protein kinase c epsilon


Summary: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.

Top Publications

  1. Pan Q, Bao L, Teknos T, Merajver S. Targeted disruption of protein kinase C epsilon reduces cell invasion and motility through inactivation of RhoA and RhoC GTPases in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2006;66:9379-84 pubmed
    ..Our study shows, for the first time, that PKC epsilon is involved in a coordinated regulation of RhoA and RhoC activation, possibly through direct post-translational phosphorylation. ..
  2. Dave K, Anthony Defazio R, Raval A, Dashkin O, Saul I, Iceman K, et al. Protein kinase C epsilon activation delays neuronal depolarization during cardiac arrest in the euthermic arctic ground squirrel. J Neurochem. 2009;110:1170-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that epsilonPKC activation delays the collapse of ion homeostasis during ischemia in AGS. ..
  3. Xue Q, Zhang L. Prenatal hypoxia causes a sex-dependent increase in heart susceptibility to ischemia and reperfusion injury in adult male offspring: role of protein kinase C epsilon. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;330:624-32 pubmed publisher
  4. Diouf B, Collazos A, Labesse G, Macari F, Choquet A, Clair P, et al. A 20-amino acid module of protein kinase C{epsilon} involved in translocation and selective targeting at cell-cell contacts. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:18808-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, 3CTS is involved in the modulation of translocation via its 14-3-3-binding site, in cytoplasmic desequestration via the alpha-helix, and in selective PKCepsilon targeting at the cell-cell contact via Glu-374. ..
  5. Budas G, Disatnik M, Chen C, Mochly Rosen D. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) confers cardioprotection in protein kinase C epsilon (PKCvarepsilon) knockout mice. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;48:757-64 pubmed publisher
    ..studies demonstrated that the acute cytoprotective effect of ethanol on the myocardium is mediated by protein kinase C epsilon (PKCvarepsilon)...
  6. Wang S, Ji Y, Li H, Yang S. [Mechanisms of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris via activating PKCepsilon against myocardial apoptosis induced by oxidative stress]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2009;44:134-9 pubmed
    ..05 and P < 0.01). Mechanisms of GSTT against myocardial apoptosis might be associated with inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway after PKCepsilon activation...
  7. Lesscher H, Wallace M, Zeng L, Wang V, Deitchman J, McMahon T, et al. Amygdala protein kinase C epsilon controls alcohol consumption. Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8:493-9 pubmed publisher
    Alcoholism is a progressive disorder that involves the amygdala. Mice lacking protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) show reduced ethanol consumption, sensitivity and reward...
  8. Sivaraman V, Hausenloy D, Kolvekar S, Hayward M, Yap J, Lawrence D, et al. The divergent roles of protein kinase C epsilon and delta in simulated ischaemia-reperfusion injury in human myocardium. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;46:758-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, PKC-epsilon activation offers cardioprotection when administered as a preconditioning strategy. ..
  9. Chamorro D, Alarcón L, Ponce A, Tapia R, Gonzalez Aguilar H, Robles Flores M, et al. Phosphorylation of zona occludens-2 by protein kinase C epsilon regulates its nuclear exportation. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4120-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results constitute novel information for understanding the mechanisms that regulate the intracellular fate of ZO-2. ..

More Information


  1. Kim H, Nakamura F, Lee W, Hong C, Perez Sala D, McCulloch C. Regulation of cell adhesion to collagen via beta1 integrins is dependent on interactions of filamin A with vimentin and protein kinase C epsilon. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:1829-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the binding of filamin A to vimentin and protein kinase Cepsilon is an essential regulatory step for the trafficking and activation of beta1 integrins and cell spreading on collagen. ..
  2. Hu B, Shen B, Su Y, Geard C, Balajee A. Protein kinase C epsilon is involved in ionizing radiation induced bystander response in human cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:2413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our novel study suggests the possibility that PKC signaling pathway may be a critical molecular target for suppression of ionizing radiation induced biological effects in bystander cells. ..
  3. Lønne G, Masoumi K, Lennartsson J, Larsson C. Protein kinase Cdelta supports survival of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by suppressing the ERK1/2 pathway. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33456-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight PKCdelta as a potential target for therapy of breast cancers with high activity of the ERK1/2 pathway. ..
  4. Gass J, Olive M. Role of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCvarepsilon) in the reduction of ethanol reinforcement due to mGluR5 antagonism in the nucleus accumbens shell. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;204:587-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Blockade of mGluR5 receptors in the NAc shell reduces ethanol reinforcement via a PKCepsilon-dependent mechanism. ..
  5. Batarseh A, Li J, Papadopoulos V. Protein kinase C epsilon regulation of translocator protein (18 kDa) Tspo gene expression is mediated through a MAPK pathway targeting STAT3 and c-Jun transcription factors. Biochemistry. 2010;49:4766-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that PKCepsilon regulates Tspo gene expression through a MAPK (Raf-1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2) signal transduction pathway, acting at least in part through c-Jun and STAT3 transcription factors. ..
  6. Fortin S, Le Mercier M, Camby I, Spiegl Kreinecker S, Berger W, Lefranc F, et al. Galectin-1 is implicated in the protein kinase C epsilon/vimentin-controlled trafficking of integrin-beta1 in glioblastoma cells. Brain Pathol. 2010;20:39-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Transient galectin-1 depletion effectuates as well the perinuclear accumulation of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) and the intermediate filament vimentin, both of which have been shown to mediate integrin ..
  7. Frangioudakis G, Burchfield J, Narasimhan S, Cooney G, Leitges M, Biden T, et al. Diverse roles for protein kinase C delta and protein kinase C epsilon in the generation of high-fat-diet-induced glucose intolerance in mice: regulation of lipogenesis by protein kinase C delta. Diabetologia. 2009;52:2616-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of PKCepsilon in muscle may be compensated by increased activation of PKCdelta in fat-fed mice, suggesting that an additional role for PKCepsilon in this tissue is masked. ..
  8. Joseph E, Levine J. Multiple PKC?-dependent mechanisms mediating mechanical hyperalgesia. Pain. 2010;150:17-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies support the suggestion that at least two downstream signaling pathways can mediate the hyperalgesia induced by activating PKCepsilon. ..
  9. Meyer K, Zhang H, Zhang L. Direct effect of cocaine on epigenetic regulation of PKCepsilon gene repression in the fetal rat heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;47:504-11 pubmed publisher
  10. Uchiyama K, Saito M, Sasaki M, Obara Y, Higashiyama S, Nakahata N. Thromboxane A2 receptor-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation: involvement of PKC-delta and PKC-epsilon in the shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2009;38:504-11 pubmed publisher
  11. Sand J, Aziz M, Dreckschmidt N, Havighurst T, Kim K, Oberley T, et al. PKCepsilon overexpression, irrespective of genetic background, sensitizes skin to UVR-induced development of squamous-cell carcinomas. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:270-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that protein Kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) transgenic mice on FVB/N background, which overexpress PKCepsilon protein approximately ..
  12. Silberman Y, Bajo M, Chappell A, Christian D, Cruz M, Diaz M, et al. Neurobiological mechanisms contributing to alcohol-stress-anxiety interactions. Alcohol. 2009;43:509-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Dr. Marisa Roberto presented recent data describing how protein kinase C epsilon, ethanol, and CRF interact to alter GABAergic inhibition in the central nucleus of the amygdala. Dr...
  13. Churchill E, Ferreira J, Brum P, Szweda L, Mochly Rosen D. Ischaemic preconditioning improves proteasomal activity and increases the degradation of deltaPKC during reperfusion. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;85:385-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This decreases the accumulation of the pro-apoptotic kinase, deltaPKC, at cardiac mitochondria, resulting in the accumulation of the pro-survival kinase, epsilonPKC. ..
  14. Fan P, Jiang Z, Diamond I, Yao L. Up-regulation of AGS3 during morphine withdrawal promotes cAMP superactivation via adenylyl cyclase 5 and 7 in rat nucleus accumbens/striatal neurons. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;76:526-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify a critical role for AC 5 and 7 and A2A receptors for up-regulation of AGS3 in morphine withdrawal-induced cAMP superactivation. ..
  15. Zhao Z, Wang W, Geng J, Wang L, Su G, Zhang Y, et al. Protein kinase C epsilon-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation involved in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with angiotensin II stimulation. J Cell Biochem. 2010;109:653-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Ang II rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) in a time- and dose-dependent manner via Ang II receptor-1 (AT(1))...
  16. Srisakuldee W, Jeyaraman M, Nickel B, Tanguy S, Jiang Z, Kardami E. Phosphorylation of connexin-43 at serine 262 promotes a cardiac injury-resistant state. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;83:672-81 pubmed publisher
    ..P Cx43 marks a state of enhanced resistance to ischaemic injury promoted by PKC-activating treatments such as FGF-2 administration or ischaemic PC. Cx43 phosphorylation at S262 likely mediates PKCepsilon-dependent cardioprotection. ..
  17. Gonelli A, Mischiati C, Guerrini R, Voltan R, Salvadori S, Zauli G. Perspectives of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors as anti-cancer agents. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2009;9:498-509 pubmed
    ..Among a myriad of molecules able to modulate PKC activity, we will focus on the role of the enzastaurin and briostatin-1, which already entered clinical trials for several human cancers. ..
  18. Vardarova K, Scharf S, Lang F, Schmeck B, Opitz B, Eitel J, et al. PKC(alpha) and PKC(epsilon) differentially regulate Legionella pneumophila-induced GM-CSF. Eur Respir J. 2009;34:1171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, differential regulation of GM-CSF, production by PKC isoforms, contributes to the host response in Legionnaires' disease. ..
  19. White C, Liu C, Garcia A, Hamilton E, Chia K, Figtree G, et al. Activation of cAMP-dependent signaling induces oxidative modification of the cardiac Na+-K+ pump and inhibits its activity. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:13712-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that cAMP- and PKC-dependent inhibition of the cardiac Na(+)-K(+) pump occurs via a shared downstream oxidative signaling pathway involving NADPH oxidase activation and glutathionylation of the pump beta(1) subunit. ..
  20. Barma P, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharya A, Kundu R, Dasgupta S, Biswas A, et al. Lipid induced overexpression of NF-kappaB in skeletal muscle cells is linked to insulin resistance. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1792:190-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Since NF-kappaB p65 is linked to several diseases, including type2 diabetes, this report may be important in understanding the pathogenicity of these diseases. ..
  21. Markova I, Zidek V, Musilova A, Simakova M, Mlejnek P, Kazdova L, et al. Long-term pioglitazone treatment augments insulin sensitivity and PKC-epsilon and PKC-theta activation in skeletal muscles in sucrose fed rats. Physiol Res. 2010;59:509-16 pubmed
  22. Dittmann K, Mayer C, Rodemann H. Nuclear EGFR as novel therapeutic target: insights into nuclear translocation and function. Strahlenther Onkol. 2010;186:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, both strategies can inhibit DNA repair following irradiation. ..
  23. Bombardelli L, Carpenter E, Wu A, Alston N, DelGiorno K, Crawford H. Pancreas-specific ablation of beta1 integrin induces tissue degeneration by disrupting acinar cell polarity. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:2531-40, 2540.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Degenerating beta1 integrin-null pancreata were marked by disruption of acinar cell polarity. Protein kinase C epsilon, normally localized apically, was found in the cytoplasm where it can lead to intracellular digestive ..
  24. Gonelli A, Milani D, Rimondi E, Voltan R, Grill V, Celeghini C. Activation of PKC-epsilon counteracts maturation and apoptosis of HL-60 myeloid leukemic cells in response to TNF family members. Eur J Histochem. 2009;53:177-82 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the anti-maturative and anti-apoptotic activities of PKC-epsilon envision a potentially important proleukemic role of this PKC family member. ..
  25. Hamed K, Hu C, Dai D, Yu F, Dai Y. CPU228, a derivative of dofetilide, relieves cardiac dysfunction by normalizing FKBP12.6, NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C epsilon in the myocardium. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010;62:77-83 pubmed publisher
    ..6), and suppressing oxidative stress, upregulated NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C epsilon (PKC epsilon) hyperphosphorylation in the myocardium...
  26. Mitasikova M, Lin H, Soukup T, Imanaga I, Tribulova N. Diabetes and thyroid hormones affect connexin-43 and PKC-epsilon expression in rat heart atria. Physiol Res. 2009;58:211-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the reduced Cx43 phosphorylation in diabetic and hyperthyroid rats can deteriorate a cell-to-cell coupling and consequently facilitate a development of atrial tachyarrhythmia in diabetic or hyperthyroid animals. ..
  27. Reichling D, Levine J. Critical role of nociceptor plasticity in chronic pain. Trends Neurosci. 2009;32:611-8 pubmed publisher
  28. Sánchez Bautista S, Corbalan Garcia S, Pérez Lara A, Gomez Fernandez J. A comparison of the membrane binding properties of C1B domains of PKCgamma, PKCdelta, and PKCepsilon. Biophys J. 2009;96:3638-47 pubmed publisher
    ..DSC experiments showed this to be a consequence of the nonfluid conditions of 1,2-sn-dipalmitoylglycerol;-containing systems. ..
  29. Chua S, Chang L, Sun C, Sheu J, Lee F, Youssef A, et al. Time courses of subcellular signal transduction and cellular apoptosis in remote viable myocardium of rat left ventricles following acute myocardial infarction: role of pharmacomodulation. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2009;14:104-15 pubmed publisher
    ..tested hypothesis that acute myocardial infarction (AMI) induces cellular apoptosis and serial changes of protein kinase C epsilon (PKC-epsilon) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and tested cardio-protective effect of ..
  30. Lu Y, Nie J, Liu X, Zheng Y, Guo S. Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, reduces lesion growth and hyperalgesia in experimentally induced endometriosis in mice. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:1014-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with TSA significantly reduces lesion growth and may relieve pain symptoms in women with endometriosis, indicating that histone deacetylase inhibitors may be a promising therapeutic agent. ..
  31. Dina O, Khasar S, Gear R, Levine J. Activation of Gi induces mechanical hyperalgesia poststress or inflammation. Neuroscience. 2009;160:501-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1 ng-1 microg) mechanical hyperalgesia. The highly selective inhibitors of G(i), pertussis toxin, and of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon), PKCepsilonV(1-2), both markedly attenuate mastoparan-induced hyperalgesia in stressed rats ..
  32. Ho P, Lin Y, Tsui Y, Gupta P, Wei L. A negative regulatory pathway of GLUT4 trafficking in adipocyte: new function of RIP140 in the cytoplasm via AS160. Cell Metab. 2009;10:516-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In adipocytes, RIP140 can be phosphorylated by protein kinase C epsilon (PKCvarepsilon), followed by arginine methylation, and exported to the cytoplasm...
  33. Fenton R, Komatsu S, Ikebe M, Shea L, Dobson J. Adenoprotection of the heart involves phospholipase C-induced activation and translocation of PKC-epsilon to RACK2 in adult rat and mouse. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H718-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, A(1)R stimulation of the heart is associated with PLC-initiated PKC-epsilon translocation and association with RACK2. ..
  34. Tuomi S, Mai A, Nevo J, Laine J, Vilkki V, Ohman T, et al. PKCepsilon regulation of an alpha5 integrin-ZO-1 complex controls lamellae formation in migrating cancer cells. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra32 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PKCepsilon activation drives the formation of a spatially restricted, promigratory alpha(5)-ZO-1 complex at the leading edge of lung cancer cells. ..
  35. Petiti J, Gutierrez S, De Paul A, Andreoli V, Palmeri C, Sosa L, et al. GH3B6 pituitary tumor cell proliferation is mediated by PKCalpha and PKCepsilon via ERK 1/2-dependent pathway. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2010;26:135-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that the activation of PKCalpha and PKCe by phorbol ester in tumor pituitary GH3B6 cells led to cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, effects that involved ERK1/2 activation. ..
  36. de Gruijl F. Protein kinase Cepsilon reveals importance of extrinsic apoptosis in preventing UV carcinogenesis. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:1853-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein kinase Cvarepsilon lowers UV-induced expression of Fas and its downstream proteins in this extrinsic route, suppressing apoptosis and enhancing UV carcinogenesis. ..
  37. Kooij V, Boontje N, Zaremba R, Jaquet K, dos Remedios C, Stienen G, et al. Protein kinase C alpha and epsilon phosphorylation of troponin and myosin binding protein C reduce Ca2+ sensitivity in human myocardium. Basic Res Cardiol. 2010;105:289-300 pubmed publisher
    ..PKCalpha- and PKCepsilon-mediated phosphorylation of cMyBP-C and cTnI as well as cTnT decrease myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and may thereby reduce contractility and enhance relaxation of human myocardium. ..
  38. Schonhoff C, Yamazaki A, Hohenester S, Webster C, Bouscarel B, Anwer M. PKC{epsilon}-dependent and -independent effects of taurolithocholate on PI3K/PKB pathway and taurocholate uptake in HuH-NTCP cell line. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G1259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that TLC-induced inhibition of PKB, but not of TC uptake, is mediated via nPKCepsilon. Activation of nPKCepsilon and inhibition of TC uptake by TLC are not mediated via the PI3K/PKB pathway. ..
  39. Alloatti G, Arnoletti E, Bassino E, Penna C, Perrelli M, Ghè C, et al. Obestatin affords cardioprotection to the ischemic-reperfused isolated rat heart and inhibits apoptosis in cultures of similarly stressed cardiomyocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;299:H470-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that, by acting on specific receptors, obestatin-(1-23) activates PI3K, PKC-epsilon, PKC-delta, and ERK1/2 signaling and protects cardiac cells against myocardial injury and apoptosis induced by I/R. ..
  40. Shatos M, Hodges R, Oshi Y, Bair J, Zoukhri D, Kublin C, et al. Role of cPKCalpha and nPKCepsilon in EGF-stimulated goblet cell proliferation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:614-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Incubation with Ad WTPKCalpha alone significantly increased proliferation. cPKCalpha and nPKCepsilon play key roles in conjunctival goblet cell proliferation. ..
  41. Wallace M, Newton P, McMahon T, Connolly J, Huibers A, Whistler J, et al. PKCepsilon regulates behavioral sensitivity, binding and tolerance to the CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:1733-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PKCvarepsilon selectively regulates behavioral sensitivity, CB1 receptor binding and tolerance to WIN55,212-2. ..
  42. Newton P, Messing R. The substrates and binding partners of protein kinase Cepsilon. Biochem J. 2010;427:189-96 pubmed publisher
  43. Hang P, Zhao J, Wang Y, Sun L, Zhang Y, Yang L, et al. Reciprocal regulation between M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and protein kinase C-epsilon in ventricular myocytes during myocardial ischemia in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009;380:443-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This reciprocal regulation is likely to play a role in heart signal transduction during ischemia between ventricular myocytes. ..
  44. Wang H, Kazanietz M. p23/Tmp21 differentially targets the Rac-GAP beta2-chimaerin and protein kinase C via their C1 domains. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:1398-408 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study also highlights the relevance of C1 domains in protein-protein interactions in addition to their well-established lipid-binding properties. ..
  45. Dina O, Joseph E, Levine J, Green P. Mechanisms mediating vibration-induced chronic musculoskeletal pain analyzed in the rat. J Pain. 2010;11:369-77 pubmed publisher
  46. Gaboardi G, Ramazzotti G, Bavelloni A, Piazzi M, Fiume R, Billi A, et al. A role for PKCepsilon during C2C12 myogenic differentiation. Cell Signal. 2010;22:629-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support a role for PKCepsilon in regulating insulin inositide-dependent PLCgamma1 signalling in skeletal muscle differentiation. ..
  47. Pravdic D, Sedlic F, Mio Y, Vladic N, Bienengraeber M, Bosnjak Z. Anesthetic-induced preconditioning delays opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore via protein Kinase C-epsilon-mediated pathway. Anesthesiology. 2009;111:267-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results point to the connection between cytosolic and mitochondrial components of cardioprotection by isoflurane. ..
  48. Okusa C, Miyamae M, Sugioka S, Kaneda K, Inamura Y, Onishi A, et al. Acute memory phase of sevoflurane preconditioning is associated with sustained translocation of protein kinase C-alpha and epsilon, but not delta, in isolated guinea pig hearts. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009;26:582-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The acute memory phase of sevoflurane preconditioning is limited to less than 60 min. Sustained translocation of PKC-alpha and epsilon, but not delta, correlates with this acute memory phase of sevoflurane preconditioning. ..
  49. Chang K, Xiao D, Huang X, Longo L, Zhang L. Chronic hypoxia increases pressure-dependent myogenic tone of the uterine artery in pregnant sheep: role of ERK/PKC pathway. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H1840-9 pubmed publisher
  50. Das J, Pany S, Rahman G, Slater S. PKC epsilon has an alcohol-binding site in its second cysteine-rich regulatory domain. Biochem J. 2009;421:405-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results provide direct evidence for the presence of an allosteric alcohol-binding site on protein kinase C epsilon and underscore the role of His236 and Tyr238 residues in alcohol binding.
  51. Gan L, Li L. Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase-1 (IRAK-1) functionally associates with PKCepsilon and VASP in the regulation of macrophage migration. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1278-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutant IRAK-1 (L167A/W168A) fails to associate with VASP. Our findings provide a novel facet regarding the molecular signaling process regulating macrophage migration. ..
  52. Monti M, Donnini S, Giachetti A, Mochly Rosen D, Ziche M. deltaPKC inhibition or varepsilonPKC activation repairs endothelial vascular dysfunction by regulating eNOS post-translational modification. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;48:746-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Since endothelial health ensures better tissue perfusion and oxygenation, treatment with a deltaPKC inhibitor and/or an varepsilonPKC activator in diseases of endothelial dysfunction should be considered...
  53. Xue R, Zhao Y, Su L, Ye F, Chen P. PKC epsilon facilitates recovery of exocytosis after an exhausting stimulation. Pflugers Arch. 2009;458:1137-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These experimental results may suggest a PKC-dependent mechanism relevant to the short-term plasticity of exocytosis in both neurons and neuroendocrine cells. ..