protein kinase c alpha


Summary: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.

Top Publications

  1. Palfi A, Bartha E, Copf L, Mark L, Gallyas F, Veres B, et al. Alcohol-free red wine inhibits isoproterenol-induced cardiac remodeling in rats by the regulation of Akt1 and protein kinase C alpha/beta II. J Nutr Biochem. 2009;20:418-25 pubmed publisher
  2. Melnikov S, Sagi Eisenberg R. Down-regulating protein kinase C alpha: functional cooperation between the proteasome and the endocytic system. Cell Signal. 2009;21:1607-19 pubmed publisher
    Ubiquitination, proteasome, caveolae and endosomes have been implicated in controlling protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha) down-regulation. However, the molecular mechanism remained obscure...
  3. Borland G, Bird R, Palmer T, Yarwood S. Activation of protein kinase Calpha by EPAC1 is required for the ERK- and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta-dependent induction of the SOCS-3 gene by cyclic AMP in COS1 cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:17391-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate that EPAC mediates novel regulatory cross-talk between the cyclic AMP and PKC signaling pathways leading to ERK- and C/EBPbeta-dependent induction of the SOCS-3 gene. ..
  4. Abeyweera T, Chen X, Rotenberg S. Phosphorylation of alpha6-tubulin by protein kinase Calpha activates motility of human breast cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:17648-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a model in which PKC phosphorylates alpha-tubulin at Ser165, leading to microtubule elongation and motility. ..
  5. Kooij V, Boontje N, Zaremba R, Jaquet K, dos Remedios C, Stienen G, et al. Protein kinase C alpha and epsilon phosphorylation of troponin and myosin binding protein C reduce Ca2+ sensitivity in human myocardium. Basic Res Cardiol. 2010;105:289-300 pubmed publisher
    ..PKCalpha- and PKCepsilon-mediated phosphorylation of cMyBP-C and cTnI as well as cTnT decrease myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and may thereby reduce contractility and enhance relaxation of human myocardium. ..
  6. Haughian J, Bradford A. Protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) regulates growth and invasion of endometrial cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2009;220:112-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) regulates cellular processes critical to malignancy and has been implicated in the pathogenesis ..
  7. Hambleton M, Hahn H, Pleger S, Kuhn M, Klevitsky R, Carr A, et al. Pharmacological- and gene therapy-based inhibition of protein kinase Calpha/beta enhances cardiac contractility and attenuates heart failure. Circulation. 2006;114:574-82 pubmed
    ..Pharmacological inhibition of PKCalpha, or the conventional isoforms in general, may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for enhancing cardiac contractility in certain stages of heart failure. ..
  8. Madigan J, Bodemann B, Brady D, Dewar B, Keller P, Leitges M, et al. Regulation of Rnd3 localization and function by protein kinase C alpha-mediated phosphorylation. Biochem J. 2009;424:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify an additional mechanism of regulation and provide clarification of how Rnd3 modulates Rho signalling to alter cytoskeletal organization. ..
  9. Du C, Xu Y, Liu X, Xie J, Xie M, Zhang Z, et al. Up-regulation of cyclin D1 expression in asthma serum-sensitized human airway smooth muscle promotes proliferation via protein kinase C alpha. Exp Lung Res. 2010;36:201-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors' previous studies have indicated that protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha) is involved in the proliferation of passively sensitized human airway smooth muscle cells (..

More Information


  1. Hellberg C, Schmees C, Karlsson S, Ahgren A, Heldin C. Activation of protein kinase C alpha is necessary for sorting the PDGF beta-receptor to Rab4a-dependent recycling. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2856-63 pubmed publisher
  2. Liu Q, Chen X, MacDonnell S, Kranias E, Lorenz J, Leitges M, et al. Protein kinase C{alpha}, but not PKC{beta} or PKC{gamma}, regulates contractility and heart failure susceptibility: implications for ruboxistaurin as a novel therapeutic approach. Circ Res. 2009;105:194-200 pubmed publisher
  3. Yan Y, Jiang J, Huang Z, Wu Z, Lin C, Wu F. [Antisense oligonucleotides targeting protein kinase C alpha inhibits the proliferation of A549 cells]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:1189-91 pubmed
    To investigate the effects of antisense oligonucleotides (ASODN) targeting protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) on the proliferation of A549 cells...
  4. Toita R, Kang J, Kim J, Tomiyama T, Mori T, Niidome T, et al. Protein kinase C alpha-specific peptide substrate graft-type copolymer for cancer cell-specific gene regulation systems. J Control Release. 2009;139:133-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that our system can recognize intracellular PKC alpha as a trigger to regulate transgene expression, and may be useful for tumor gene therapy. ..
  5. Sharkey J, Cable C, Olcese J. Melatonin sensitizes human myometrial cells to oxytocin in a protein kinase C alpha/extracellular-signal regulated kinase-dependent manner. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:2902-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, this sensitization would provide a mechanism for the increased nocturnal uterine contractility and labor that has been observed in late-term human pregnancy. ..
  6. Reneau J, Reyland M, Phillips J, Kindy C, Popp R. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate potentiation of N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced currents in primary cultured cerebellar granule cells is mediated by protein kinase C alpha. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;330:641-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data provide strong evidence that PMA-enhanced function of native NMDA receptors expressed in primary cultured CGCs is mediated by activation of PKCalpha. ..
  7. Haughian J, Reno E, Thorne A, Bradford A. Protein kinase C alpha-dependent signaling mediates endometrial cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:2556-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, targeting PKCalpha may provide novel therapeutic options in endometrial tumors. ..
  8. Jiang R, Teng Y, Huang Y, Gu J, Li M. Protein kinase C-alpha activation induces NF-kB-dependent VCAM-1 expression in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with sera from preeclamptic patients. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2010;69:101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell viability increased. Activation of the PKC-NF-kappaB signaling pathway may play an important role in the injury of HUVECs in women with PE. ..
  9. Rainbow R, Norman R, Everitt D, Brignell J, Davies N, Standen N. Endothelin-I and angiotensin II inhibit arterial voltage-gated K+ channels through different protein kinase C isoenzymes. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;83:493-500 pubmed publisher
    ..This implies that ET-1 and AngII target Kv channels of ASM through different pathways of PKC-interacting proteins, so each vasoconstrictor enables its distinct PKC isoenzyme to interact functionally with the Kv channel. ..
  10. Lee K, Cho H, Bae Y, Park K, Choe J, Chung I, et al. Bee venom suppresses LPS-mediated NO/iNOS induction through inhibition of PKC-alpha expression. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;123:15-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that BV suppresses LPS-induced iNOS activation through regulation of PKC-alpha. Accordingly, BV exerts a potent suppressive effect on pro-inflammatory responses in rat C6 glioma cells. ..
  11. Smith J, Greenlee J, Hamir A, Richt J, Greenlee M. Retinal function and morphology are altered in cattle infected with the prion disease transmissible mink encephalopathy. Vet Pathol. 2009;46:810-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support future efforts to focus on the retina for the development of new strategies for the diagnosis of TSEs. ..
  12. Unal R, Yao Borengasser A, Varma V, Rasouli N, Labbate C, Kern P, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is increased in obese subjects and decreases in response to pioglitazone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:2993-3001 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the mechanism of MMP-9 regulation in adipocytes, cells were treated with pioglitazone or protein kinase C alpha antisense oligomers, and MMP-9 levels were examined...
  13. Lønne G, Cornmark L, Zahirovic I, Landberg G, Jirstrom K, Larsson C. PKCalpha expression is a marker for breast cancer aggressiveness. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:76 pubmed publisher
    ..PKCalpha inhibition or downregulation also reduced cell migration in vitro. PKCalpha is a marker for poor prognosis of breast cancer and correlates to and is important for cell functions associated with breast cancer progression. ..
  14. Yang L, Qiao G, Ying H, Zhang J, Yin F. TCR-induced Akt serine 473 phosphorylation is regulated by protein kinase C-alpha. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;400:16-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of PKC-alpha in T-cell-line Jurkat cells reduced TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt as well as its downstream targets. Thus our results suggest that PKC-alpha is a candidate for PDK-2 in T cells upon TCR stimulation. ..
  15. Appel S, Allen P, Vetterkind S, Jin J, Morgan K. h3/Acidic calponin: an actin-binding protein that controls extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity in nonmuscle cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:1409-22 pubmed publisher
    ..2 migration in an in vitro wound healing assay. Our findings are consistent with a model whereby h3/acidic calponin controls fibroblast migration by regulation of ERK1/2-mediated l-caldesmon phosphorylation. ..
  16. Grossman G, Pauer G, Narendra U, Peachey N, Hagstrom S. Early synaptic defects in tulp1-/- mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:3074-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Not only is Tulp1 critical for photoreceptor function and survival, it is essential for the proper development of the photoreceptor synapse. ..
  17. Coutinho I, Pereira G, Leão M, Goncalves J, Corte Real M, Saraiva L. Differential regulation of p53 function by protein kinase C isoforms revealed by a yeast cell system. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:3582-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This work identified positive and negative p53 regulators which represent promising pharmacological targets in anti-cancer therapy. ..
  18. Gomez L, Sammel M, Appleby D, Elovitz M, Baldwin D, Jeffcoat M, et al. Evidence of a gene-environment interaction that predisposes to spontaneous preterm birth: a role for asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis and DNA variants in genes that control the inflammatory response. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202:386.e1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..For 8 SNPs in 3 genes (protein kinase C alpha, fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, and interleukin 6), the odds ratios for preterm birth ranged from 1.9-4...
  19. Nemoto T, Miyazaki S, Kanai T, Maruta T, Satoh S, Yoshikawa N, et al. Nav1.7-Ca2+ influx-induced increased phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 attenuate tau phosphorylation via glycogen synthase kinase-3beta: priming of Nav1.7 gating by ERK and p38. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;640:20-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In veratridine-nontreated cells, basal constitutive activities of ERK1/ERK2 and p38 primed Nav1.7 to increase 22Na+ influx. ..
  20. Debata P, Ranasinghe B, Berliner A, Curcio G, Tantry S, Ponimaskin E, et al. Erk1/2-dependent phosphorylation of PKCalpha at threonine 638 in hippocampal 5-HT(1A) receptor-mediated signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;397:401-6 pubmed publisher
    ..1A receptor (5-HT(1A)-R) causes activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (Erk) and protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) in both hippocampal HN2-5 cells and cultured hippocampal slices from postnatal day-15 (P15) ..
  21. Jackson T, Verrier J, Semple Rowland S, Kumar A, Foster T. PHLPP1 splice variants differentially regulate AKT and PKCα signaling in hippocampal neurons: characterization of PHLPP proteins in the adult hippocampus. J Neurochem. 2010;115:941-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The results provide unique evidence for a divergence in the function of PHLPP1α and PHLPP1β/SCOP, and suggest that PHLPP1α plays a major role in regulating AKT signaling in neurons. ..
  22. Konopatskaya O, Poole A. Protein kinase Calpha: disease regulator and therapeutic target. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2010;31:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective targeting of PKCalpha therefore has potential therapeutic value in a wide variety of disease states, although will be technically complicated by the ubiquitous expression and multiple functions of the molecule. ..
  23. Feng J, Chu L, Robich M, Clements R, Khabbaz K, Hagberg R, et al. Effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on endothelin-1-induced contraction and signaling in human skeletal muscle microcirculation. Circulation. 2010;122:S150-5 pubmed publisher
    ..CPB has no effects on ET-1-related gene/protein expression. These results provide novel mechanisms of ET-1-induced contraction in the setting of vasomotor dysfunction after cardiac surgery. ..
  24. Francis H, Onori P, Gaudio E, Franchitto A, Demorrow S, Venter J, et al. H3 histamine receptor-mediated activation of protein kinase Calpha inhibits the growth of cholangiocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:1704-13 pubmed publisher
    ..RAMH inhibits cholangiocarcinoma growth by PKCalpha-dependent ERK1/2 dephosphorylation. Modulation of PKCalpha by histamine receptors may be important in regulating cholangiocarcinoma growth. ..
  25. Hidalgo C, Hudson B, Bogomolovas J, Zhu Y, Anderson B, Greaser M, et al. PKC phosphorylation of titin's PEVK element: a novel and conserved pathway for modulating myocardial stiffness. Circ Res. 2009;105:631-8, 17 p following 638 pubmed publisher
    ..PKC phosphorylation of titin is a novel and conserved pathway that links myocardial signaling and myocardial stiffness. ..
  26. Kjellström U, Bruun A, Ghosh F, Andreasson S, Ponjavic V. Dose-related changes in retinal function and PKC-alpha expression in rabbits on vigabatrin medication. Effect of vigabatrin in the rabbit eye. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;247:1057-67 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate, in a rabbit model, the effect of two different doses of vigabatrin (VGB) on retinal function and morphology...
  27. Chen J, Liu Y, Soh J, Aguilera G. Antiapoptotic effects of vasopressin in the neuronal cell line H32 involve protein kinase Calpha and beta. J Neurochem. 2009;110:1310-20 pubmed publisher
  28. Bergelin N, Blom T, Heikkila J, Lof C, Alam C, Balthasar S, et al. Sphingosine kinase as an oncogene: autocrine sphingosine 1-phosphate modulates ML-1 thyroid carcinoma cell migration by a mechanism dependent on protein kinase C-alpha and ERK1/2. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2055-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of protein kinase C alpha, with both small interfering RNA (siRNA) and small molecular inhibitors attenuates migration in SK ..
  29. Semkova I, Huemmeke M, Ho M, Merkl B, Abari E, Paulsson M, et al. Retinal localization of the glutamate receptor GluR2 and GluR2-regulating proteins in diabetic rats. Exp Eye Res. 2010;90:244-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The observations indicate a diabetes-dependent increase in the activation of PKCalpha and a disturbed GluR2 regulation by altered internalization and recycling. ..
  30. Amberg G, Earley S, Glapa S. Local regulation of arterial L-type calcium channels by reactive oxygen species. Circ Res. 2010;107:1002-10 pubmed publisher
  31. Chen Y, Yu G, Yu D, Zhu M. PKCalpha-induced drug resistance in pancreatic cancer cells is associated with transforming growth factor-beta1. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2010;29:104 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-beta1-induced drug resistance in pancreatic cancer cells was associated with PKCalpha expression. The PKCalpha inhibitor Gö6976 could be a promising agent to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy. ..
  32. Xu J, Rong S, Xie B, Sun Z, Deng Q, Wu H, et al. Memory impairment in cognitively impaired aged rats associated with decreased hippocampal CREB phosphorylation: reversal by procyanidins extracted from the lotus seedpod. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010;65:933-40 pubmed publisher
  33. Bailey C, Oldfield S, Llorente J, Caunt C, Teschemacher A, Roberts L, et al. Involvement of PKC alpha and G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in agonist-selective desensitization of mu-opioid receptors in mature brain neurons. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;158:157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These data represent functional selectivity at the level of receptor desensitization. ..
  34. Somara S, Gilmont R, Bitar K. Role of thin-filament regulatory proteins in relaxation of colonic smooth muscle contraction. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G958-66 pubmed
    ..We thus propose that, in addition to alteration in phosphorylation of MLC(20), relaxation is associated with alterations in thin-filament-mediated regulation that results in termination of contraction. ..
  35. Visigalli R, Barilli A, Parolari A, Sala R, Rotoli B, Bussolati O, et al. Regulation of arginine transport and metabolism by protein kinase Calpha in endothelial cells: stimulation of CAT2 transporters and arginase activity. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;49:260-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This metabolic deviation may contribute to the endothelial dysfunction associated with conditions of PKC overactivity. ..
  36. Fuller W, Howie J, McLatchie L, Weber R, Hastie C, Burness K, et al. FXYD1 phosphorylation in vitro and in adult rat cardiac myocytes: threonine 69 is a novel substrate for protein kinase C. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C1346-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that T69 is a previously undescribed phosphorylation site in FXYD1. Acute T69 phosphorylation elicits stimulation of the sodium pump additional to that induced by S63 and S68 phosphorylation. ..
  37. Zhang Y, Zhao H, Asztalos S, Chisamore M, Sitabkhan Y, Tonetti D. Estradiol-induced regression in T47D:A18/PKCalpha tumors requires the estrogen receptor and interaction with the extracellular matrix. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:498-510 pubmed publisher
  38. Dong C, Godwin D, Brennan P, Hegde A. Protein kinase Calpha mediates a novel form of plasticity in the accessory olfactory bulb. Neuroscience. 2009;163:811-24 pubmed publisher
  39. Lee I, Lin C, Wu Y, Yang C. TNF-alpha induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in A549 cells: role of TNFR1/TRAF2/PKCalpha-dependent signaling pathways. J Cell Physiol. 2010;224:454-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that in A549 cells, TNF-alpha induces MMP-9 expression via the TNFR1/TRAF2/PKCalpha-dependent JNK1/2/c-Jun and c-Src/EGFR/PI3K/Akt pathways. ..
  40. Anderson B, Bogomolovas J, Labeit S, Granzier H. The effects of PKCalpha phosphorylation on the extensibility of titin's PEVK element. J Struct Biol. 2010;170:270-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that phosphorylation of S26 is the primary mechanism through which PKCalpha modulates cardiac stiffness. ..
  41. Yan L, Huang H, Tang Q, Zhu L, Wang L, Liu C, et al. Breviscapine protects against cardiac hypertrophy through blocking PKC-alpha-dependent signaling. J Cell Biochem. 2010;109:1158-71 pubmed publisher
  42. Uenoyama M, Ogata S, Nakanishi K, Kanazawa F, Hiroi S, Tominaga S, et al. Protein kinase C mRNA and protein expressions in hypobaric hypoxia-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2010;198:431-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The above changes in PKC-alpha, which were strongly evident in the RV, occurred alongside the increase in PAP. PKC-alpha may help to modulate the right ventricular hypertrophy caused by pulmonary hypertension in HHE. ..
  43. Xu J, Yang G, Li T, Ming J, Chen W, Liu L. [The role of CPI-17 in vascular calcium sensitivity regulated by protein kinase Calpha and Cepsilon in rats with hemorrhagic shock]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2009;25:167-70 pubmed
    ..05), and those in PKCalpha agonist and PKC agonist groups (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). PKCalpha and PKCepsilon may regulate vascular calcium sensitivity through change in protein expression and activity of CPI-17 in HS rats. ..
  44. Yang M, Hsu L, Peng C, Shi Y, Wu C, Wang C. Polyphenol-rich extracts from Solanum nigrum attenuated PKC alpha-mediated migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:5806-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results revealed the antimigration and anti-invasion effects of both extracts derived from SN, which may act as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma...
  45. Petiti J, Gutierrez S, Mukdsi J, De Paul A, Torres A. Specific subcellular targeting of PKCalpha and PKCepsilon in normal and tumoral lactotroph cells by PMA-mitogenic stimulus. J Mol Histol. 2009;40:417-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the notion that specific PKC isozymes may exert spatially defined effects by virtue of their directed translocation to distinct intracellular sites. ..
  46. Yang H, Sun Z, Ba M, Xu J, Xing Y. Involvement of protein trafficking in deprenyl-induced alpha-secretase activity regulation in PC12 cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;610:37-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a novel pharmacological mechanism in which deprenyl increased alpha-secretase activity via protein trafficking related mechanism. ..
  47. Letoha T, Keller Pinter A, Kusz E, Kolozsi C, Bozso Z, Toth G, et al. Cell-penetrating peptide exploited syndecans. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1798:2258-65 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Protein kinase C alpha is also heavily involved in the uptake mechanism...
  48. Robles M, Boyault C, Knutti D, Padmanabhan K, Weitz C. Identification of RACK1 and protein kinase Calpha as integral components of the mammalian circadian clock. Science. 2010;327:463-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the classical PKC signaling pathway is not limited to relaying external stimuli but is rhythmically activated by internal processes, forming an integral part of the circadian feedback loop. ..
  49. Ruether K, Feigenspan A, Pirngruber J, Leitges M, Baehr W, Strauss O. PKC{alpha} is essential for the proper activation and termination of rod bipolar cell response. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:6051-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This modulation is of importance in the switch between scotopic and photopic vision. Furthermore, PKC? seems to play a role in RPE function. ..
  50. Singh S, Okamura T, Ali Osman F. Serine phosphorylation of glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) by PKC? enhances GSTP1-dependent cisplatin metabolism and resistance in human glioma cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;80:1343-55 pubmed publisher
  51. Maffucci T, Raimondi C, Abu Hayyeh S, Dominguez V, Sala G, Zachary I, et al. A phosphoinositide 3-kinase/phospholipase Cgamma1 pathway regulates fibroblast growth factor-induced capillary tube formation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8285 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore these data unveil a novel role for PLCgamma1 as a mediator of PI3K-dependent Akt activation and as a novel key regulator of different Akt-dependent processes. ..
  52. Hamplova B, Novak F, Kolar F, Novakova O. Transient upregulation of protein kinase C in pressure-overloaded neonatal rat myocardium. Physiol Res. 2010;59:25-33 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that PKCalpha, PKCdelta and PKCepsilon undergo transient upregulation associated with the accelerated cardiac growth induced by pressure overload imposed in the very early postnatal period. ..
  53. Hsu K, Fan H, Chen Y, Huang Y, Chen C, Wu J, et al. Protein kinase C-Fyn kinase cascade mediates the oleic acid-induced disassembly of neonatal rat cardiomyocyte adherens junctions. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:1536-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, inhibitors of PKC-alpha/-epsilon and Src family kinase are potential candidates as cardioprotection agents against OA-induced heart injury during ischemia-reperfusion. ..