cdpdiacylglycerol serine o phosphatidyltransferase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphatidylserine and CMP from CDPdiglyceride plus serine. EC

Top Publications

  1. Canet S, Heyde M, Portalier R, Laloi P. Involvement of phospholipids in resistance and adaptation of Escherichia coli to acid conditions and to long-term survival. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;225:207-11 pubmed
    ..If either PE or both PG and CL are missing, the exposure to pHo 5 does not increase the survival at pHo 3. ..
  2. Raetz C. Isolation of Escherichia coli mutants defective in enzymes of membrane lipid synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975;72:2274-8 pubmed
    ..The screening technique described here is termed replica printing and should be applicable not only to studies of phospholipid metabolism but also to nucleic acid and protein synthesis. ..
  3. Matsuo Y, Fisher E, Patton Vogt J, Marcus S. Functional characterization of the fission yeast phosphatidylserine synthase gene, pps1, reveals novel cellular functions for phosphatidylserine. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:2092-101 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal novel cellular functions for phosphatidylserine and emphasize the usefulness of S. pombe as a model organism for elucidating potentially conserved biological and molecular functions of this phospholipid. ..
  4. Kodaki T, Nikawa J, Hosaka K, Yamashita S. Functional analysis of the regulatory region of the yeast phosphatidylserine synthase gene, PSS. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:7992-5 pubmed
    ..The TATA box is located at positions -112 to -108. In addition, PSS contains a negative cis-acting sequence between UAS2 and the TATA box. ..
  5. Kinney A, Bae Lee M, Panghaal S, Kelley M, Gaynor P, Carman G. Regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:1133-6 pubmed
    ..The increase in phosphatidylinositol synthesis was not due to the regulation of phosphatidylinositol synthase by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. ..
  6. Zhang W, Liu J, Hu X, Li P, Leak R, Gao Y, et al. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reduce Neonatal Hypoxic/Ischemic Brain Injury by Promoting Phosphatidylserine Formation and Akt Signaling. Stroke. 2015;46:2943-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, n-3 PUFAs promote the formation of membrane phosphatidylserine, thereby promoting Akt activity and improving cellular survival. ..
  7. Dzugasova V, Subik J. Synthetic lethal interaction between the pel1 and op1 mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2005;50:293-9 pubmed
  8. Kiyono K, Miura K, Kushima Y, Hikiji T, Fukushima M, Shibuya I, et al. Primary structure and product characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHO1 gene that encodes phosphatidylserine synthase. J Biochem. 1987;102:1089-100 pubmed
    ..5 mM at high L-serine concentrations. This may indicate a negatively cooperative regulation of this enzyme activity or the presence of two active components with different affinities for L-serine. ..
  9. Bukata L, Altabe S, de Mendoza D, Ugalde R, Comerci D. Phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis is required for optimal virulence of Brucella abortus. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:8197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that membrane phospholipid composition is critical for the interaction of B. abortus with the host cell. ..

More Information


  1. Grandmaison P, Nanowski T, Vance J. Externalization of phosphatidylserine during apoptosis does not specifically require either isoform of phosphatidylserine synthase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1636:1-11 pubmed
    ..Moreover, a normal level of expression of PSS1 and/or PSS2 is not required for generating the pool of PtdSer externalized during apoptosis. ..
  2. Dowhan W. Phosphatidylserine synthase from Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 1992;209:287-98 pubmed
  3. Su X, Dowhan W. Translational regulation of nuclear gene COX4 expression by mitochondrial content of phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:743-53 pubmed
  4. Klig L, Homann M, Kohlwein S, Kelley M, Henry S, Carman G. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant with a partial defect in the synthesis of CDP-diacylglycerol and altered regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:1878-86 pubmed
    ..The cdg1 lesion also caused constitutive expression of inositol-1-phosphate synthase and elevated phosphatidylserine synthase. Phosphatidylinositol synthase was not affected in the cdg1 mutant. ..
  5. El Alaoui H, Bata J, Peyret P, Vivares C. Encephalitozoon cuniculi (Microspora): characterization of a phospholipid metabolic pathway potentially linked to therapeutics. Exp Parasitol. 2001;98:171-9 pubmed
    ..This is strong evidence for the functionality of a metabolic pathway which could be a potential target against microsporidia which infect humans...
  6. Ju S, Greenberg M. Valproate disrupts regulation of inositol responsive genes and alters regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis. Mol Microbiol. 2003;49:1595-603 pubmed
    ..Thus, in contrast to the effect of chronic VPA treatment, short-term exposure to VPA abrogated the normal response to inositol depletion of inositol responsive genes and led to aberrant synthesis of phospholipids. ..
  7. Kinney A, Carman G. Phosphorylation of yeast phosphatidylserine synthase in vivo and in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:7962-6 pubmed
    ..Phospho amino acid analysis of labeled phosphatidylserine synthase showed that the enzyme was phosphorylated at a serine residue. ..
  8. Vences Guzmán M, Geiger O, Sohlenkamp C. Sinorhizobium meliloti mutants deficient in phosphatidylserine decarboxylase accumulate phosphatidylserine and are strongly affected during symbiosis with alfalfa. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:6846-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, changes in lipid composition, including the accumulation of bacterial PS, prevent the establishment of a nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis. ..
  9. Bulawa C, Raetz C. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli strains defective in CDP-diglyceride hydrolase. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:11257-64 pubmed
    ..iii) Mutants in the cdh gene are defective in both CDP- and dCDP-diglyceride hydrolysis, while cdh clones overproduce both activities. (iv) Hydrolase mutants accumulate both CDP- and dCDP-diglyceride. ..
  10. Nishibori A, Kusaka J, Hara H, Umeda M, Matsumoto K. Phosphatidylethanolamine domains and localization of phospholipid synthases in Bacillus subtilis membranes. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:2163-74 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that phospholipids are produced mostly in the septal membranes and that CL and PE are kept from diffusing out to lateral ones. ..
  11. Bailis A, Lopes J, Kohlwein S, Henry S. Cis and trans regulatory elements required for regulation of the CHO1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:1411-8 pubmed
  12. Chen Y, Montedonico A, Kauffman S, Dunlap J, Menn F, Reynolds T. Phosphatidylserine synthase and phosphatidylserine decarboxylase are essential for cell wall integrity and virulence in Candida albicans. Mol Microbiol. 2010;75:1112-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Cho1p is conserved in fungi, but not mammals, so fungal PS synthase is a potential novel antifungal drug target. ..
  13. Morii H, Koga Y. CDP-2,3-Di-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol:L-serine O-archaetidyltransferase (archaetidylserine synthase) in the methanogenic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:1181-9 pubmed
    ..The possibility that a gene encoding the subclass II phosphatidylserine synthase might be transferred from a bacterium to an ancestor of methanogens is discussed. ..
  14. Choi H, Carman G. Respiratory deficiency mediates the regulation of CHO1-encoded phosphatidylserine synthase by mRNA stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31217-27 pubmed
    ..This work advances our understanding of phosphatidylserine synthase regulation and underscores the importance of mitochondrial respiration to the regulation of phospholipid synthesis in S. cerevisiae. ..
  15. Matsumoto K. Phosphatidylserine synthase from bacteria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1348:214-27 pubmed
    ..In addition, considerations of the origin and evolution of the two vastly different subclasses of phosphatidylserine synthases of bacteria are also presented. ..
  16. Vincent P, Maneta Peyret L, Sturbois Balcerzak B, Duvert M, Cassagne C, Moreau P. One of the origins of plasma membrane phosphatidylserine in plant cells is a local synthesis by a serine exchange activity. FEBS Lett. 1999;464:80-4 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the PS in the plasma membrane of leek cells has two different origins: the intracellular vesicular pathway from the ER and a local synthesis in the plasma membrane. ..
  17. Buccoliero R, Bodennec J, van Echten Deckert G, Sandhoff K, Futerman A. Phospholipid synthesis is decreased in neuronal tissue in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease. J Neurochem. 2004;90:80-8 pubmed
  18. Vaena De Avalos S, Su X, Zhang M, Okamoto Y, Dowhan W, Hannun Y. The phosphatidylglycerol/cardiolipin biosynthetic pathway is required for the activation of inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C, Isc1p, during growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:7170-7 pubmed
    ..This study provides the first evidence for the mechanism of in vivo activation and function of Isc1p. A model with endogenous PG/CL as the in vivo activator of Isc1p is proposed. ..
  19. Radcliffe C, Steiner F, Carman G, Niederman R. Characterization and localization of phosphatidylglycerophosphate and phosphatidylserine synthases in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Arch Microbiol. 1989;152:132-7 pubmed
    ..3 in the presence of CDP-diacylglycerol. The PGP synthase activity gave rise to a single polypeptide band in lithium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at 4 degrees C. ..
  20. Jani N, Lopes J. Regulated transcription of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphatidylinositol biosynthetic gene, PIS1, yields pleiotropic effects on phospholipid synthesis. FEMS Yeast Res. 2009;9:552-64 pubmed publisher
  21. Yamashita S, Nikawa J. Phosphatidylserine synthase from yeast. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1348:228-35 pubmed
    ..An octameric sequence, CATRTGAA (R = A or G), plays an important role in the conferral of the myo-inositol-choline transcriptional regulation. ..
  22. Janitor M, Jarosch E, Schweyen R, Subik J. Molecular characterization of the PEL1 gene encoding a putative phosphatidylserine synthase. Yeast. 1995;11:1223-31 pubmed
  23. Ardail D, Gasnier F, Lerme F, Simonot C, Louisot P, Gateau Roesch O. Involvement of mitochondrial contact sites in the subcellular compartmentalization of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:25985-92 pubmed
    ..These results show that the interorganelle trafficking of lipids may involve only highly specialized microdomains of both membranes, thereby allowing the maintenance of a specific lipid composition and distribution within membranes...
  24. Raetz C. Phosphatidylserine synthetase mutants of Escherichia coli. Genetic mapping and membrane phospholipid composition. J Biol Chem. 1976;251:3242-9 pubmed
    ..After 3 hours at 44 degrees the level of phosphatidylethanolamine drops from 66 to 32% (percentage of the total lipid phosphorus), while the combined levels of phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin rise from 34 to 68%. ..
  25. Raetz C, Foulds J. Envelope composition and antibiotic hypersensitivity of Escherichia coli mutants defective in phosphatidylserine synthetase. J Biol Chem. 1977;252:5911-5 pubmed
  26. Kodaki T, Hosaka K, Nikawa J, Yamashita S. Identification of the upstream activation sequences responsible for the expression and regulation of the PEM1 and PEM2 genes encoding the enzymes of the phosphatidylethanolamine methylation pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biochem. 1991;109:276-87 pubmed
  27. Raetz C, Carman G, Dowhan W, Jiang R, Waszkuc W, Loffredo W, et al. Phospholipids chiral at phosphorus. Steric course of the reactions catalyzed by phosphatidylserine synthase from Escherichia coli and yeast. Biochemistry. 1987;26:4022-7 pubmed
    ..Such results lend strong support to the ping-pong mechanism proposed for the E. coli enzyme and the sequential Bi-Bi mechanism proposed for the yeast enzyme, both based on previous isotopic exchange experiments. ..
  28. Hikiji T, Miura K, Kiyono K, Shibuya I, Ohta A. Disruption of the CHO1 gene encoding phosphatidylserine synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biochem. 1988;104:894-900 pubmed
    ..These results imply the presence of a route(s) for the formation of ethanolamine or its phosphorylated derivative in S. cerevisiae. ..
  29. Lamping E, Luckl J, Paltauf F, Henry S, Kohlwein S. Isolation and characterization of a mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with pleiotropic deficiencies in transcriptional activation and repression. Genetics. 1994;137:55-65 pubmed
    ..Thus, Dep1p appears to be a new member of a class of transcriptional modulators, including Rpd1p/Sin3p/Ume4p/Sdi1p/Gam3p, Rpd3p, Spt10p and Spt21p. ..
  30. Choi H, Han G, Carman G. Phosphorylation of yeast phosphatidylserine synthase by protein kinase A: identification of Ser46 and Ser47 as major sites of phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:11526-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that phosphatidylserine synthase is phosphorylated on Ser(46) and Ser(47) by protein kinase A, which results in a higher amount of enzyme for the net effect of stimulating the synthesis of phosphatidylserine. ..
  31. Raetz C, Larson T, Dowhan W. Gene cloning for the isolation of enzymes of membrane lipid synthesis: phosphatidylserine synthase overproduction in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977;74:1412-6 pubmed
    ..Because the membrane phospholipid composition of these overproducers is not greatly altered, we suggest that the synthase is normally present in excess. ..
  32. Koga Y, Morii H. Biosynthesis of ether-type polar lipids in archaea and evolutionary considerations. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2007;71:97-120 pubmed
    ..Considering the nature of the phospholipid synthesis pathways, we here propose that common phospholipid polar head groups were present in precells before the differentiation into archaea and bacteria. ..
  33. Vance J, Vance D. Does rat liver Golgi have the capacity to synthesize phospholipids for lipoprotein secretion?. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:5898-909 pubmed
    ..Synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine via decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine does not appear to occur in Golgi. ..
  34. Dygas A, Baranska J, Santella L. Ca2+-dependent phosphatidylserine synthesis in immature and mature starfish oocytes. Acta Biochim Pol. 2003;50:377-87 pubmed
    ..The reason for the greater synthesis of PS may be the higher level of expression of PSS1 in immature oocytes. ..
  35. Huijbregts R, de Kroon A, De Kruijff B. Rapid transmembrane movement of newly synthesized phosphatidylethanolamine across the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:18936-42 pubmed
    ..Pretreatment of both types of vesicles with sulfhydryl reagents, or of right-side out vesicles with proteinase K, did not affect the rate and extent of the transmembrane distribution of the newly synthesized PE. ..
  36. Ohta A, Waggoner K, Louie K, Dowhan W. Cloning of genes involved in membrane lipid synthesis. Effects of amplification of phosphatidylserine synthase in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:2219-25 pubmed
  37. Linde K, Gröbner G, Rilfors L. Lipid dependence and activity control of phosphatidylserine synthase from Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 2004;575:77-80 pubmed
    ..coli. Membrane association and activity of PtdSer synthase were increased by the two lipids, indicating their essential role in the positive regulation mechanism of the phosphatidylethanolamine level in the E. coli membrane. ..
  38. Kohlwein S, Kuchler K, Sperka Gottlieb C, Henry S, Paltauf F. Identification of mitochondrial and microsomal phosphatidylserine synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the gene product of the CHO1 structural gene. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:3778-81 pubmed
    ..In the absence of protease inhibitors during the preparation of membranes, the enzyme underwent degradation to an enzymatically active protein of 23,000 apparent molecular weight. ..
  39. Sohlenkamp C, de Rudder K, Geiger O. Phosphatidylethanolamine is not essential for growth of Sinorhizobium meliloti on complex culture media. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1667-77 pubmed
    ..Therefore, although choline permits Pcs-dependent PC formation in the mutant, it does not restore wild-type-like growth in minimal medium, suggesting that it is not only the lack of PC that leads to this drastic growth phenotype. ..
  40. Kuchler K, Daum G, Paltauf F. Subcellular and submitochondrial localization of phospholipid-synthesizing enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1986;165:901-10 pubmed
    ..Data concerning susceptibility to various inhibitors, heat sensitivity, and the pH optima indicate that there is a close similarity of the mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes that catalyze the same reaction. ..
  41. Li G, Chen S, Thompson M, Greenberg M. New insights into the regulation of cardiolipin biosynthesis in yeast: implications for Barth syndrome. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:432-41 pubmed
    ..Further characterization of these regulatory mechanisms holds great potential for the identification of novel functions of CL in mitochondrial and cellular processes. ..
  42. Matsumoto K, Okada M, Horikoshi Y, Matsuzaki H, Kishi T, Itaya M, et al. Cloning, sequencing, and disruption of the Bacillus subtilis psd gene coding for phosphatidylserine decarboxylase. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:100-6 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the lack of phosphatidylethanolamine in the B. subtilis membrane may be compensated for by the increases in the contents of glucosyldiacylglycerols by an unknown mechanism. ..
  43. Zhong Q, Li G, Gvozdenovic Jeremic J, Greenberg M. Up-regulation of the cell integrity pathway in saccharomyces cerevisiae suppresses temperature sensitivity of the pgs1Delta mutant. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:15946-53 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that functional Pgs1p is essential for cell wall biogenesis and activation of the PKC-Slt2 signaling pathway. ..
  44. Gaynor P, Greenberg M. Regulation of CDP-diacylglycerol synthesis and utilization by inositol and choline in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:5711-8 pubmed
    ..Important differences between S. pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae with regard to regulation of these enzymes are discussed. ..
  45. Zhang Y, Lu F, Chen G, Li Y, Wang J. Expression, purification, and characterization of phosphatidylserine synthase from Escherichia coli K12 in Bacillus subtilis. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:122-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The transformation of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylserine under PSS catalyzation was carried out in a biphasic system, which confirmed the actual catalyzing ability of the recombinant protein. ..
  46. Janitor M, Obernauerova M, Kohlwein S, Subik J. The pel1 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is deficient in cardiolipin and does not survive the disruption of the CHO1 gene encoding phosphatidylserine synthase. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1996;140:43-7 pubmed
  47. Okada M, Matsuzaki H, Shibuya I, Matsumoto K. Cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli of the Bacillus subtilis gene for phosphatidylserine synthase. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:7456-61 pubmed
    ..coli counterpart. This finding suggested that the unusual cytoplasmic localization of the E. coli phosphatidylserine synthase plays a role in the regulation of the phospholipid polar headgroup composition in this organism. ..
  48. Saha S, Furukawa Y, Matsuzaki H, Shibuya I, Matsumoto K. Directed mutagenesis, Ser-56 to Pro, of Bacillus subtilis phosphatidylserine synthase drastically lowers enzymatic activity and relieves amplification toxicity in Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1996;60:630-3 pubmed
    ..Possible roles of the conserved region of the enzyme in its activity and the wild-type phospholipid composition in the proper membrane function are discussed. ..
  49. Sperka Gottlieb C, Fasch E, Kuchler K, Bailis A, Henry S, Paltauf F, et al. The hydrophilic and acidic N-terminus of the integral membrane enzyme phosphatidylserine synthase is required for efficient membrane insertion. Yeast. 1990;6:331-43 pubmed
    ..Thus, the hydrophilic, highly acidic N-terminus of PSS is required for efficient membrane insertion but does not appear to contain sequences required for a targeting to the membrane compartment. ..
  50. Shi W, Bogdanov M, Dowhan W, Zusman D. The pss and psd genes are required for motility and chemotaxis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:7711-4 pubmed
  51. Carman G, Han G. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by zinc depletion. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:322-30 pubmed
    ..Regulation of phospholipid synthesis may provide an important mechanism by which cells cope with the stress of zinc depletion, given the roles that phospholipids play in the structure and function of cellular membranes. ..
  52. Ge Z, Taylor D. The Helicobacter pylori gene encoding phosphatidylserine synthase: sequence, expression, and insertional mutagenesis. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4970-6 pubmed
    ..However, an isogenic pss gene-disrupted mutant of H. pylori UA802 could not be obtained, suggesting that this enzyme plays an essential role in the growth of this organism. ..
  53. Zhong Q, Greenberg M. Deficiency in mitochondrial anionic phospholipid synthesis impairs cell wall biogenesis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005;33:1158-61 pubmed
    ..The present review summarizes our analysis of suppression of pgs1Delta growth defects by a mutant that has a loss-of-function mutation in KRE5, a gene involved in cell wall biogenesis. ..
  54. Wu L, Niemeyer B, Colley N, Socolich M, Zuker C. Regulation of PLC-mediated signalling in vivo by CDP-diacylglycerol synthase. Nature. 1995;373:216-22 pubmed
    ..cds mutants undergo light-dependent retinal degeneration which can be suppressed by a mutation in phospholipase C. Thus, enzymes involved in PtdlnsP2 metabolism regulate phosphoinositide-mediated signalling cascades in vivo. ..
  55. Lee K, Yuan Y, Kuriyama R, Erikson R. Plk is an M-phase-specific protein kinase and interacts with a kinesin-like protein, CHO1/MKLP-1. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:7143-51 pubmed
    ..In addition, CHO1/MKLP-1 appears to interact with Plk in vivo and to be phosphorylated by Plk-associated kinase activity in vitro. ..
  56. Stone S, Vance J. Cloning and expression of murine liver phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS)-2: differential regulation of phospholipid metabolism by PSS1 and PSS2. Biochem J. 1999;342 ( Pt 1):57-64 pubmed
    ..In addition, mRNAs encoding the two synthases are differentially expressed in several murine tissues, supporting the idea that PSS1 and PSS2 might perform unique functions. ..
  57. Salamon Z, Lindblom G, Rilfors L, Linde K, Tollin G. Interaction of phosphatidylserine synthase from E. coli with lipid bilayers: coupled plasmon-waveguide resonance spectroscopy studies. Biophys J. 2000;78:1400-12 pubmed
    ..The results reported herein lend experimental support to a previously suggested mechanism for the regulation of the polar head group composition in E. coli membranes. ..
  58. Zhong Q, Greenberg M. Regulation of phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase by inositol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not at the level of PGS1 mRNA abundance. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:33978-84 pubmed
    ..Thus, whereas inositol controls phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase activity, regulation of PGS1 expression occurs primarily in response to mitochondrial development cues. ..
  59. Tuller G, Daum G. Import of sterols into mitochondria of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 1995;372:29-32 pubmed
  60. Zhao M, Rua D, Hajra A, Greenberg M. Enzymatic synthesis of [3H]Cytidine 5'-diphospho-1, 2-diacyl-sn-glycerol. Anal Biochem. 1998;258:48-52 pubmed
    ..This procedure is considerably less labor intensive and less expensive than is chemical synthesis, and the yield is at least 30%. ..
  61. Carman G, Henry S. Phospholipid biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and interrelationship with other metabolic processes. Prog Lipid Res. 1999;38:361-99 pubmed
  62. Manoharan K, Chae H, Cha J, Cho S, Shin S, Cho B, et al. Synthesis of phosphatidylserine in carrot cells cultured under carbon-source starvation. Plant Cell Physiol. 2000;41:1143-8 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the increase in PS level plays an important role in membranes which are degraded during starvation. ..
  63. Saha S, Nishijima S, Matsuzaki H, Shibuya I, Matsumoto K. A regulatory mechanism for the balanced synthesis of membrane phospholipid species in Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1996;60:111-6 pubmed
  64. Bae Lee M, Carman G. Regulation of yeast phosphatidylserine synthase and phosphatidylinositol synthase activities by phospholipids in Triton X-100/phospholipid mixed micelles. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:7221-6 pubmed
    ..Phosphatidylinositol synthase activity was not significantly effected by lipids. The role of lipid activators and inhibitors on phosphatidylserine synthase activity is discussed in relation to overall lipid metabolism. ..
  65. Aboulwafa M, Hvorup R, Saier M. Dependency of sugar transport and phosphorylation by the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system on membranous phosphatidylethanolamine in Escherichia coli: studies with a pssA mutant lacking phosphatidylserine synthase. Arch Microbiol. 2004;181:26-34 pubmed
    ..Alteration of the phospholipid composition of the membrane thus allows functional dissection of transport from the phosphorylation activities of PTS enzyme complexes. ..
  66. Iwanyshyn W, Han G, Carman G. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by zinc. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:21976-83 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that a decrease in the cytoplasmic levels of zinc was responsible for the alterations in phospholipid composition. ..
  67. He Q, Greenberg M. Post-translational regulation of phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase in response to inositol. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:1243-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first evidence of phosphorylation of a phospholipid biosynthetic enzyme in response to inositol and identifies a new mechanism of inositol-mediated regulation. ..
  68. Sparrow C, Raetz C. A trans-acting regulatory mutation that causes overproduction of phosphatidylserine synthase in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:9963-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, pssR1 acts by increasing the amount of the normal protein, not by activating the enzyme. The discovery of pssR shows that there are regulatory loci which control the production of enzymes involved in membrane lipid synthesis. ..
  69. Bae Lee M, Carman G. Phosphatidylserine synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Purification and characterization of membrane-associated phosphatidylserine synthase. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:10857-62 pubmed
    ..Thioreactive agents inhibited enzyme activity. The enzyme was thermally labile above 40 degrees C. Results of isotopic exchange reactions between substrates and products suggest that the enzyme catalyzes a sequential Bi Bi reaction. ..
  70. Vance J. Phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine in mammalian cells: two metabolically related aminophospholipids. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:1377-87 pubmed publisher
    ..PE can also be generated from a base-exchange reaction and by the acylation of lyso-PE. Cellular levels of PS and PE are tightly regulated by the implementation of multiple compensatory mechanisms. ..
  71. Voelker D. Reconstitution of phosphatidylserine import into rat liver mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:8019-25 pubmed
  72. Gaigg B, Simbeni R, Hrastnik C, Paltauf F, Daum G. Characterization of a microsomal subfraction associated with mitochondria of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Involvement in synthesis and import of phospholipids into mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1234:214-20 pubmed
    ..Reassociation of MAMs with purified mitochondria led to reconstitution of the import of phosphatidylserine into mitochondria. Organelle contact is suggested as a possible mechanism of this process. ..
  73. McDonough V, Buxeda R, Bruno M, Ozier Kalogeropoulos O, Adeline M, McMaster C, et al. Regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by CTP. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:18774-80 pubmed
    ..This regulation includes the supple of CTP for the phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase reaction in the CDP-choline pathway and the inhibition of the phosphatidylserine synthase reaction in the CDP-diacylglycerol pathway. ..
  74. Tyciakova S, Obernauerova M, Dokusova L, Kooistra R, Steensma H, Sulo P, et al. The KlPGS1 gene encoding phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase in Kluyveromyces lactis is essential and assigned to chromosome I. FEMS Yeast Res. 2004;5:19-27 pubmed
    ..lactis chromosomal DNA, the KlPGS1 gene was assigned to chromosome I. The nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper were submitted to GenBank and assigned the Accession No. AY176328. ..