uridine kinase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine to uridine 5'-phosphate and cytidine 5'-phosphate, respectively. ATP, dUTP, dGTP, and dATP are effective phosphate donors. EC

Top Publications

  1. Ropp P, Traut T. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding uridine kinase from mouse brain. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1996;336:105-12 pubmed
    b>Uridine kinase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway of all mammalian cells. A cDNA for uridine kinase from mouse brain has been isolated, sequenced, and characterized...
  2. Boursaux Eude C, Margarita D, Gilles A, B rzu O, Saint Girons I. Borrelia burgdorferi uridine kinase: an enzyme of the pyrimidine salvage pathway for endogenous use of nucleotides. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1997;151:257-61 pubmed
    The 621 bp udk gene encoding Borrelia burgdorferi potential uridine kinase, involved in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, was cloned and sequenced...
  3. Shen F, Look K, Yeh Y, Weber G. Increased uridine kinase (ATP: uridine 5'-phosphotransferase; EC activity in human and rat tumors. Cancer Biochem Biophys. 1998;16:1-15 pubmed
    The activity of uridine kinase (ATP: uridine 5'-phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.1...
  4. Kurtz J, Exinger F, Erbs P, Jund R. New insights into the pyrimidine salvage pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: requirement of six genes for cytidine metabolism. Curr Genet. 1999;36:130-6 pubmed
    ..is cleaved into cytosine by the uridine nucleosidase (Urh1p),(3) cytidine is phosphorylated into CMP by the uridine kinase (Urk1p),(4) a block in cytosine deaminase (Fcy1p), but not in cytidine deaminase (Cdd1p), constitutes a ..
  5. Yuh I, Yaoi T, Watanabe S, Okajima S, Hirasawa Y, Fushiki S. Up-regulated uridine kinase gene identified by RLCS in the ventral horn after crush injury to rat sciatic nerves. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;266:104-9 pubmed
    ..Secondly, the rat homologue of uridine kinase gene was identified as one of the up-regulated genes...
  6. Koizumi K, Shimamoto Y, Azuma A, Wataya Y, Matsuda A, Sasaki T, et al. Cloning and expression of uridine/cytidine kinase cDNA from human fibrosarcoma cells. Int J Mol Med. 2001;8:273-8 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that our cloned human UCK cDNA encodes the correct amino acid sequence for UCK protein, showing high intracellular phosphorylation activity forward natural and synthetic pyrimidine nucleosides. ..
  7. Shimamoto Y, Koizumi K, Okabe H, Kazuno H, Murakami Y, Nakagawa F, et al. Sensitivity of human cancer cells to the new anticancer ribo-nucleoside TAS-106 is correlated with expression of uridine-cytidine kinase 2. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2002;93:825-33 pubmed
    ..It could not be detected at all in any of the normal tissues. Thus, expression of UCK2 appeared to be correlated with cellular sensitivity to TAS-106, and it may contribute to the tumor-selective cytotoxicity of TAS-106. ..
  8. Islam M, Kim H, Kang S, Kim J, Jeong Y, Hwang H, et al. Functional characterization of a gene encoding a dual domain for uridine kinase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol Biol. 2007;63:465-77 pubmed
    b>Uridine kinase (UK) and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) are enzymes catalyzing the formation of uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) from uridine and adenine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and from uracil and phosphoribosyl-alpha-l-pyrophosphate ..
  9. Murata D, Endo Y, Obata T, Sakamoto K, Syouji Y, Kadohira M, et al. A crucial role of uridine/cytidine kinase 2 in antitumor activity of 3'-ethynyl nucleosides. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004;32:1178-82 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that UCK2 is responsible for the phosphorylation and activation of the antitumor 3'-ethynyl nucleosides. ..

More Information


  1. Kashuba E, Kashuba V, Sandalova T, Klein G, Szekely L. Epstein-Barr virus encoded nuclear protein EBNA-3 binds a novel human uridine kinase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. BMC Cell Biol. 2002;3:23 pubmed
    ..Sequence alignment with known proteins and 3D structure predictions suggest that F538 is a novel human uridine kinase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase...
  2. Qimron U, Kulczyk A, Hamdan S, Tabor S, Richardson C. Inadequate inhibition of host RNA polymerase restricts T7 bacteriophage growth on hosts overexpressing udk. Mol Microbiol. 2008;67:448-57 pubmed
    ..5 that affect its interaction with T7 RNA polymerase, also reduce the interference with T7 growth by host RNA polymerase. We propose a general model for the requirement of host RNA polymerase inhibition. ..
  3. Appleby T, Larson G, Cheney I, Walker H, Wu J, Zhong W, et al. Structure of human uridine-cytidine kinase 2 determined by SIRAS using a rotating-anode X-ray generator and a single samarium derivative. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005;61:278-84 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that diffraction data collected from a single samarium derivative using Cu Kalpha radiation provides sufficient phasing power to determine a novel macromolecular crystal structure. ..
  4. Ropp P, Traut T. Uridine kinase: altered enzyme with decreased affinities for uridine and CTP. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1998;359:63-8 pubmed
    b>Uridine kinase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway for uridine or cytidine of mammalian cells...
  5. Staak S, Popov N, Matthies H. Effects of intraperitoneally applied D-galactosamine on uridine and cytidine plasma content and brain activity of uridine kinase in the rat. Biomed Biochim Acta. 1989;48:325-31 pubmed
    ..The activity of the enzyme, uridine kinase, in the hippocampal area of the rat brain was increased 2 h and 4 h after D-galactosamine treatment...
  6. Jin C, Yamamoto T, Nakamura M, Arai I, Kishin R, Xing X, et al. [Influence on 5-fluorouracil metabolism by combination of interferon-alpha and 5-fluorouracil against human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2004;31:1511-5 pubmed
    ..DPD), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT), uridine phosphorylase (UP) and uridine kinase (UK) were not significantly influenced in the tumors treated with the 5-FU/IFN-alpha combination, compared ..
  7. Murase M, Iwamura H, Komatsu K, Saito M, Maekawa T, Nakamura T, et al. Lack of cross-resistance to FF-10501, an inhibitor of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase, in azacitidine-resistant cell lines selected from SKM-1 and MOLM-13 leukemia cell lines. Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2016;4:e00206 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that an IMPDH inhibitor such as FF-10501 could be an alternative therapeutic treatment for leukemia patients with acquired resistance to azacitidine. ..
  8. Tomoike F, Nakagawa N, Kuramitsu S, Masui R. Structural and Biochemical Studies on the Reaction Mechanism of Uridine-Cytidine Kinase. Protein J. 2015;34:411-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The pH profile of the activity showed an apparent pK a value of 7.4. Based on this structure, a likely mechanism of the catalytic step is discussed. ..
  9. Haugaard N, Torbati A, Smithgall T, Wildey G. Stimulation of the phosphorylation of uridine in skeletal muscle by insulin and vanadate. Mol Cell Biochem. 1990;93:13-9 pubmed
    ..in TRIS buffer in the presence and absence of insulin, the hormone caused a significant activation of uridine kinase measured in cytosolic extracts of the incubated tissue...
  10. Stasolla C, Loukanina N, Ashihara H, Yeung E, Thorpe T. Comparative studies on pyrimidine metabolism in excised cotyledons of Pinus radiata during shoot formation in vitro. J Plant Physiol. 2007;164:429-41 pubmed
    ..a better substrate for the synthesis of salvage products than uracil, possibly due to the higher activity of uridine kinase (UK), compared to uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT)...
  11. van Kuilenburg A, Meinsma R. The pivotal role of uridine-cytidine kinases in pyrimidine metabolism and activation of cytotoxic nucleoside analogues in neuroblastoma. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1862:1504-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery that UCK2 is highly expressed in neuroblastoma opens the possibility for selectively targeting neuroblastoma cells using UCK2-dependent pyrimidine analogues, while sparing normal tissues. ..
  12. Rose J, Parker W, Someya H, Shaddix S, Montgomery J, Secrist J. Enhancement of nucleoside cytotoxicity through nucleotide prodrugs. J Med Chem. 2002;45:4505-12 pubmed
    ..Further cell culture experiments were conducted to gain insight into the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of these two prodrugs, and those data are reported. ..
  13. Suzuki N, Koizumi K, Fukushima M, Matsuda A, Inagaki F. Structural basis for the specificity, catalysis, and regulation of human uridine-cytidine kinase. Structure. 2004;12:751-64 pubmed
  14. Buivydiene A, Liakina V, Valantinas J, Norkuniene J, Mockiene E, Jokubauskiene S, et al. Expression Levels of the Uridine-Cytidine Kinase Like-1 Protein As a Novel Prognostic Factor for Hepatitis C Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinomas. Acta Naturae. 2017;9:108-114 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the high UCKL-1 expression might be a prognostic factor for HCC relapse, in combination with age and microvascular invasion. MRPS18-2 protein expression has no prognostic significance in the cases of HCV-associated HCC...
  15. Gao W, Shirasaka T, Johns D, Broder S, Mitsuya H. Differential phosphorylation of azidothymidine, dideoxycytidine, and dideoxyinosine in resting and activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Clin Invest. 1993;91:2326-33 pubmed
    ..comparative order of PHA-induced increase in cellular enzyme activities examined was: thymidine kinase > uridine kinase > deoxycytidine kinase > adenosine kinase > 5'-nucleotidase...
  16. Richel D, Colly L, Arentsen Honders M, Starrenburg C, Willemze R. Deoxycytidine kinase, thymidine kinase and cytidine deaminase and the formation of Ara-CTP in leukemic cells in different phases of the cell cycle. Leuk Res. 1990;14:363-9 pubmed
    ..Cell cycle phase-independent Ara-CTP formation creates a situation in which cells which are not in S-phase during exposure to Ara-C might undergo the cytotoxic effects of Ara-C as soon as they enter S-phase. ..
  17. Lossani A, Torti A, Gatti S, Bruno A, Maserati R, Wright G, et al. Thymidine kinase and uridine-cytidine kinase from Entamoeba histolytica: cloning, characterization, and search for specific inhibitors. Parasitology. 2009;136:595-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that inhibitors or alternative substrates of the enzymes, although partially reducing protozoan proliferation, are reversible and not likely to become drugs against E. histolytica infections. ..
  18. Ambrose E, Kornbluth J. Downregulation of uridine-cytidine kinase like-1 decreases proliferation and enhances tumor susceptibility to lysis by apoptotic agents and natural killer cells. Apoptosis. 2009;14:1227-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a role for UCKL-1 in tumor cell survival and suggest possible therapeutic potential of UCKL-1 inhibitors in cancer treatment. ..
  19. Okesli A, Khosla C, Bassik M. Human pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis as a target for antiviral chemotherapy. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2017;48:127-134 pubmed publisher
    ..The logic of a host-acting combination antiviral therapy comprised of inhibitors of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and uridine/cytidine kinase is discussed. ..
  20. Macdonald G, Walker T, Assef R, Duggan K. Uridine kinase inhibition is involved in the vasodilator effects of minoxidil in the rat. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1990;17:287-90 pubmed
    ..diphosphate in similar pressor doses, suggesting an action on either transport of uridine into cells or on uridine kinase which catalyses phosphorylation of uridine to uridine monophosphate, the mediator of uridine's vascular ..
  21. Preumont A, Snoussi K, Stroobant V, Collet J, van Schaftingen E. Molecular identification of pseudouridine-metabolizing enzymes. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25238-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene encoding this bifunctional protein is absent from the genomes of man and other mammals, indicating that the capacity for metabolizing pseudouridine has been lost late in evolution. ..
  22. Sato A, Takano T, Hiramoto A, Naito T, Matsuda A, Fukushima M, et al. Role of the uridine/cytidine kinase 2 mutation in cellular sensitiveness toward 3'-ethynylcytidine treatment of human cancer cells. Anticancer Drugs. 2017;28:781-786 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that these findings strongly suggest that the IVS5+5 G>A variant would affect the expression level of the UCK2 transcript, resulting in decreased sensitivity to ECyd...
  23. Neuhard J, Thomassen E. Altered deoxyribonucleotide pools in P2 eductants of Escherichia coli K-12 due to deletion of the dcd gene. J Bacteriol. 1976;126:999-1001 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome associated with P2 mediated education extend through the structural gene for uridine kinase, udk, and the dcd gene encoding 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate deaminase...
  24. Cheng N, Traut T. Uridine kinase: altered subunit size or enzyme expression as a function of cell type, growth stimulation, or mutagenesis. J Cell Biochem. 1987;35:217-29 pubmed
    Using antibody prepared against pure uridine kinase from Ehrlich ascites cells, we have measured the expression of enzyme protein by the Western blot technique...
  25. Malami I, Abdul A, Abdullah R, Bt Kassim N, Waziri P, Christopher Etti I. In Silico Discovery of Potential Uridine-Cytidine Kinase 2 Inhibitors from the Rhizome of Alpinia mutica. Molecules. 2016;21:417 pubmed publisher
    ..This can provide information to identify lead candidates for further drug design and development. ..
  26. Luccioni C, Beaumatin J, Bardot V, Lefrancois D. Pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism in human colon carcinomas: comparison of normal tissues, primary tumors and xenografts. Int J Cancer. 1994;58:517-22 pubmed
    ..The enzymes studied were thymidine kinase, thymidine phosphorylase, uridine kinase, uridine phosphorylase and thymidylate synthase...
  27. Ozaki K, Kuroki T, Hayashi S, Nakamura Y. Isolation of three testis-specific genes (TSA303, TSA806, TSA903) by a differential mRNA display method. Genomics. 1996;36:316-9 pubmed
    ..Our results imply that the differential display method is a powerful tool for isolation of tissue-specific genes even if they are expressed at a level as low as 1 in several hundred thousand to a million molecules of total mRNA. ..
  28. Smith A, Li Y, Houk K. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics investigation of the mechanism of phosphate transfer in human uridine-cytidine kinase 2. Org Biomol Chem. 2009;7:2716-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The interactions of the enzyme active site with the reactant, transition state, and product are examined for their implications on the design of anticancer prodrugs or positron emission tomography (PET) reporter probes for this enzyme. ..
  29. Yasuno H, Kurasawa M, Yanagisawa M, Sato Y, Harada N, Mori K. Predictive markers of capecitabine sensitivity identified from the expression profile of pyrimidine nucleoside-metabolizing enzymes. Oncol Rep. 2013;29:451-8 pubmed publisher
  30. Blaney S, Grem J, Balis F, Cole D, Adamson P, Poplack D. Mechanism of resistance to cyclopentenyl cytosine (CPE-C) in Molt-4 lymphoblasts. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993;45:1493-501 pubmed
    ..Elucidation of the mechanism of resistance in vitro may provide insight into the mechanism of action of the drug and potential mechanisms of resistance in vivo. ..
  31. Glavas Obrovac L, Karner I, Stefanic M, Kasnar Samprec J, Zinic B. Metabolic effects of novel N-1-sulfonylpyrimidine derivatives on human colon carcinoma cells. Farmaco. 2005;60:479-83 pubmed
    ..TsC was able to inhibit RNA polymerase (37%), orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (39%), uridine kinase (44%), ribonucleotid reductase (47%), and de novo purine synthesis (61%)...
  32. Kern L. The URK1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding uridine kinase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:5279 pubmed
  33. Sasaki Y, Ishikawa J, Yamashita A, Oshima K, Kenri T, Furuya K, et al. The complete genomic sequence of Mycoplasma penetrans, an intracellular bacterial pathogen in humans. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:5293-300 pubmed
    ..penetrans specific. The genome contains the two-component system but lacks the essential cellular gene, uridine kinase. The relatively large genome of M...
  34. Lortet S, Aussedat J, Rossi A. Synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides in the heart: uridine and cytidine kinase activity. Arch Int Physiol Biochim. 1987;95:289-98 pubmed
    ..10 microM, V = 4 nmol g-1 min-1 for cytidine kinase activity and Km = 43 microM and V = 18 nmol g-1 min-1 for uridine kinase activity...
  35. Katahira R, Ashihara H. Profiles of pyrimidine biosynthesis, salvage and degradation in disks of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. Planta. 2002;215:821-8 pubmed
    ..A novel pathway converting deoxycytidine to uracil nucleotides was found and deoxycytidine deaminase (EC, an enzyme that may participate in this pathway, was detected in the tuber extracts. ..
  36. Gao W, Johns D, Chokekuchai S, Mitsuya H. Disparate actions of hydroxyurea in potentiation of purine and pyrimidine 2',3'-dideoxynucleoside activities against replication of human immunodeficiency virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:8333-7 pubmed
  37. Przybyła T, Sakowicz Burkiewicz M, Maciejewska I, Bielarczyk H, Pawełczyk T. Suppression of ID1 expression in colon cancer cells increases sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil. Acta Biochim Pol. 2017;64:315-322 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, ID1 expression impacts the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to 5-FU and may be considered as a potential predictive marker in CRC treatment. ..
  38. van den Berg A, Van Lenthe H, Busch S, de Korte D, Van Kuilenburg A, Van Gennip A. The roles of uridine-cytidine kinase and CTP synthetase in the synthesis of CTP in malignant human T-lymphocytic cells. Leukemia. 1994;8:1375-8 pubmed
    ..This difference in salvage of pyrimidine ribonucleosides may be exploited for selective chemotherapy. ..
  39. Peretó J, Velasco A, Becerra A, Lazcano A. Comparative biochemistry of CO2 fixation and the evolution of autotrophy. Int Microbiol. 1999;2:3-10 pubmed
    ..However, different lines of evidence, including experimental reports on the NiS/FeS-mediated C-C bond formation from CO and CH3SH are used here to argue that the first CO2-fixation route may have been a semi-enzymatic Wood-like pathway. ..
  40. Benedetto A, Cassone A. Inhibition of uridine transport in cultured mammalian cells by theophylline. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1974;349:53-60 pubmed
    ..Upto a concentration of 10 mM, it does not inhibit uridine kinase neither in 37 RC nor in HeLa cells...
  41. Neuhard J, Tarpø L. Location of the udk gene on the physical map of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:5742-3 pubmed
  42. Shimamoto Y, Kazuno H, Murakami Y, Azuma A, Koizumi K, Matsuda A, et al. Cellular and biochemical mechanisms of the resistance of human cancer cells to a new anticancer ribo-nucleoside, TAS-106. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2002;93:445-52 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the TAS-106 sensitivity of cells is correlated with the intracellular accumulation of ECTP, which may be affected by both the cellular membrane transport mechanism and UCK activity. ..
  43. Domingo P, Torres Torronteras J, Pomar V, Giralt M, Domingo J, Gutierrez M, et al. Uridine metabolism in HIV-1-infected patients: effect of infection, of antiretroviral therapy and of HIV-1/ART-associated lipodystrophy syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13896 pubmed publisher
    ..Antiretroviral therapy was not associated with plasma uridine concentrations, but pure lipoatrophic HALS was associated with significantly lower plasma uridine concentrations. ..
  44. Van Rompay A, Norda A, Linden K, Johansson M, Karlsson A. Phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine nucleoside analogs by two human uridine-cytidine kinases. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;59:1181-6 pubmed
    ..The cloning and recombinant expression of the two human UCKs will be important for development of novel pyrimidine ribonucleoside analogs and the characterization of their pharmacological activation. ..
  45. Najarian T, Traut T. Nifedipine and nimodipine competitively inhibit uridine kinase and orotidine-phosphate decarboxylase: theoretical relevance to poor outcome in stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2000;14:237-41 pubmed
    ..competitive inhibitors of the only enzymes that are known to synthesize the nucleotide uridine-5'-phosphate: uridine kinase and orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase...
  46. Sripayap P, Nagai T, Uesawa M, Kobayashi H, Tsukahara T, Ohmine K, et al. Mechanisms of resistance to azacitidine in human leukemia cell lines. Exp Hematol. 2014;42:294-306.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides new insights into azacitidine resistance and establishes models useful in developing effective strategies to overcome it. ..
  47. Von Ohlen T, Luce Fedrow A, Ortega M, Ganta R, Chapes S. Identification of critical host mitochondrion-associated genes during Ehrlichia chaffeensis infections. Infect Immun. 2012;80:3576-86 pubmed publisher
    ..chaffeensis replication and that it may be important for the provision of CTP, uridine, and cytidine nucleotides. ..
  48. Beidler D, Candia A, Chernin M, Novak J. Resistance to pyrazofurin and 6-azauridine in normal MC3T3-E1 murine osteoblasts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989;1014:101-7 pubmed
    ..The control and AZUrdr cells showed equal sensitivity to 5-fluorouridine, thus indicating unchanged uridine kinase levels. While PFr cells were not cross-resistant to AZUrd, the AZUrdr cells were cross-resistant to PF...
  49. Jamil T, Swallow D, Povey S. A comparative study of the age-related patterns of decay of some nucleoside monophosphate kinases in human red cells. Biochem Genet. 1978;16:1219-32 pubmed
    ..The UMPK 2 isozyme showed a more rapid decay than the UMPK 1 isozyme, whereas no difference was observed between the AK 1 and AK 2 isozymes. ..
  50. Yasui H, Ogura A, Asanuma T, Matsuda A, Kashiwakura I, Kuwabara M, et al. Inhibition of HIF-1alpha by the anticancer drug TAS106 enhances X-ray-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:1442-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the possibility that TAS106 acts as a potent radiosensitiser through the inhibition of HIF-1alpha expression and can be a useful agent against radiotherapy-resistant hypoxic cells in solid tumours. ..
  51. Golitsina N, Danehy F, Fellows R, Cretton Scott E, Standring D. Evaluation of the role of three candidate human kinases in the conversion of the hepatitis C virus inhibitor 2'-C-methyl-cytidine to its 5'-monophosphate metabolite. Antiviral Res. 2010;85:470-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we present data suggesting that inefficient phosphorylation by UCK2 likely limits the antiviral activity of 2'-MeC against HCV. This paves the way for the use of a nucleotide prodrug approach to overcome this limitation. ..
  52. Tomoike F, Nakagawa N, Kuramitsu S, Masui R. A single amino acid limits the substrate specificity of Thermus thermophilus uridine-cytidine kinase to cytidine. Biochemistry. 2011;50:4597-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Thermophilus HB8. On the basis of these results, we discuss the pyrimidine-salvage pathway in T. thermophilus HB8. ..
  53. Peters G, Smid K, Vecchi L, Kathmann I, Sarkisjan D, Honeywell R, et al. Metabolism, mechanism of action and sensitivity profile of fluorocyclopentenylcytosine (RX-3117; TV-1360). Invest New Drugs. 2013;31:1444-57 pubmed publisher
    ..RX-3117 is incorporated into RNA and DNA, did not affect RNA integrity, depleted DNA methyltransferase and inhibited RNA and DNA synthesis. Nucleotide formation is related with sensitivity. ..
  54. Loukanina N, Stasolla C, Belmonte M, Yeung E, Thorpe T. Changes in the de novo, salvage, and degradation pathways of pyrimidine nucleotides during tobacco shoot organogenesis. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2008;46:665-72 pubmed publisher
    ..for the formation of nucleotides and nucleic acids through the activities of their respective salvage enzymes: uridine kinase (URK), and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT)...
  55. Wei S, Ageron Blanc A, Petridis F, Beaumatin J, Bonnet S, Luccioni C. Radiation-induced changes in nucleotide metabolism of two colon cancer cell lines with different radiosensitivities. Int J Radiat Biol. 1999;75:1005-13 pubmed
    ..These findings could be exploited in cancer therapy because higher enzyme activities after irradiation suggest that radiation exposure may render cells more sensitive to the drugs activated by these enzymes. ..
  56. Head J, Chahinian A, Greengard O. Enzymic composition and growth rate of human pleural mesothelioma transplants in nude mice. Cancer Biochem Biophys. 1991;12:127-36 pubmed
    ..The xenografts exhibited several-fold higher thymidine kinase (TK), uridine kinase (UK), phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP) and peptidyl proline hydroxylase (PPH) concentrations than the fresh ..
  57. Pizzorno G, Handschumacher R. Effect of clinically modeled regimens on the growth response and development of resistance in human colon carcinoma cell lines. Biochem Pharmacol. 1995;49:559-65 pubmed
    ..In the HCT-8 cell line derived from bolus treatment, resistance was associated with a 50-60% reduction in uridine kinase activity...
  58. Fasoli M, Kerridge D, Morris P, Torosantucci A. 19F nuclear magnetic resonance study of fluoropyrimidine metabolism in strains of Candida glabrata with specific defects in pyrimidine metabolism. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990;34:1996-2006 pubmed
    ..Both C. glabrata and Candida albicans were susceptible to 5-fluorouridine. This compound but not the anticancer drug 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine was shown to be transported into susceptible cells by a specific uridine permease. ..
  59. Suzuki N, Koizumi K, Fukushima M, Matsuda A, Inagaki F. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of human uridine-cytidine kinase 2. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003;59:1477-8 pubmed
    ..2 A. Form IV (with cytidine and ATP) belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 89.0, b = 109.7, c = 64.8 A, beta = 95.3 degrees. Diffraction data were collected from these crystals; form IV diffracted to 1.8 A resolution. ..
  60. Schumacher F, Wang Z, Skotheim R, Koster R, Chung C, Hildebrandt M, et al. Testicular germ cell tumor susceptibility associated with the UCK2 locus on chromosome 1q23. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:2748-53 pubmed publisher
    ..3 × 10(-3)). Here, we provide substantial evidence for the association between UCK2 genetic variation and TGCT risk. ..
  61. Aldenhoven J, Chen Y, Moran C. Assignment of UCK2, ATF3 and RGS18 from human chromosome 1 to porcine chromosomes 4, 9 and 10 with somatic and radiation hybrid panels. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2006;112:341F pubmed
  62. Drolia R, Von Ohlen T, Chapes S. Ehrlichia chaffeensis replication sites in adult Drosophila melanogaster. Int J Med Microbiol. 2013;303:40-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that in Drosophila, E. chaffeensis replicates within the hemocytes, the insect homolog of mammalian macrophages, and in the fat body, the liver homolog of mammals. ..
  63. Shadrin A, Sheppard C, Savalia D, Severinov K, Wigneshweraraj S. Overexpression of Escherichia coli udk mimics the absence of T7 Gp2 function and thereby abrogates successful infection by T7 phage. Microbiology. 2013;159:269-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that the transcriptional regulation of the T7 genome is surprisingly complex and might potentially be affected at many levels by phage- and host-encoded factors. ..
  64. Chen M, Thelen J. Plastid uridine salvage activity is required for photoassimilate allocation and partitioning in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:2991-3006 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize the uridine salvage pathway, two genes, UKL1 and UKL2, that tentatively encode uridine kinase (UK) and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) bifunctional enzymes were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  65. Zlatopolskiy B, Morgenroth A, Kunkel F, Urusova E, Dinger C, Kull T, et al. Synthesis and biologic study of IV-14, a new ribonucleoside radiotracer for tumor visualization. J Nucl Med. 2009;50:1895-903 pubmed publisher
    ..IV-14 is a UCK2-specific marker, allowing for in vivo addressing of tumors with high RNA synthesis independent of proliferation rate. ..
  66. Khramtsova S, Stromskaya T, Potapova G, Chumakov P, Kopnin B. Human p53, mutated at codon 273, causes distinct effects on nucleotide biosynthesis salvage pathway key enzymes in Rat-1 cells and in their derivatives expressing activated ras oncogene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;194:383-90 pubmed
    ..5- and 2-3-fold, respectively, while the activities of adenosine deaminase and uridine kinase, in contrast, increase correspondingly 2.5- and 1.5-fold...
  67. Page T, Yu A, Fontanesi J, Nyhan W. Developmental disorder associated with increased cellular nucleotidase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:11601-6 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that increased nucleotide catabolism is related to the symptoms of these patients, and that the effects of this increased catabolism are reversed by administration of uridine. ..
  68. Eide L, Sander C, Prydz H. Sequencing and analysis of a 35.4 kb region on the right [corrected] arm of chromosome IV from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal 23 open reading frames. Yeast. 1996;12:1085-90 pubmed
    ..The remaining 11 ORFs bore no significant similarity to any published protein. ..
  69. Maehara Y, Moriguchi S, Emi Y, Watanabe A, Kohnoe S, Tsujitani S, et al. Comparison of pyrimidine nucleotide synthetic enzymes involved in 5-fluorouracil metabolism between human adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer. 1990;66:156-61 pubmed
    ..As 5-FU is incorporated into tumor cells and is metabolized actively to 5-FU nucleotides in squamous cell carcinoma tissues, at almost the same level seen in adenocarcinoma tissues, this drug should have a wide clinical application. ..
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