protein kinase c delta


Summary: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.

Top Publications

  1. Thrower E, Wang J, Cheriyan S, Lugea A, Kolodecik T, Yuan J, et al. Protein kinase C delta-mediated processes in cholecystokinin-8-stimulated pancreatic acini. Pancreas. 2009;38:930-5 pubmed publisher
    To define the role of protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) in acinar cell responses to the hormone cholecystokinin-8 (CCK) using isoform-specific inhibitors and a previously unreported genetic deletion model...
  2. Gao F, Wu Y, Zhao M, Liu C, Wang L, Chen G. Protein kinase C-delta mediates down-regulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein: involvement in apoptosis induction. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:3250-8 pubmed publisher
    ..analogue, induces apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells through proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta (DeltaPKC-delta)...
  3. Brandt S, Wessler S, Hartig R, Backert S. Helicobacter pylori activates protein kinase C delta to control Raf in MAP kinase signalling: role in AGS epithelial cell scattering and elongation. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2009;66:874-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that PKC-delta specifically targets Raf kinase to stimulate the Erk1/2 kinase pathway, which is also crucial for phenotypical outcome. Thus, PKC-delta is another important mediator of H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. ..
  4. Kowalczyk J, Beresewicz M, Gajkowska B, Zabłocka B. Association of protein kinase C delta and phospholipid scramblase 3 in hippocampal mitochondria correlates with neuronal vulnerability to brain ischemia. Neurochem Int. 2009;55:157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that in the postischemic brain PKC delta co-localizes with PLSCR3 in mitochondria and this event might influence the mitochondrial membranes architecture and delayed neurons degeneration. ..
  5. Peluso J. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) regulation of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) as part of an anti-apoptotic mechanism of action. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;66:1363-9 pubmed
    ..The ability of bFGF to stimulate calcium efflux involved the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA). Interestingly, bFGF-activated PKCdelta appeared to regulate PMCA activity in part by promoting its membrane localization. ..
  6. Kamioka N, Akahane T, Kohno Y, Kuroki T, Iijima M, Honma I, et al. Protein kinase C delta and eta differently regulate the expression of loricrin and Jun family proteins in human keratinocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that inverse effects of PKCdelta and PKCeta on loricrin expression attributes to the expression of c-Jun and JunD. ..
  7. Sarkar S, Yong V. Reduction of protein kinase C delta attenuates tenascin-C stimulated glioma invasion in three-dimensional matrix. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:311-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results implicate PKCdelta as a therapeutic target to reduce MMP-12 expression and glioma invasiveness when tumor cells are stimulated by the TN-enriched glioma microenvironment. ..
  8. Frangioudakis G, Burchfield J, Narasimhan S, Cooney G, Leitges M, Biden T, et al. Diverse roles for protein kinase C delta and protein kinase C epsilon in the generation of high-fat-diet-induced glucose intolerance in mice: regulation of lipogenesis by protein kinase C delta. Diabetologia. 2009;52:2616-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of PKCepsilon in muscle may be compensated by increased activation of PKCdelta in fat-fed mice, suggesting that an additional role for PKCepsilon in this tissue is masked. ..
  9. Katakura Y, Udono M, Katsuki K, Nishide H, Tabira Y, Ikei T, et al. Protein kinase C delta plays a key role in cellular senescence programs of human normal diploid cells. J Biochem. 2009;146:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PKC-delta plays a key role in cellular senescence programs, and suggest that the induction of senescence and hTERT repression are coordinately regulated by PKC-delta. ..

More Information


  1. Zheng Y, Wang L, Xia L, Han Y, Liao S, Wang X, et al. NDRG1 is down-regulated in the early apoptotic event induced by camptothecin analogs: the potential role in proteolytic activation of PKC delta and apoptosis. Proteomics. 2009;9:2064-75 pubmed publisher
    ..analog, induces apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemic cells, which is triggered by proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta (PKC delta)...
  2. Lima F, Niger C, Hebert C, Stains J. Connexin43 potentiates osteoblast responsiveness to fibroblast growth factor 2 via a protein kinase C-delta/Runx2-dependent mechanism. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2697-708 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta) with rottlerin or siRNA-mediated knockdown abrogates the osteocalcin response to FGF2...
  3. Villar J, Arenas M, MacCarthy C, Blánquez M, Tirado O, Notario V. PCPH/ENTPD5 expression enhances the invasiveness of human prostate cancer cells by a protein kinase C delta-dependent mechanism. Cancer Res. 2007;67:10859-68 pubmed
    ..PCPH regulated invasiveness and collagen I expression by a mechanism involving protein kinase C delta (PKC delta): (a) PCPH knockdown in LNCaP cells decreased PKC delta levels relative to control cells; (b) ..
  4. Kim J, Kim J, Jun H, Yu Y, Kim K. Inhibition of protein kinase C delta attenuates blood-retinal barrier breakdown in diabetic retinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:1517-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we suggest that inhibition of PKC delta could be an alternative treatment to blood-retinal barrier breakdown in diabetic retinopathy. ..
  5. Kumar S, Sud N, Fonseca F, Hou Y, Black S. Shear stress stimulates nitric oxide signaling in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells via a reduction in catalase activity: role of protein kinase C delta. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;298:L105-16 pubmed publisher
  6. Yamanouchi D, Kato K, Ryer E, Zhang F, Liu B. Protein kinase C delta mediates arterial injury responses through regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;85:434-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously demonstrated that protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta) regulates both apoptosis and proliferation of VSMC in vitro...
  7. Lee J, Yang E, Kim I. The roles of MCP-1 and protein kinase C delta activation in human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells. Cytokine. 2009;48:186-95 pubmed publisher
    ..the contribution of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 to chemotactic activity and protein kinase C delta (PKC delta in the human eosinophilic leukemia cell line EoL-1...
  8. Lin P, Lee J, Liao M, Hsu H, Chiu S, Liu H, et al. Modulation of p53 by mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and protein kinase C delta during avian reovirus S1133-induced apoptosis. Virology. 2009;385:323-34 pubmed publisher
  9. Chow S, Yu C, Guy G. Sprouty2 interacts with protein kinase C delta and disrupts phosphorylation of protein kinase D1. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19623-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report a novel interaction between protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta) and Spry2...
  10. Hubmann R, Düchler M, Schnabl S, Hilgarth M, Demirtas D, Mitteregger D, et al. NOTCH2 links protein kinase C delta to the expression of CD23 in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells. Br J Haematol. 2010;148:868-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that deregulation of NOTCH2 signalling is critically involved in maintaining the malignant phenotype of CLL lymphocytes and point to a link between PKC-delta and NOTCH2 signalling in the leukemic cells. ..
  11. Lønne G, Masoumi K, Lennartsson J, Larsson C. Protein kinase Cdelta supports survival of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by suppressing the ERK1/2 pathway. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33456-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight PKCdelta as a potential target for therapy of breast cancers with high activity of the ERK1/2 pathway. ..
  12. Volak L, Court M. Role for protein kinase C delta in the functional activity of human UGT1A6: implications for drug-drug interactions between PKC inhibitors and UGT1A6. Xenobiotica. 2010;40:306-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify an important role for PKC delta in UGT1A6-mediated glucuronidation and suggest that PKC delta inhibitors could interfere with glucuronidation of UGT1A6 substrates. ..
  13. Uchiyama K, Saito M, Sasaki M, Obara Y, Higashiyama S, Nakahata N. Thromboxane A2 receptor-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation: involvement of PKC-delta and PKC-epsilon in the shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2009;38:504-11 pubmed publisher
  14. Mun S, Kim H, Kim J, Ko N, Kim D, Lee B, et al. Oral administration of curcumin suppresses production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 to ameliorate collagen-induced arthritis: inhibition of the PKCdelta/JNK/c-Jun pathway. J Pharmacol Sci. 2009;111:13-21 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that the suppression of MMP-1 and MMP-3 production by curcumin in CIA is mediated through the inhibition of PKCdelta and the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway. ..
  15. Musset B, Capasso M, Cherny V, Morgan D, Bhamrah M, Dyer M, et al. Identification of Thr29 as a critical phosphorylation site that activates the human proton channel Hvcn1 in leukocytes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:5117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This phosphorylation is crucial to activation of the proton conductance during the respiratory burst in phagocytes. ..
  16. Okusa C, Miyamae M, Sugioka S, Kaneda K, Inamura Y, Onishi A, et al. Acute memory phase of sevoflurane preconditioning is associated with sustained translocation of protein kinase C-alpha and epsilon, but not delta, in isolated guinea pig hearts. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009;26:582-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The acute memory phase of sevoflurane preconditioning is limited to less than 60 min. Sustained translocation of PKC-alpha and epsilon, but not delta, correlates with this acute memory phase of sevoflurane preconditioning. ..
  17. El Jamali A, Valente A, Clark R. Regulation of phagocyte NADPH oxidase by hydrogen peroxide through a Ca(2+)/c-Abl signaling pathway. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:798-810 pubmed publisher
    ..This positive feedback regulatory pathway has important implications for amplifying the innate immune response and contributing to oxidative stress in inflammatory disorders. ..
  18. Zhao C, Li K, Li J, Zheng W, Liang X, Geng A, et al. PKCdelta regulates cortical radial migration by stabilizing the Cdk5 activator p35. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21353-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Both PKCdelta and p35 were required for the promigratory effect of BDNF on cultured newborn neurons. Thus, PKCdelta may promote cortical radial migration through maintaining the proper level of p35 in newborn neurons. ..
  19. Cataldi A, Zingariello M, Rapino M, Zara S, Daniele F, Di Giulio C, et al. Effect of hypoxia and aging on PKC delta-mediated SC-35 phosphorylation in rat myocardial tissue. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009;292:1135-42 pubmed publisher
  20. Sun F, Kanthasamy A, Song C, Yang Y, Anantharam V, Kanthasamy A. Proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis is mediated by positive feedback amplification of PKCdelta proteolytic activation and mitochondrial translocation. J Cell Mol Med. 2008;12:2467-81 pubmed publisher
  21. Hsieh H, Tung W, Wu C, Wang H, Lin C, Wang T, et al. Thrombin induces EGF receptor expression and cell proliferation via a PKC(delta)/c-Src-dependent pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:1594-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that thrombin-enhanced VSMC proliferation was mediated through upregulation of EGFR via a PKC(delta)/c-Src-dependent transactivation of EGFR, PI3K-Akt, and ERK, and AP-1/NF-kappaB pathway. ..
  22. Romanova L, Holmes G, Bahte S, Kovalchuk A, Nelson P, Ward Y, et al. Phosphorylation of paxillin at threonine 538 by PKCdelta regulates LFA1-mediated adhesion of lymphoid cells. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:1567-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that phosphorylation of T538 is involved in the activation of LFA-1 integrins by TPA. ..
  23. Woodcock J, Ma Y, Coolen C, Pham D, Jones C, Lopez A, et al. Sphingosine and FTY720 directly bind pro-survival 14-3-3 proteins to regulate their function. Cell Signal. 2010;22:1291-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these results suggest a new therapeutic activity for FTY720 as an anti-cancer agent based on this mechanism. ..
  24. Sánchez Bautista S, Corbalan Garcia S, Pérez Lara A, Gomez Fernandez J. A comparison of the membrane binding properties of C1B domains of PKCgamma, PKCdelta, and PKCepsilon. Biophys J. 2009;96:3638-47 pubmed publisher
    ..DSC experiments showed this to be a consequence of the nonfluid conditions of 1,2-sn-dipalmitoylglycerol;-containing systems. ..
  25. Bhatt K, Pandey R, Dahiya Y, Sodhi A. Protein kinase Cdelta and protein tyrosine kinase regulate peptidoglycan-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:861-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that PGN induces enhanced expression of iNOS and NO production through activation of protein tyrosine kinases and PKCdelta, which in turn initiates NF-kappaB activation and translocation to nucleus...
  26. Chae Y, Kim K, Ha S, Kim J, Suh P, Ryu S. Protein kinase Cdelta-mediated phosphorylation of phospholipase D controls integrin-mediated cell spreading. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:5086-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that PKC? is a primary regulator of integrin-mediated PLD activation via the direct phosphorylation of PLD, which is essential for directing integrin-induced cell spreading. ..
  27. Monti M, Donnini S, Giachetti A, Mochly Rosen D, Ziche M. deltaPKC inhibition or varepsilonPKC activation repairs endothelial vascular dysfunction by regulating eNOS post-translational modification. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;48:746-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Since endothelial health ensures better tissue perfusion and oxygenation, treatment with a deltaPKC inhibitor and/or an varepsilonPKC activator in diseases of endothelial dysfunction should be considered...
  28. Tokuda H, Hosoi T, Hayasaka K, Okamura K, Yoshimi N, Kozawa O. Overexpression of protein kinase C-delta plays a crucial role in interleukin-6-producing pheochromocytoma presenting with acute inflammatory syndrome: a case report. Horm Metab Res. 2009;41:333-8 pubmed publisher
  29. Fan C, Katsuyama M, Wei H, Xia Q, Liu W, Yabe Nishimura C. Molecular mechanisms underlying PGF2alpha-induced hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2010;130:211-4 pubmed
  30. Basu A, Datta D, Zurakowski D, Pal S. Altered VEGF mRNA stability following treatments with immunosuppressive agents: implications for cancer development. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:25196-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, targeting the pathways that promote CNI-induced transcription as well as the mRNA stability of VEGF might serve as novel therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of cancer in immunosuppressed patients. ..
  31. Bühligen J, Himmel M, Gebhardt C, Simon J, Ziegler W, Averbeck M. Lysophosphatidylcholine-mediated functional inactivation of syndecan-4 results in decreased adhesion and motility of dendritic cells. J Cell Physiol. 2010;225:905-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these DC are defective in adhesion and migration. Based on our results, we hypothesize that LysoPC released during apoptosis might delay DC migration to lymphoid organs and thus prevent autoimmunity. ..
  32. Brand C, Horovitz Fried M, Inbar A, Tamar Brutman Barazani -, Brodie C, Sampson S. Insulin stimulation of PKC? triggers its rapid degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1803:1265-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide additional evidence for unique effects of insulin on regulation of PKC? protein levels. ..
  33. Matron C, Chakravarti A, Allaeys I, Poubelle P. PKC-delta controls the fMLF-induced overproduction of superoxide by neutrophils. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:207-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, long-term cytokine exposure modifies molecular pathways and functional characteristics of the neutrophil. ..
  34. Park S, Schulze Luehrman J, Hayden M, Hashimoto N, Ogawa W, Kasuga M, et al. The kinase PDK1 integrates T cell antigen receptor and CD28 coreceptor signaling to induce NF-kappaB and activate T cells. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:158-66 pubmed publisher
    ..CD28 facilitated NF-kappaB activation by regulating recruitment and phosphorylation of PDK1, which are necessary for efficient binding of PDK1 to protein kinase C-theta and the adaptor CARMA1 and thus for NF-kappaB induction. ..
  35. Lee J, Kim I. Leukotactin-1/CCL15 induces cell migration and differentiation of human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells through PKCdelta activation. Mol Biol Rep. 2010;37:2149-56 pubmed publisher inhibitor of G(i)/G(o) protein; U73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C and rottlerin, an inhibitor of protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta)...
  36. Parent N, Winstall E, Beauchemin M, Paquet C, Poirier G, Bertrand R. Proteomic analysis of enriched lysosomes at early phase of camptothecin-induced apoptosis in human U-937 cells. J Proteomics. 2009;72:960-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These include sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (NSDHL), prosaposin (PSAP) and protein kinase C delta (PKC-delta)...
  37. Pores Fernando A, Ranaghan M, Zweifach A. No specific subcellular localization of protein kinase C is required for cytotoxic T cell granule exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:25107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..That there is no requirement for specific PKC localization in lytic granule exocytosis may have important implications for the identity of PKC substrates. ..
  38. Kim T, Kim H, Shin H, Kim J. Phosphorylation status of nuclear ribosomal protein S3 is reciprocally regulated by protein kinase C{delta} and protein phosphatase 2A. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:21201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that oxidative stress regulates the phosphorylation status of nonribosomal rpS3 by both activating PKCdelta and blocking the PP2A interaction with rpS3. ..
  39. Alloatti G, Arnoletti E, Bassino E, Penna C, Perrelli M, Ghè C, et al. Obestatin affords cardioprotection to the ischemic-reperfused isolated rat heart and inhibits apoptosis in cultures of similarly stressed cardiomyocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;299:H470-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that, by acting on specific receptors, obestatin-(1-23) activates PI3K, PKC-epsilon, PKC-delta, and ERK1/2 signaling and protects cardiac cells against myocardial injury and apoptosis induced by I/R. ..
  40. Ferracini M, Martins J, Campos M, Anger D, Jancar S. Impaired phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages from diabetic rats is related to the deficient coupling of LTs to the Fc gamma R signaling cascade. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1974-80 pubmed publisher
    ..An essential role for insulin in innate immunity is suggested...
  41. Pravdic D, Sedlic F, Mio Y, Vladic N, Bienengraeber M, Bosnjak Z. Anesthetic-induced preconditioning delays opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore via protein Kinase C-epsilon-mediated pathway. Anesthesiology. 2009;111:267-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results point to the connection between cytosolic and mitochondrial components of cardioprotection by isoflurane. ..
  42. Li X, Pabla N, Wei Q, Dong G, Messing R, Wang C, et al. PKC-delta promotes renal tubular cell apoptosis associated with proteinuria. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:1115-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that activation of PKC-delta promotes tubular cell injury and death during albuminuria, broadening our understanding of the pathogenesis of progressive proteinuric kidney diseases. ..
  43. Do e Z, Fukumoto Y, Takaki A, Tawara S, Ohashi J, Nakano M, et al. Evidence for Rho-kinase activation in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Circ J. 2009;73:1731-9 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first direct evidence for Rho-kinase activation in patients with PAH, suggesting the therapeutic importance of Rho-kinase in the disorder. ..
  44. Esper R, Loeb J. Neurotrophins induce neuregulin release through protein kinase Cdelta activation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26251-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings implicate this specific PKC isoform as an important factor for the cleavage and neurotrophin-regulated release of soluble NRG1 forms that have important effects in nervous system development and disease. ..
  45. Coleman J, Mylonakis E. The tangled web of signaling in innate immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:313-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Now, Ziegler et al. (2009) and Ren et al. (2009) demonstrate that a protein kinase C delta homolog in C...
  46. Greene M, Ruhoff M, Burrington C, Garofalo R, Orena S. TNFalpha activation of PKCdelta, mediated by NFkappaB and ER stress, cross-talks with the insulin signaling cascade. Cell Signal. 2010;22:274-84 pubmed publisher
  47. Kim T, Kim H, Kim J. PKCdelta-dependent functional switch of rpS3 between translation and DNA repair. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1793:395-405 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we propose that the destiny of rpS3 molecules between translation and DNA repair is regulated by PKCdelta-dependent phosphorylation. ..
  48. Rybin V, Guo J, Harleton E, Feinmark S, Steinberg S. Regulatory autophosphorylation sites on protein kinase C-delta at threonine-141 and threonine-295. Biochemistry. 2009;48:4642-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these studies identify novel regulatory autophosphorylations on PKCdelta that serve as markers and regulators of PKCdelta activity. ..
  49. Kato K, Yamanouchi D, Esbona K, Kamiya K, Zhang F, Kent K, et al. Caspase-mediated protein kinase C-delta cleavage is necessary for apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H2253-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that caspase-3-mediated PKC-delta cleavage underlies SMC apoptosis induced by oxidative stress, and that PKC-delta acts both upstream and downstream of caspase-3. ..
  50. Fordjour A, Harrington E. PKCdelta influences p190 phosphorylation and activity: events independent of PKCdelta-mediated regulation of endothelial cell stress fiber and focal adhesion formation and barrier function. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1790:1179-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that while PKCdelta can regulate p190 activity, possibly at the FF and/or GTPase domains, the effect of PKCdelta inhibition on SF and FA and barrier dysfunction occurs through a pathway independent of p190. ..
  51. Liu Y, Wang J, Wu M, Wan W, Sun R, Yang D, et al. Down-regulation of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 levels inhibits migration and experimental metastasis of human breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:944-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PDK1, which increases its expression in cancer cells, can be used as a target for the development of novel therapies. ..
  52. Wang S, Pashtan I, Tsutsumi S, Xu W, Neckers L. Cancer cells harboring MET gene amplification activate alternative signaling pathways to escape MET inhibition but remain sensitive to Hsp90 inhibitors. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:2050-6 pubmed
    ..In contrast, Hsp90 inhibitors provide long-lasting suppression of c-Met-dependent signaling, and these drugs should be further evaluated in tumors driven by MET gene amplification. ..
  53. Valacchi G, Pecorelli A, Mencarelli M, Carbotti P, Fortino V, Muscettola M, et al. Rottlerin: a multifaced regulator of keratinocyte cell cycle. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18:516-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results open the way to further investigation on the Rottlerin therapeutic potential against keratinocyte hyper-proliferative disorders. ..