrane sulfatide in sickle cell disease pathophysiology...
- Matsuzaki Y, Ogawa Ohnishi M, Mori A, Matsubayashi Y. Secreted peptide signals required for maintenance of root stem cell niche in Arabidopsis. Science. 2010;329:1065-7 pubmed publisher..The RGFs function independently of the auxin pathway. These peptide signals play a crucial role in postembryonic root development. ..
- Martiny V, Carbonell P, Lagorce D, Villoutreix B, Moroy G, Miteva M. In silico mechanistic profiling to probe small molecule binding to sulfotransferases. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73587 pubmed publisher..We focus on sulfotransferases (SULTs), a family of phase II metabolizing enzymes, acting on a large number of drugs and hormones and ..
- James M, Ambadapadi S. Interactions of cytosolic sulfotransferases with xenobiotics. Drug Metab Rev. 2013;45:401-14 pubmed publisherCytosolic sulfotransferases are a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of the sulfonic group from 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate to hydroxy or amine groups in substrate molecules...
- Ringvall M, Kjellen L. Mice deficient in heparan sulfate N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 1. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2010;93:35-58 pubmed publisherNdsts (N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferases) are enzymes responsible for N-sulfation during heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin biosynthesis...
- Stiborova M, Indra R, Moserova M, Cerná V, Rupertova M, Martinek V, et al. Cytochrome b5 increases cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated activation of anticancer drug ellipticine to 13-hydroxyellipticine whose covalent binding to DNA is elevated by sulfotransferases and N,O-acetyltransferases. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012;25:1075-85 pubmed publisher..of 13-hydroxyellipticine with either 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate or acetyl-CoA catalyzed by human sulfotransferases 1A1, 1A2, 1A3, and 2A1, or N,O-acetyltransferases 1 and 2...
- Voermans N, Kempers M, Lammens M, van Alfen N, Janssen M, BÃ¶nnemann C, et al. Myopathy in a 20-year-old female patient with D4ST-1 deficient Ehlers-Danlos syndrome due to a homozygous CHST14 mutation. Am J Med Genet A. 2012;158A:850-5 pubmed publisher..Findings of muscle ultrasound, electromyography, and muscle biopsy pointed to a myopathy, similarly as in other EDS types. This myopathy probably contributes to the gross motor developmental delay in this type of EDS. ..
- Alcolombri U, Elias M, Tawfik D. Directed evolution of sulfotransferases and paraoxonases by ancestral libraries. J Mol Biol. 2011;411:837-53 pubmed publisher..We designed and constructed such libraries using serum paraoxonases and cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) as model enzymes...
- Li J, Mo M, Chen Z, Yang J, Li Q, Wang D, et al. HSulf-1 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion in human gastric cancer. Cancer Sci. 2011;102:1815-21 pubmed publisher..Together, the results of the present study suggest that extracellular HSulf-1 may function as a negative regulator of proliferation and invasion in gastric cancer by suppressing Wnt ? ?-catenin signaling at the cell surface. ..
- Khurana A, Liu P, Mellone P, Lorenzon L, Vincenzi B, Datta K, et al. HSulf-1 modulates FGF2- and hypoxia-mediated migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2011;71:2152-61 pubmed publisher..03 and P ? 0.0001, respectively). Collectively, these results reveal an important link between loss of HSulf-1 under hypoxic microenvironment and increased growth factor signaling, cell migration, and invasion. ..
- Cooney C, Jousheghany F, Yao Borengasser A, Phanavanh B, Gomes T, Kieber Emmons A, et al. Chondroitin sulfates play a major role in breast cancer metastasis: a role for CSPG4 and CHST11 gene expression in forming surface P-selectin ligands in aggressive breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. 2011;13:R58 pubmed publisher..Removal of CS-GAGs greatly reduces metastatic lung colonization by 4T1 cells. The data strongly indicate that CS-GAGs and their biosynthetic pathways are promising targets for the development of anti-metastatic therapies. ..
- Klüppel M. The roles of chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase-1 in development and disease. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2010;93:113-32 pubmed publisher..Proper 4-sulfation of chondroitin by C4ST-1 plays a crucial role in the skeletal development and signaling events, and new evidence is suggestive of a potential role for C4ST-1 in human disease, including cancer. ..
- Hevir N, Sinkovec J, Rizner T. Disturbed expression of phase I and phase II estrogen-metabolizing enzymes in endometrial cancer: lower levels of CYP1B1 and increased expression of S-COMT. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;331:158-67 pubmed publisher..The importance of the changed ratio between soluble and membrane-bound COMT still needs to be evaluated in further studies. ..
- Arslan S. Genetic polymorphisms of sulfotransferases (SULT1A1 and SULT1A2) in a Turkish population. Biochem Genet. 2010;48:987-94 pubmed publisherb>Sulfotransferases (SULTs) play a significant role in the biotransformation of a variety of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. SULTs are genetically polymorphic enzymes; to date, 12 human cytosolic SULT isoforms have been identified...
- Malmstrom A, Bartolini B, Thelin M, Pacheco B, Maccarana M. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate: biosynthesis and biological function. J Histochem Cytochem. 2012;60:916-25 pubmed publisher..This short review presents the biosynthesis and functions of iduronic acid-containing structures, also as revealed by the analysis of the DS-epi1- and 2-deficient mouse models. ..
- Valentim C, Cioli D, Chevalier F, Cao X, Taylor A, Holloway S, et al. Genetic and molecular basis of drug resistance and species-specific drug action in schistosome parasites. Science. 2013;342:1385-9 pubmed publisher..mansoni and S. haematobium, the two species responsible for >99% of schistosomiasis cases worldwide...
- Bret C, Moreaux J, Schved J, Hose D, Klein B. SULFs in human neoplasia: implication as progression and prognosis factors. J Transl Med. 2011;9:72 pubmed publisher..SULF1 and SULF2 are overexpressed in various human cancer types and can be associated to progression and prognosis. Targeting SULF1 and/or SULF2 could be interesting strategies to develop novel cancer therapies. ..
- Hur K, Han T, Jung E, Yu J, Lee H, Kim W, et al. Up-regulated expression of sulfatases (SULF1 and SULF2) as prognostic and metastasis predictive markers in human gastric cancer. J Pathol. 2012;228:88-98 pubmed publisher..We provide novel evidence that hypomethylation of promoter CpG islands within SULF genes imparts them with oncogenic potential in GC. Moreover, our data suggest that SULF1 may serve as a promising biomarker for patients with GC. ..
- Shibata T, Matsumura F, Wang P, Yu S, Chou C, Khoo K, et al. Identification of mono- and disulfated N-acetyl-lactosaminyl Oligosaccharide structures as epitopes specifically recognized by humanized monoclonal antibody HMOCC-1 raised against ovarian cancer. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:6592-602 pubmed publisher..co-transfections was performed using mammalian expression vectors encoding specific glycosyltransferases and sulfotransferases. These experiments identified one sulfotransferase, GAL3ST3, and one glycosyltransferase, B3GNT7, as ..
- Si H, Zhao J, Cui L, Lian N, Feng H, Duan Y, et al. Study of human dopamine sulfotransferases based on gene expression programming. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2011;78:370-7 pubmed publisherA quantitative model is developed to predict the Km of 47 human dopamine sulfotransferases by gene expression programming...
- Hirakawa J, Tsuboi K, Sato K, Kobayashi M, Watanabe S, Takakura A, et al. Novel anti-carbohydrate antibodies reveal the cooperative function of sulfated N- and O-glycans in lymphocyte homing. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:40864-78 pubmed publisher..Thus, the two mAbs generated by a novel method revealed the cooperative function of sulfated N- and O-glycans in lymphocyte homing and immune surveillance. ..
- Mendoza Londono R, Chitayat D, Kahr W, Hinek A, Blaser S, Dupuis L, et al. Extracellular matrix and platelet function in patients with musculocontractural Ehlers-Danlos syndrome caused by mutations in the CHST14 gene. Am J Med Genet A. 2012;158A:1344-54 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, we ruled out the contribution of intrinsic platelet factors to the bleeding diathesis observed in some affected individuals. ..
- Meng S, Wu B, Singh R, Yin T, Morrow J, Zhang S, et al. SULT1A3-mediated regiospecific 7-O-sulfation of flavonoids in Caco-2 cells can be explained by the relevant molecular docking studies. Mol Pharm. 2012;9:862-73 pubmed publisher..health benefits, but the extensive metabolism by uridine-5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and sulfotransferases (SULTs) in liver and intestine led to poor oral bioavailabilities...
- Ekuase E, Liu Y, Lehmler H, Robertson L, Duffel M. Structure-activity relationships for hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls as inhibitors of the sulfation of dehydroepiandrosterone catalyzed by human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase SULT2A1. Chem Res Toxicol. 2011;24:1720-8 pubmed publisher..have been shown to alter the metabolism of endocrine hormones, including inhibition of mammalian cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) that are responsible for the inactivation of thyroid hormones and phenolic steroids (i.e...
- Raman K, Nguyen T, Kuberan B. Is N-sulfation just a gateway modification during heparan sulfate biosynthesis?. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:3420-3 pubmed publisher..In this article we radically change conventional assumptions regarding HS biosynthesis by providing in vitro evidence that N-sulfation is not necessarily just a gateway modification during HS biosynthesis. ..