pyridoxal kinase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyridoxal in the presence of ATP with the formation of pyridoxal 5-phosphate and ADP. Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and various derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC

Top Publications

  1. Lum H, Kwok F, Lo S. Cloning and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana pyridoxal kinase. Planta. 2002;215:870-9 pubmed
    b>Pyridoxal kinase (PK; EC, a key enzyme in vitamin B(6) metabolism, was cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and characterized. The amino acid sequence of the A...
  2. Safo M, Musayev F, Hunt S, di Salvo M, Scarsdale N, Schirch V. Crystal structure of the PdxY Protein from Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:8074-82 pubmed
    ..The structure of PdxY also permitted an interpretation of work that was previously published about this enzyme. ..
  3. Musayev F, di Salvo M, Ko T, Gandhi A, Goswami A, Schirch V, et al. Crystal Structure of human pyridoxal kinase: structural basis of M(+) and M(2+) activation. Protein Sci. 2007;16:2184-94 pubmed
    b>Pyridoxal kinase catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the 5' alcohol of pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxal...
  4. Shi H, Zhu J. SOS4, a pyridoxal kinase gene, is required for root hair development in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2002;129:585-93 pubmed
    ..The possible role of SOS4 in ethylene and auxin biosynthesis is discussed. ..
  5. Safo M, Musayev F, di Salvo M, Hunt S, Claude J, Schirch V. Crystal structure of pyridoxal kinase from the Escherichia coli pdxK gene: implications for the classification of pyridoxal kinases. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:4542-52 pubmed
    ..Two pyridoxal kinase structures have recently been published, including Escherichia coli pyridoxal kinase 2 (ePL kinase 2) and ..
  6. Flanagan J, Beutler E. The genetic basis of human erythrocyte pyridoxal kinase activity variation. Haematologica. 2006;91:801-4 pubmed
    Thirty years ago we reported that erythrocyte pyridoxal kinase activity of African-Americans was strikingly lower than that of persons with European ancestry in a tissue-specific manner...
  7. Cao P, Gong Y, Tang L, Leung Y, Jiang T. Crystal structure of human pyridoxal kinase. J Struct Biol. 2006;154:327-32 pubmed
    b>Pyridoxal kinase, a member of the ribokinase superfamily, catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation reaction of vitamin B6 and is an essential enzyme in the formation of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, a key cofactor for over 100 enzymes...
  8. Elstner M, Morris C, Heim K, Lichtner P, Bender A, Mehta D, et al. Single-cell expression profiling of dopaminergic neurons combined with association analysis identifies pyridoxal kinase as Parkinson's disease gene. Ann Neurol. 2009;66:792-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection of a genetic variant in PDXK, together with evidence accumulating from clinical studies, emphasize the impact of vitamin B6 status and metabolism on disease risk and therapy in PD. ..
  9. Li M, Kwok F, Chang W, Liu S, Lo S, Zhang J, et al. Conformational changes in the reaction of pyridoxal kinase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:17459-65 pubmed
    To understand the processes involved in the catalytic mechanism of pyridoxal kinase (PLK),1 we determined the crystal structures of PLK.AMP-PCP-pyridoxamine, PLK.ADP.PLP, and PLK.ADP complexes...

More Information


  1. Park J, Burns K, Kinsland C, Begley T. Characterization of two kinases involved in thiamine pyrophosphate and pyridoxal phosphate biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis: 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2methylpyrimidine kinase and pyridoxal kinase. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1571-3 pubmed
    ..subtilis ThiD has pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine kinase activity and should be reannotated PdxK. ..
  2. Gandhi A, Desai J, Ghatge M, di Salvo M, Di Biase S, Danso Danquah R, et al. Crystal structures of human pyridoxal kinase in complex with the neurotoxins, ginkgotoxin and theophylline: insights into pyridoxal kinase inhibition. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40954 pubmed publisher
    ..including theophylline and ginkgotoxin, have been traced to their inhibitory activity against human pyridoxal kinase (hPL kinase), resulting in deficiency of the active cofactor form of vitamin B?, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)...
  3. Takeuchi F, Tsubouchi R, Shibata Y. Effect of tryptophan metabolites on the activities of rat liver pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxamine 5-phosphate oxidase in vitro. Biochem J. 1985;227:537-44 pubmed
    b>Pyridoxal kinase was purified 4760-fold from rat liver. The Km values for pyridoxine and pyridoxal were 120 and 190 microM respectively, and pyridoxine showed substrate inhibition at above 200 microM...
  4. Merrill A, Henderson J, Wang E, McDonald B, Millikan W. Metabolism of vitamin B-6 by human liver. J Nutr. 1984;114:1664-74 pubmed
    ..b>Pyridoxal kinase (EC activities were 11.2 +/- 3.6 nmol/minute per gram of tissue and 0.16 +/- 0...
  5. Tang L, Li M, Cao P, Wang F, Chang W, Bach S, et al. Crystal structure of pyridoxal kinase in complex with roscovitine and derivatives. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:31220-9 pubmed
    b>Pyridoxal kinase (PDXK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxine in the presence of ATP and Zn2+...
  6. Shin J, Weitzdoerfer R, Fountoulakis M, Lubec G. Expression of cystathionine beta-synthase, pyridoxal kinase, and ES1 protein homolog (mitochondrial precursor) in fetal Down syndrome brain. Neurochem Int. 2004;45:73-9 pubmed
    ..In this study we investigated expression of three proteins (cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS), pyridoxal kinase (PDXK), ES1 protein homolog, mitochondrial precursor (ES1)) whose genes are encoded on chromosome 21 in fetal ..
  7. di Salvo M, Hunt S, Schirch V. Expression, purification, and kinetic constants for human and Escherichia coli pyridoxal kinases. Protein Expr Purif. 2004;36:300-6 pubmed
    b>Pyridoxal kinase is an ATP dependent enzyme that phosphorylates pyridoxal, pyridoxine, and pyridoxamine forming their respective 5'-phosphorylated esters...
  8. Fong C, Lai W, Leung Y, Lo S, Wong M, Yang M. Study of substrate-enzyme interaction between immobilized pyridoxamine and recombinant porcine pyridoxal kinase using surface plasmon resonance biosensor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1596:95-107 pubmed
    b>Pyridoxal kinase (PK) is an important enzyme involved in bioactivation of vitamin B(6). Binding of PK with its substrate is the prerequisite step for the subsequent catalytic phosphorylation of the substrate...
  9. Fu T, di Salvo M, Schirch V. Distribution of B6 vitamers in Escherichia coli as determined by enzymatic assay. Anal Biochem. 2001;298:314-21 pubmed
    ..Other B6 vitamers are converted to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate by a preincubation with a combination of pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase...
  10. Yang Y, Tsui H, Man T, Winkler M. Identification and function of the pdxY gene, which encodes a novel pyridoxal kinase involved in the salvage pathway of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1814-21 pubmed
    ..pdxY is completely cotranscribed with tyrS, but about 92% of tyrS transcripts terminate at a putative Rho-factor-dependent attenuator located in the tyrS-pdxY intercistronic region. ..
  11. Li M, Kwok F, Chang W, Lau C, Zhang J, Lo S, et al. Crystal structure of brain pyridoxal kinase, a novel member of the ribokinase superfamily. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:46385-90 pubmed publisher
    The three-dimensional structures of brain pyridoxal kinase and its complex with the nucleotide ATP have been elucidated in the dimeric form at 2.1 and 2.6 A, respectively...
  12. Bach S, Knockaert M, Reinhardt J, Lozach O, Schmitt S, Baratte B, et al. Roscovitine targets, protein kinases and pyridoxal kinase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:31208-19 pubmed
    ..However, it binds an unexpected, non-protein kinase target, pyridoxal kinase, the enzyme responsible for phosphorylation and activation of vitamin B6...
  13. Kästner U, Hallmen C, Wiese M, Leistner E, Drewke C. The human pyridoxal kinase, a plausible target for ginkgotoxin from Ginkgo biloba. FEBS J. 2007;274:1036-45 pubmed on studies on the impact of B(6) antivitamins including ginkgotoxin on recombinant homogeneous human pyridoxal kinase (EC
  14. McCormick D, Chen H. Update on interconversions of vitamin B-6 with its coenzyme. J Nutr. 1999;129:325-7 pubmed
    ..The evolutionary retention of homologous portions of pyridoxal kinase in humans as well as bacteria and the most recent finding of a highly conserved region of the pyridoxine (..
  15. González E, Danehower D, Daub M. Vitamer levels, stress response, enzyme activity, and gene regulation of Arabidopsis lines mutant in the pyridoxine/pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PDX3) and the pyridoxal kinase (SOS4) genes involved in the vitamin B6 salvage pathway. Plant Physiol. 2007;145:985-96 pubmed
    PDX3 and SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE4 (SOS4), encoding pyridoxine/pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase and pyridoxal kinase, respectively, are the only known genes involved in the salvage pathway of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in plants...
  16. Gandhi A, Ghatge M, Musayev F, Sease A, Aboagye S, di Salvo M, et al. Kinetic and structural studies of the role of the active site residue Asp235 of human pyridoxal kinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;381:12-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyridoxal kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of pyridoxal (PL) to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). A D235A variant shows 7-fold and 15-fold decreases in substrate affinity and activity, respectively...
  17. Lainé Cessac P, Cailleux A, Allain P. Mechanisms of the inhibition of human erythrocyte pyridoxal kinase by drugs. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997;54:863-70 pubmed
    ..a preliminary screening of drugs to determine their potential inhibitory effect on erythrocyte nonpurified pyridoxal kinase (PLK) (EC 2.7.1...
  18. Kwak S, Kim J, Kim D, Kwon O, Choi S, Kang T. Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase, not pyridoxal kinase, involves in long-term potentiation induction in the rat dentate gyrus. Hippocampus. 2009;19:45-56 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we investigated whether the expression of pyridoxal kinase (PLK) and pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) are altered following long-term potentiation (LTP) induction, and whether Tat-PLK and Tat-PNPO transductions affect ..
  19. Newman J, Das S, Sedelnikova S, Rice D. The crystal structure of an ADP complex of Bacillus subtilis pyridoxal kinase provides evidence for the parallel emergence of enzyme activity during evolution. J Mol Biol. 2006;363:520-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyridoxal kinase catalyses the phosphorylation of pyridoxal, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine to their 5' phosphates and plays an important role in the pyridoxal 5' phosphate salvage pathway...
  20. Yang Y, Zhao G, Winkler M. Identification of the pdxK gene that encodes pyridoxine (vitamin B6) kinase in Escherichia coli K-12. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1996;141:89-95 pubmed
  21. Jones D, Alphey M, Wyllie S, Fairlamb A. Chemical, genetic and structural assessment of pyridoxal kinase as a drug target in the African trypanosome. Mol Microbiol. 2012;86:51-64 pubmed publisher
    ..B(6) vitamers such as pyridoxal and pyridoxamine from their hosts, which are subsequently phosphorylated by pyridoxal kinase (PdxK)...
  22. di Salvo M, Contestabile R, Safo M. Vitamin B(6) salvage enzymes: mechanism, structure and regulation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1814:1597-608 pubmed publisher a "salvage pathway", which essentially involves two ubiquitous enzymes: an ATP-dependent pyridoxal kinase and an FMN-dependent pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase...
  23. Kwak S, Kim J, Kim D, Kwon O, Choi S, Kang T. Enhanced pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthetic enzyme immunoreactivities do not contribute to GABAergic inhibition in the rat hippocampus following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Neuroscience. 2009;159:1108-18 pubmed publisher
    ..PLP) in epilepsy or seizure, we investigated whether the expressions of two PLP synthetic enzymes (pyridoxal kinase, PLK; pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase, PNPO) are altered in the hippocampus and whether changes in paired-..
  24. Kim J, Kim J, Kim H, Sathiyanarayanan G, Bhatia S, Song H, et al. Biotransformation of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate from pyridoxal by pyridoxal kinase (pdxY) to support cadaverine production in Escherichia coli. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2017;104:9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Among various PLP systems examined, pyridoxal kinase (PdxY) showed the highest conversion of PL to PLP, resulting in more than 60% conversion of l-lysine to ..
  25. Fang X, Zhou Z, Lu L, Yin L, Li J, Zhen Y, et al. Expression of a novel pyridoxal kinase mRNA splice variant, PKH-T, in human testis. Asian J Androl. 2004;6:83-91 pubmed
    ..PKH-T is a gene highly expressed in adult human testis and spermatozoa. It may play an important role in spermatogenesis and could be related to male infertility. ..
  26. Mizote T, Tsuda M, Nakazawa T, Nakayama H. The thiJ locus and its relation to phosphorylation of hydroxymethylpyrimidine in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 1996;142 ( Pt 10):2969-74 pubmed
    ..The thiJ locus was mapped on the chromosome near the thiD and thiM loci, which govern the activities of phosphomethylpyrimidine kinase (EC and hydroxyethylthiazole kinase (EC, respectively. ..
  27. Gachon F, Fonjallaz P, Damiola F, Gos P, Kodama T, Zakany J, et al. The loss of circadian PAR bZip transcription factors results in epilepsy. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1397-412 pubmed
    ..Transcriptome profiling revealed pyridoxal kinase (Pdxk) as a target gene of PAR bZip proteins in both liver and brain...
  28. Fratz Berilla E, Breydo L, Gouya L, Puy H, Uversky V, Ferreira G. Isoniazid inhibits human erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase: Molecular mechanism and tolerance study with four X-linked protoporphyria patients. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2017;1863:428-439 pubmed publisher
    ..can cause sideroblastic anemia as a side-effect, by limiting PLP availability to hALAS2, via inhibition of pyridoxal kinase or reaction with pyridoxal to form pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone...
  29. Kanellis P, Gagliardi M, Banath J, Szilard R, Nakada S, Galicia S, et al. A screen for suppressors of gross chromosomal rearrangements identifies a conserved role for PLP in preventing DNA lesions. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e134 pubmed
    ..The most potent novel GCR suppressor identified is BUD16, the gene coding for yeast pyridoxal kinase (Pdxk), a key enzyme in the metabolism of pyridoxal 5' phosphate (PLP), the biologically active form of ..
  30. Pikulev A, Khripchenko I, Demidchik N. [The content of pyridoxal coenzymes in the brain and liver of rats exposed to a single irradiation with x-rays]. Radiobiologiia. 1989;29:70-3 pubmed
    ..4 Gy X-radiation on the content of pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate in gray and white brain substances and liver. At the same time changes were noted in the activity of pyridoxal kinase in the tissues under study.
  31. Galluzzi L, Vacchelli E, Michels J, Garcia P, Kepp O, Senovilla L, et al. Effects of vitamin B6 metabolism on oncogenesis, tumor progression and therapeutic responses. Oncogene. 2013;32:4995-5004 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, elevated levels of pyridoxal kinase (PDXK), the enzyme that converts pyridoxine and other vitamin B6 precursors into PLP, have been shown to ..
  32. Michels J, Adam J, Goubar A, Obrist F, Damotte D, Robin A, et al. Negative prognostic value of high levels of intracellular poly(ADP-ribose) in non-small cell lung cancer. Ann Oncol. 2015;26:2470-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the overexpression and hyperactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and the downregulation of pyridoxal kinase (PDXK), correlating with elevated apoptosis resistance...
  33. Huang S, Liu Z, Ma Z, Zhang J, Huang L. Isolation and characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the human PDXK gene. Gene. 2017;628:218-223 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyridoxal kinase is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is the catalytically active form of vitamin B6, and acts as a cofactor in >140 different enzyme reactions...
  34. Scholz G, Kwok F. Brain pyridoxal kinase: photoaffinity labeling of the substrate-binding site. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:4318-21 pubmed
    4-Benzoylbenzoic acid inhibits pyridoxal kinase activity competitively with respect to pyridoxal. The Ki was determined to be 5 x 10(-5) M...
  35. Coburn S, Slominski A, Mahuren J, Wortsman J, Hessle L, Millan J. Cutaneous metabolism of vitamin B-6. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120:292-300 pubmed
    ..Reducing the pyridoxine content of the culture medium significantly increased the activity of pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase...
  36. Williams M, Louw A, Birkholtz L. Deletion mutagenesis of large areas in Plasmodium falciparum genes: a comparative study. Malar J. 2007;6:64 pubmed
    ..method was applied in the deletion of a >600 bp parasite-specific insert in another malarial gene, pyridoxal kinase (PfPdxK)...
  37. An S, Park S, Hwang I, Choi S, Kwon O, Won M, et al. Vigabatrin inhibits pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase, not pyridoxal kinase in the hippocampus of seizure prone gerbils. Neurochem Int. 2004;44:133-7 pubmed
    ..PLP) in the seizure prone gerbil hippocampus, we conducted a chronological and comparative analysis of pyridoxal kinase (PLK) and pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase (PNP oxidase) expression...
  38. Meisler N, Thanassi J. Vitamin B6 metabolism in McA-RH7777 cells. Cancer Res. 1988;48:1080-5 pubmed
    ..These findings are discussed in terms of tumor nutrition and vitamin B6 metabolism in a rat hepatoma cell line. ..
  39. van den Berg H, Bogaards J. Vitamin B-6 metabolism in the pregnant rat: effect of progesterone on the (re)distribution in maternal vitamin B-6 stores. J Nutr. 1987;117:1866-74 pubmed
    ..Liver and kidney pyridoxal kinase (PK) and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase activities were similar in pregnant and nonpregnant rats...
  40. Tramonti A, Milano T, Nardella C, di Salvo M, Pascarella S, Contestabile R. Salmonella typhimurium PtsJ is a novel MocR-like transcriptional repressor involved in regulating the vitamin B6 salvage pathway. FEBS J. 2017;284:466-484 pubmed publisher
    The vitamin B6 salvage pathway, involving pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPOx) and pyridoxal kinase (PLK), recycles B6 vitamers from nutrients and protein turnover to produce pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the ..
  41. Newman J, Das S, Sedelnikova S, Rice D. Cloning, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a putative pyridoxal kinase from Bacillus subtilis. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2006;62:1006-9 pubmed
    ..the thiD gene of Bacillus subtilis was found to encode an enzyme which has the activity expected of a pyridoxal kinase despite its previous assignment as an HMPP kinase owing to higher sequence similarity...
  42. Ebadi M, Bifano J, Klangkalya B, Govitrapong P, Durham P. Levodopa-mediated alteration in the activity of pyridoxal kinase in rat basal ganglia. Pharmacology. 1978;17:149-56 pubmed
    ..of 400 mg/kg of levodopa reduced the concentration of pyridoxal phosphate and increased the activity of pyridoxal kinase. The chronic oral administration of 100 mg/kg/day of levodopa did not alter the concentration of pyridoxal ..
  43. Mizote T, Nakayama H. Purification and properties of hydroxymethylpyrimidine kinase from Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989;991:109-13 pubmed
    ..enzymic properties between the hydroxymethylpyrimidine kinase and an enzyme which has been characterized as pyridoxal kinase leads to the assumption that both hydroxymethylpyrimidine and pyridoxine might be phosphorylated by the same ..
  44. Guo K, Newell P. Pyridoxal kinase knockout of Dictyostelium complemented by the human homologue. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000;189:195-200 pubmed
    The gene (pykA) encoding pyridoxal kinase which converts pyridoxal (vitamin B(6)) to pyridoxal phosphate was isolated from Dictyostelium discoideum using insertional mutagenesis...
  45. Missner E, Bahr I, Badock V, Lücking U, Siemeister G, Donner P. Off-target decoding of a multitarget kinase inhibitor by chemical proteomics. Chembiochem. 2009;10:1163-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides several of the kinases known to bind to the compound, the pyridoxal kinase (PDXK), which has been described to interact with the CDK inhibitor (R)-roscovitine, was captured...
  46. Tagaya M, Yamano K, Fukui T. Kinetic studies of the pyridoxal kinase from pig liver: slow-binding inhibition by adenosine tetraphosphopyridoxal. Biochemistry. 1989;28:4670-5 pubmed
    b>Pyridoxal kinase from pig liver has been purified 10,000-fold to apparent homogeneity. The enzyme is a dimer of subunits of Mr 32,000. The enzyme is strongly inhibited by the product pyridoxal 5'-phosphate...
  47. Galluzzi L, Vitale I, Senovilla L, Olaussen K, Pinna G, Eisenberg T, et al. Prognostic impact of vitamin B6 metabolism in lung cancer. Cell Rep. 2012;2:257-69 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect requires pyridoxal kinase (PDXK), the enzyme that generates the bioactive form of vitamin B6...
  48. Goudarzi M, Koga T, Khozoie C, Mak T, Kang B, Fornace A, et al. PPAR?/? modulates ethanol-induced hepatic effects by decreasing pyridoxal kinase activity. Toxicology. 2013;311:87-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence suggests that PPAR?/? modulates pyridoxal kinase activity by altering Km, consistent with the observed decreased in urinary taurine excretion...
  49. Phillips M. Stoking the drug target pipeline for human African trypanosomiasis. Mol Microbiol. 2012;86:10-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Jones et?al. (2012) report on the characterization of T.?brucei pyridoxal kinase (PdxK), an enzyme required for the salvage of vitamin B6, an essential enzymatic cofactor...
  50. Mahajan S, Pandey G, Tuteja N. Calcium- and salt-stress signaling in plants: shedding light on SOS pathway. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;471:146-58 pubmed publisher
    ..A broad coverage of the discovery of SOS mutants, structural aspect of these genes and the latest developments in the field of SOS1-SOS5 has been described. ..
  51. Lainé Cessac P, Allain P. Kinetic studies of the effects of K+, Na+ and Li+ on the catalytic activity of human erythrocyte pyridoxal kinase. Enzyme Protein. 1996;49:291-304 pubmed
    Kinetic studies were conducted to examine the effects of K+, Na+ and Li+ on human erythrocyte pyridoxal kinase (PK) activity. A dialyzed hemolysate served as the PK source. The substrates used were pyridoxal (PL) and ATP...
  52. Wei I. The influence of dietary restriction on vitamin B-6 vitamer distribution and on vitamin B-6 metabolizing enzymes in rats. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999;18:144-51 pubmed
    ..These significantly lower levels of plasma PLP in DR rats might in part be related to lower hepatic pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxamine (pyridoxine) 5'-phosphate oxidase activities...
  53. Shi R, Zhang J, Jiang C, Huang L. Bombyx mori pyridoxal kinase cDNA cloning and enzymatic characterization. J Genet Genomics. 2007;34:683-90 pubmed
    b>Pyridoxal kinase (PLK) (EC catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of pyridoxal, generating pyridoxal-5.-phosphate (PLP), an important cofactor for many enzymatic reactions...
  54. Choi S, Kwok F, Bahn J, Jeon S, Ahn Y, Yoon B, et al. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to porcine brain pyridoxal kinase. Biofactors. 1999;10:35-42 pubmed
    Six monoclonal antibodies that recognize porcine brain pyridoxal kinase have been selected and designated as PK67, PK86, PK91, PK144, PK252 and PK275...
  55. Schlieper A, Anwar M, Heger J, Piper H, Euler G. Repression of anti-apoptotic genes via AP-1 as a mechanism of apoptosis induction in ventricular cardiomyocytes. Pflugers Arch. 2007;454:53-61 pubmed
    ..Genes that are induced by SNAP were not identified. However, four genes, pyridoxal kinase, heat shock protein 10 (Hsp10), antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 4F2 (4F2) and myosin light chain ..
  56. Delport R, Ubbink J, Vermaak W, Shaw A, Bissbort S, Becker P. Relationship between maternal and neonatal vitamin B6 metabolism: perspectives from enzyme studies. Nutrition. 1991;7:260-4; discussion 264-6 pubmed
    Enzymes involved in vitamin B6 metabolism, i.e., pyridoxal kinase, pyridoxamine (pyridoxine) 5'-phosphate oxidase, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate phosphatase, were assayed in hemolysates prepared from cord, maternal, and control blood samples...
  57. Morita T, Takegawa K, Yagi T. Disruption of the plr1+ gene encoding pyridoxal reductase of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Biochem. 2004;135:225-30 pubmed
    ..The results showed that PL reductase encoded by the plr1(+ )gene is involved in the excretion of PL after reducing it to PN, and may not participate in the salvage pathway for PLP synthesis. ..
  58. Huang S, Yang H, Yao L, Zhang J, Huang L. Effect of exogenous hormones on transcription levels of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthetic enzymes in the silkworm (Bombyx mori). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2016;194-195:20-4 pubmed publisher
    ..5'-phosphate is synthesized from pyridoxal, pyridoxine or pyridoxamine, in a series of reactions catalyzed by pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase...
  59. Moreno Navarrete J, Jove M, Ortega F, Xifra G, Ricart W, Obis Ã, et al. Metabolomics uncovers the role of adipose tissue PDXK in adipogenesis and systemic insulin sensitivity. Diabetologia. 2016;59:822-32 pubmed publisher
    ..between the active form of vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5-phosphate [PLP]), known to be generated through pyridoxal kinase (PDXK), and adipogenesis...
  60. Rueschhoff E, Gillikin J, Sederoff H, Daub M. The SOS4 pyridoxal kinase is required for maintenance of vitamin B6-mediated processes in chloroplasts. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2013;63:281-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, our data are consistent with a diffusion model for transport of vitamin B(6) into chloroplasts. ..
  61. Galluzzi L, Marsili S, Vitale I, Senovilla L, Michels J, Garcia P, et al. Vitamin B6 metabolism influences the intracellular accumulation of cisplatin. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:417-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the siRNA-mediated downregulation of pyridoxal kinase (PDXK), the enzyme that generates the bioactive form of vitamin B6, protects NSCLC cells (as well as a large ..
  62. Hirakawa Sakurai T, Ohkawa K, Matsuda M. Purification and properties of pyridoxal kinase from bovine brain. Mol Cell Biochem. 1993;119:203-7 pubmed
    A 27,000-fold purification of pyridoxal kinase from bovine brain tissue has been achieved by a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, hydroxyapatite chromatography, Sephadex G-150 gel filtration, ..
  63. Kittler J, Meisler N, Thanassi J. Azo dye-induced alterations in vitamin B-6 metabolism and in pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-binding proteins in rat liver. J Nutr. 1986;116:588-98 pubmed
    ..Therefore, with respect to vitamin B-6 metabolism and use, it appears likely that azo dye-induced hepatocarcinogenesis involves proliferation of a stem cell type(s) having the phenotypic characteristics of fetal hepatic tissue...
  64. Díaz Muñoz M, Tapia R. Glutamate decarboxylase inhibition and vitamin B6 metabolism in brain of cirrhotic rats chronically treated with carbon tetrachloride. J Neurosci Res. 1988;20:376-82 pubmed
    ..inhibition of GAD, as well as the concentration of this coenzyme and the activity of its synthesizing enzyme, pyridoxal kinase, in the brain of the cirrhotic rats...
  65. Ghatge M, Contestabile R, di Salvo M, Desai J, Gandhi A, Camara C, et al. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is a slow tight binding inhibitor of E. coli pyridoxal kinase. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41680 pubmed publisher
    ..turnover, the PLP is salvaged by first converting it to pyridoxal by a phosphatase and then back to PLP by pyridoxal kinase. Nonetheless, PLP poses a potential toxicity problem for the cell since its reactive 4'-aldehyde moiety forms ..
  66. Cash C, Maitre M, Rumigny J, Mandel P. Rapid purification by affinity chromatography of rat brain pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxamine-5-phosphate oxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980;96:1755-60 pubmed
  67. Wang H, Liu D, Liu C, Zhang A. The pyridoxal kinase gene TaPdxK from wheat complements vitamin B6 synthesis-defective Escherichia coli. J Plant Physiol. 2004;161:1053-60 pubmed
    b>Pyridoxal kinase (EC is a key enzyme in the conversion of vitamin B6 to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). PLP is the crucial cofactor required by numerous enzymes involved in amino acids metabolism...
  68. Yu S, Luo L. Expression analysis of a novel pyridoxal kinase messenger RNA splice variant, PKL, in oil rape suffering abiotic stress and phytohormones. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2008;40:1005-14 pubmed
    b>Pyridoxal kinase is key enzyme for the biosynthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the biologically active form of vitamin B6, in the salvage pathway. A pyridoxal kinase gene, BnPKL (GenBank accession No...
  69. Hanna M, Turner A, Kirkness E. Human pyridoxal kinase. cDNA cloning, expression, and modulation by ligands of the benzodiazepine receptor. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:10756-60 pubmed
    ..The cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 312 amino acid residues that is homologous to a bacterial pyridoxal kinase. Transient expression of the cDNA in human embryonic kidney cells confirmed that it encodes human pyridoxal ..
  70. Cheung P, Fong C, Ng K, Lam W, Leung Y, Tsang C, et al. Interaction between pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxal-5-phosphate-dependent enzymes. J Biochem. 2003;134:731-8 pubmed
    ..PLP)-dependent enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), with pyridoxal kinase (PK) were studied by fluorescence polarization as well as surface plasmon resonance techniques...
  71. Adams J, George F, Audhya T. Abnormally high plasma levels of vitamin B6 in children with autism not taking supplements compared to controls not taking supplements. J Altern Complement Med. 2006;12:59-63 pubmed
    ..6 ng/mL, median of 60 ng/mL). These results are consistent with previous studies that found that: (1) pyridoxal kinase had a very low activity in children with autism and (2) pyridoxal 5 phosphate (PLP) levels are unusually low ..
  72. Hwang I, Kim D, Jung J, Yoo K, Cho J, Kwon O, et al. Age-dependent changes of pyridoxal phosphate synthesizing enzymes immunoreactivities and activities in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region. Mech Ageing Dev. 2005;126:1322-30 pubmed
    In the present study, age-related changes of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) synthesizing enzymes, pyridoxal kinase (PLK) and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO), their protein contents and activities were examined in the gerbil ..
  73. Guella I, Asselta R, Tesei S, Zini M, Pezzoli G, Duga S. The PDXK rs2010795 variant is not associated with Parkinson disease in Italy. Ann Neurol. 2010;67:411-2; author reply 412 pubmed publisher
  74. Hwang I, Yoo K, Kim D, Eum W, Park J, Park J, et al. Changes of pyridoxal kinase expression and activity in the gerbil hippocampus following transient forebrain ischemia. Neuroscience. 2004;128:511-8 pubmed
    ..GAD67) differ substantially in their interactions with cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, which is catalyzed by pyridoxal kinase (PLK)...