protein kinase c


Summary: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.

Top Publications

  1. Zhou X, Wulfsen I, Korth M, McClafferty H, Lukowski R, Shipston M, et al. Palmitoylation and membrane association of the stress axis regulated insert (STREX) controls BK channel regulation by protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that palmitoylation of STREX controls BK channel regulation also by protein kinase C (PKC)...
  2. Atwood S, Li M, Lee A, Tang J, Oro A. GLI activation by atypical protein kinase C ?/? regulates the growth of basal cell carcinomas. Nature. 2013;494:484-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify atypical protein kinase C ?/? (aPKC-?/?) as a novel GLI regulator in mammals...
  3. Kong K, Fu G, Zhang Y, Yokosuka T, Casas J, Canonigo Balancio A, et al. Protein kinase C-? controls CTLA-4-mediated regulatory T cell function. Nat Immunol. 2014;15:465-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a CTLA-4-PKC-? signaling axis required for contact-dependent suppression and implicate this pathway as a potential cancer immunotherapy target. ..
  4. Hofland J, Steenbergen J, Hofland L, van Koetsveld P, Eijken M, van Nederveen F, et al. Protein kinase C-induced activin A switches adrenocortical steroidogenesis to aldosterone by suppressing CYP17A1 expression. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;305:E736-44 pubmed publisher
    ..and activin A protein levels were found to be increased up to 1,900-fold and 49-fold, respectively, after protein kinase C (PKC) stimulation through PMA or angiotensin II in H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells...
  5. Ching L, Zhao J, Su K, Shyue S, Hsu C, Lu T, et al. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation at Thr497 by protein phosphatase 2B-dependent dephosphorylation of protein kinase C. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2013;209:124-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In BAECs, treatment with the TRPV1 ligand evodiamine decreased the phosphorylation of eNOS at Thr497, protein kinase C? (PKC?) at Serine 657 (Ser657) and PKC?2 at Ser660...
  6. Bright D, Smart T. Protein kinase C regulates tonic GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition in the hippocampus and thalamus. Eur J Neurosci. 2013;38:3408-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) provides a key mode of regulation for synaptic GABA(A) Rs underlying phasic inhibition; however, less ..
  7. Pakpour N, Camp L, Smithers H, Wang B, Tu Z, Nadler S, et al. Protein kinase C-dependent signaling controls the midgut epithelial barrier to malaria parasite infection in anopheline mosquitoes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76535 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein kinase C (PKC) gene family consists of serine/threonine kinases that serve as central signaling molecules and ..
  8. Fogh B, Multhaupt H, Couchman J. Protein kinase C, focal adhesions and the regulation of cell migration. J Histochem Cytochem. 2014;62:172-84 pubmed publisher
    ..are tyrosine kinases, which have received a great deal of attention, whereas the serine/threonine kinase protein kinase C has received much less...
  9. Yamashita Y, Okamoto M, Ikeda M, Okamoto A, Sakai M, Gunji Y, et al. Protein kinase C (PKC) increases TACE/ADAM17 enzyme activity in porcine ovarian somatic cells, which is essential for granulosa cell luteinization and oocyte maturation. Endocrinology. 2014;155:1080-90 pubmed publisher
    ..FSH is known to activate not only protein kinase A and p38MAPK pathways in both cell types but also activates protein kinase C (PKC)...

More Information


  1. Rutherford C, Childs S, Ohotski J, McGlynn L, Riddick M, Macfarlane S, et al. Regulation of cell survival by sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor S1P1 via reciprocal ERK-dependent suppression of Bim and PI-3-kinase/protein kinase C-mediated upregulation of Mcl-1. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e927 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibition of caspase-3 cleavage was reversed by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C (PKC), which had no effect on S1P1 regulation of Bim...
  2. Kazi J, Kabir N, Ronnstrand L. Protein kinase C (PKC) as a drug target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Med Oncol. 2013;30:757 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein kinase C (PKC) belongs to a family of ten serine/threonine protein kinases encoded by nine genes...
  3. Zeng K, Li J, Dong X, Wang Y, Ma Z, Jiang Y, et al. Anti-neuroinflammatory efficacy of the aldose reductase inhibitor FMHM via phospholipase C/protein kinase C-dependent NF-?B and MAPK pathways. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;273:159-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistic studies showed that FMHM suppressed the activity of AR-dependent phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling, which further resulted in downstream inactivation of the I?B kinase/I?B/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-..
  4. Shinohara H, Sakai Y, Mir T. Real-time monitoring of intracellular signal transduction in PC12 cells by two-dimensional surface plasmon resonance imager. Anal Biochem. 2013;441:185-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2D-SPR) imager for monitoring of intracellular signal transduction that was mainly translocation of protein kinase C via local refractive index change in PC12 cells adhered on a gold sensor slide without any indicator reagent...
  5. Hutchinson C, Lowe P, McLaughlin S, Mott H, Owen D. Differential binding of RhoA, RhoB, and RhoC to protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK) isoforms PRK1, PRK2, and PRK3: PRKs have the highest affinity for RhoB. Biochemistry. 2013;52:7999-8011 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein kinase C-related kinases (PRKs) are members of the protein kinase C superfamily of serine-threonine kinases and can be activated by binding to members of the Rho family of GTPases via a Rho-binding motif known as an HR1 domain...
  6. Raikwar N, Liu K, Thomas C. Protein kinase C regulates FLT1 abundance and stimulates its cleavage in vascular endothelial cells with the release of a soluble PlGF/VEGF antagonist. Exp Cell Res. 2013;319:2578-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effect of VEGF and protein kinase C (PKC) activation on sFLT1 abundance...
  7. Saiz N, Grabarek J, Sabherwal N, Papalopulu N, Plusa B. Atypical protein kinase C couples cell sorting with primitive endoderm maturation in the mouse blastocyst. Development. 2013;140:4311-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), a protein associated with apicobasal polarity, is specifically enriched in PrE precursors in the ICM ..
  8. Song S, Byrd J, Guha S, Liu K, Koul D, Bresalier R. Induction of MUC5AC mucin by conjugated bile acids in the esophagus involves the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase C/activator protein-1 pathway. Cancer. 2011;117:2386-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to determine whether and how bile acids influence the expression of MUC5AC in the esophagus...
  9. Chu Y, Fioravante D, Thanawala M, Leitges M, Regehr W. Calcium-dependent isoforms of protein kinase C mediate glycine-induced synaptic enhancement at the calyx of Held. J Neurosci. 2012;32:13796-804 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that PKC(Ca) can enhance evoked neurotransmitter release in response to calcium increases caused by small presynaptic depolarizations. ..
  10. Kim G, Nigro P, Fujiwara K, Abe J, Berk B. p62 binding to protein kinase C ? regulates tumor necrosis factor ?-induced apoptotic pathway in endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:2974-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein kinase C (PKC) ? is a key pathological mediator of endothelial cell apoptosis. p62 is a scaffold protein that regulates several cell signaling pathways by binding to target proteins...
  11. Wang C, LI Y, Zheng Y, Feng B, Liu Y, Cao J. Glucocorticoid decreases airway tone via a nongenomic pathway. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2012;183:10-4 pubmed publisher
    ..PMA, activator of protein kinase C (PKC), could partially imitate this rapid effect, while PKC inhibition also blocked this action to some ..
  12. Falkenburger B, Dickson E, Hille B. Quantitative properties and receptor reserve of the DAG and PKC branch of G(q)-coupled receptor signaling. J Gen Physiol. 2013;141:537-55 pubmed publisher
    ..the second messengers diacylgycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), leading to calcium release, protein kinase C (PKC) activation, and in some cases, PIP2 depletion...
  13. Eiseler T, Köhler C, Nimmagadda S, Jamali A, Funk N, Joodi G, et al. Protein kinase D1 mediates anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of tumor cells via the zinc finger transcription factor Snail1. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32367-80 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our data show that PKD1 is crucial to support growth of tumor cells via Snail1. ..
  14. Arachiche A, de la Fuente M, Nieman M. Calcium mobilization and protein kinase C activation downstream of protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4) is negatively regulated by PAR3 in mouse platelets. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55740 pubmed publisher
    ..increase in the maximum intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) mobilization, an increase in phosphorylation level of protein kinase C (PKC) substrates, and a 2-fold increase of Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores...
  15. Tandon M, Wang L, Xu Q, Xie X, Wipf P, Wang Q. A targeted library screen reveals a new inhibitor scaffold for protein kinase D. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44653 pubmed publisher
    ..These lead structures represent an excellent starting point for the further optimization and the design of selective and therapeutically effective small molecule inhibitors of PKD. ..
  16. Wang J, Chen Q, Zhou J, Wen J, Bian F, Li G, et al. Specific protein kinase C isoforms ? and ?I are involved in follicle-stimulating hormone-induced mouse follicle-enclosed oocytes meiotic resumption. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45043 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in gonadotrophin-induced oocyte maturation. In the present study, we investigated the role of specific PKC isoforms in the process of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced oocyte meiotic resumption...
  17. Jancinova V, Perecko T, Nosal R, Harmatha J, Smidrkal J, Drabikova K. The natural stilbenoid pinosylvin and activated neutrophils: effects on oxidative burst, protein kinase C, apoptosis and efficiency in adjuvant arthritis. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2012;33:1285-92 pubmed publisher
    ..stilbenoid pinosylvin on neutrophil activity in vitro and in experimental arthritis, and to examine whether protein kinase C (PKC) activation served as an assumed target of pinosylvin action...
  18. Sacktor T. Memory maintenance by PKM?--an evolutionary perspective. Mol Brain. 2012;5:31 pubmed publisher
    ..The persistent activity of the autonomously active, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoform, PKM?, is both necessary and sufficient for maintaining LTP...
  19. Wang S, Watanabe T, Matsuzawa K, Katsumi A, Kakeno M, Matsui T, et al. Tiam1 interaction with the PAR complex promotes talin-mediated Rac1 activation during polarized cell migration. J Cell Biol. 2012;199:331-45 pubmed publisher
    ..factor Tiam1 participates in polarized cell migration with the PAR complex of PAR3, PAR6, and atypical protein kinase C. However, it remains largely unknown how Tiam1 is regulated and contributes to the establishment of polarity ..
  20. Bougie J, Cai D, Hastings M, Farah C, Chen S, Fan X, et al. Serotonin-induced cleavage of the atypical protein kinase C Apl III in Aplysia. J Neurosci. 2012;32:14630-40 pubmed publisher
    ..While PKM? is formed in rodents through translation of a transcript initiating in an intron of the protein kinase C? (PKC?) gene, this transcript does not exist in Aplysia californica despite the fact that inhibitors of PKM? ..
  21. Darieva Z, Han N, Warwood S, Doris K, Morgan B, Sharrocks A. Protein kinase C regulates late cell cycle-dependent gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:4651-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore identifies an important role for Pkc1p in controlling the correct temporal expression of genes in the cell cycle. ..
  22. Kato A, Knierman M, Siuda E, Isaac J, Nisenbaum E, Bredt D. Glutamate receptor ?2 associates with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1), protein kinase C?, and canonical transient receptor potential 3 and regulates mGluR1-mediated synaptic transmission in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. J Neurosci. 2012;32:15296-308 pubmed publisher
    ..protein partners for mGluR1 in cerebellum and discovered glutamate receptor ?2 (GluR?2, Grid2, Glu?2) and protein kinase C? (PKC?) as major interactors...
  23. Steinberg S. Cardiac actions of protein kinase C isoforms. Physiology (Bethesda). 2012;27:130-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms have emerged as important regulators of cardiac contraction, hypertrophy, and signaling pathways that influence ischemic/reperfusion injury...
  24. Mochly Rosen D, Das K, Grimes K. Protein kinase C, an elusive therapeutic target?. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2012;11:937-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein kinase C (PKC) has been a tantalizing target for drug discovery ever since it was first identified as the receptor for the tumour promoter phorbol ester in 1982...
  25. Shah Nawaz ul Rehman M, Martinez Ochoa N, Pascal H, Sasvari Z, Herbst C, Xu K, et al. Proteome-wide overexpression of host proteins for identification of factors affecting tombusvirus RNA replication: an inhibitory role of protein kinase C. J Virol. 2012;86:9384-95 pubmed publisher
  26. Manning J, Perkins S, Sinclair E, Gao X, Zhang Y, Newman G, et al. Low molecular weight fibroblast growth factor-2 signals via protein kinase C and myofibrillar proteins to protect against postischemic cardiac dysfunction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013;304:H1382-96 pubmed publisher
    ..low molecular weight (LMW) isoform of FGF2 and that FGF2-mediated cardioprotection relies on the activity of protein kinase C (PKC); however, which PKC isoforms are responsible for LMW FGF2-mediated cardioprotection, and their ..
  27. Volk L, Bachman J, Johnson R, Yu Y, Huganir R. PKM-? is not required for hippocampal synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Nature. 2013;493:420-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Sustained activation of the brain-specific protein kinase C (PKC) isoform protein kinase M-? (PKM-?) has been reported to be necessary for both LTP maintenance and long-..
  28. Lee H, Park M, Shin N, Kim G, Kim Y, Shin J, et al. High mobility group box-1 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta and secreted in colon cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;424:321-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify the specific enzyme and important sites for HMGB1 phosphorylation, we screened the protein kinase C (PKC) family in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116) for HMGB1 binding by pull-down experiments using a 3XFLAG-..
  29. Melemedjian O, Tillu D, Asiedu M, Mandell E, Moy J, Blute V, et al. BDNF regulates atypical PKC at spinal synapses to initiate and maintain a centralized chronic pain state. Mol Pain. 2013;9:12 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings point to BDNF regulation of aPKC as a potential therapeutic target for the permanent reversal of a chronic pain state. ..
  30. Samluk L, Czeredys M, Skowronek K, Nałęcz K. Protein kinase C regulates amino acid transporter ATB(0,+). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;422:64-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The ATB(0,+) over-expression correlated with increased l-leucine transport, stimulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activator and attenuated by PKC inhibitors...
  31. Wiejak J, Dunlop J, Stoyle C, Lappin G, McIlroy A, Pediani J, et al. The protein kinase C inhibitor, Ro-31-7459, is a potent activator of ERK and JNK MAP kinases in HUVECs and yet inhibits cyclic AMP-stimulated SOCS-3 gene induction through inactivation of the transcription factor c-Jun. Cell Signal. 2012;24:1690-9 pubmed publisher
  32. van Baal J, de Widt J, Divecha N, van Blitterswijk W. Diacylglycerol kinase ? counteracts protein kinase C-mediated inactivation of the EGF receptor. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:1791-9 pubmed publisher
    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation is negatively regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) signaling. Stimulation of A431 cells with EGF, bradykinin or UTP increased EGFR phosphorylation at Thr654 in a PKC-dependent manner...
  33. Oubaha M, Lin M, Margaron Y, Filion D, Price E, Zon L, et al. Formation of a PKC?/?-catenin complex in endothelial cells promotes angiopoietin-1-induced collective directional migration and angiogenic sprouting. Blood. 2012;120:3371-81 pubmed publisher
    ..and directional migration and, in contrast to VEGF, induces the formation of a complex formed of atypical protein kinase C (PKC)-? and ?-catenin at cell-cell junctions and at the leading edge of migrating endothelial cells...
  34. Nimitvilai S, McElvain M, Brodie M. Reversal of dopamine D2 agonist-induced inhibition of ventral tegmental area neurons by Gq-linked neurotransmitters is dependent on protein kinase C, G protein-coupled receptor kinase, and dynamin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013;344:253-63 pubmed publisher
    ..DIR is mediated by phospholipase C and conventional subtype of protein kinase C (cPKC) through concurrent stimulation of D2 and D1-like DA receptors, or by D2 stimulation concurrent with ..
  35. Steinbusch L, Dirkx E, Hoebers N, Roelants V, Foretz M, Viollet B, et al. Overexpression of AMP-activated protein kinase or protein kinase D prevents lipid-induced insulin resistance in cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2013;55:165-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Focus on Cardiac Metabolism". ..
  36. Stahelin R, Kong K, Raha S, Tian W, Melowic H, Ward K, et al. Protein kinase C? C2 domain is a phosphotyrosine binding module that plays a key role in its activation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:30518-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein kinase C? (PKC?) is a novel PKC that plays a key role in T lymphocyte activation...
  37. Lee A, Kanter B, Wang D, Lim J, Zou M, Qiu C, et al. Prkcz null mice show normal learning and memory. Nature. 2013;493:416-9 pubmed publisher
    Protein kinase M-? (PKM-?) is a constitutively active form of atypical protein kinase C that is exclusively expressed in the brain and implicated in the maintenance of long-term memory...
  38. Caraballo J, Borcherding J, Thorne P, Comellas A. Protein kinase C-? mediates lung injury induced by diesel exhaust particles. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013;48:306-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the role of protein kinase C (PKC)-? activation in DEP-induced lung injury...
  39. Song B, Chang W, Hong B, Kim I, Cha M, Lim S, et al. Protein kinase C activation stimulates mesenchymal stem cell adhesion through activation of focal adhesion kinase. Cell Transplant. 2013;22:797-809 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PKC activator is a potential target for niche manipulation to enhance adhesion of MSCs for cardiac regeneration. ..
  40. Merino E, Abeyweera T, Firth M, Zawislak C, Basu R, Liu X, et al. Protein kinase C-? clustering at immunological synapses amplifies effector responses in NK cells. J Immunol. 2012;189:4859-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that protein kinase C-? (PKC?), a key signaling molecule in multiple lymphocyte subsets, formed microclusters in activated NK cells...
  41. David M, Macías A, Moreno C, Prieto A, Martínez Mármol R, Vicente R, et al. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity regulates functional effects of Kv?1.3 subunit on KV1.5 channels: identification of a cardiac Kv1.5 channelosome. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:21416-28 pubmed publisher
    ..5, K(v)?1.3, the receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1), PKC?I, PKC?II, and PKC? in HEK293 cells. A very similar K(v)1.5 channelosome was found in rat ventricular tissue but not in atrial tissue. ..
  42. Corbett G, Roy A, Pahan K. Sodium phenylbutyrate enhances astrocytic neurotrophin synthesis via protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated activation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB): implications for Alzheimer disease therapy. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:8299-312 pubmed publisher
    ..oral medication for hyperammonemia, induces astrocytic BDNF and NT-3 expression via the protein kinase C (PKC)-cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway...
  43. Chu P, Hsu N, Lin S, Hou M, Yeh K. High nuclear protein kinase C?II expression is a marker of disease recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:3987-91 pubmed
    b>Protein kinase C beta II (PKC?II) is a member of the family of serine/threonine kinases which are involved in tumor formation and progression. This study investigated the significance of PKC?II in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)...
  44. Perrelli M, Tullio F, Angotti C, Cerra M, Angelone T, Tota B, et al. Catestatin reduces myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury: involvement of PI3K/Akt, PKCs, mitochondrial KATP channels and ROS signalling. Pflugers Arch. 2013;465:1031-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Clearly phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, including intra-mitochondrial PKC?, mitochondrial KATP (mitoKATP) channels and subsequent ..
  45. Price T, Ghosh S. ZIPping to pain relief: the role (or not) of PKM? in chronic pain. Mol Pain. 2013;9:6 pubmed publisher
  46. Katayama T, Uchida H, Ohta A, Horiuchi H. Involvement of protein kinase C in the suppression of apoptosis and in polarity establishment in Aspergillus nidulans under conditions of heat stress. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50503 pubmed publisher
    The pkcA gene, which encodes a protein kinase C (PKC) in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, is essential for its viability. However, little is known about its functions...
  47. Lai K, Liu C, Chang K, Lee T. Depleting IFIT2 mediates atypical PKC signaling to enhance the migration and metastatic activity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Oncogene. 2013;32:3686-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our results indicated that atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) was activated in IFIT2-depleted cells...
  48. Kjær S, Linch M, Purkiss A, Kostelecky B, Knowles P, Rosse C, et al. Adenosine-binding motif mimicry and cellular effects of a thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-based chemical inhibitor of atypical protein kinase C isoenzymes. Biochem J. 2013;451:329-42 pubmed publisher
    The aPKC [atypical PKC (protein kinase C)] isoforms ? and ? play crucial roles in the formation and maintenance of cell polarity and represent attractive anti-oncogenic drug targets in Ras-dependent tumours...
  49. Kosenko A, Kang S, Smith I, Greene D, Langeberg L, Scott J, et al. Coordinated signal integration at the M-type potassium channel upon muscarinic stimulation. EMBO J. 2012;31:3147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Agonist dependent control of the M-channel is mediated by calmodulin, activation of anchored protein kinase C (PKC), and depletion of the phospholipid messenger phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)...
  50. Mattagajasingh S, Yang X, Irani K, Mattagajasingh I, Becker L. Activation of Stat3 in endothelial cells following hypoxia-reoxygenation is mediated by Rac1 and protein Kinase C. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1823:997-1006 pubmed
    ..Transfection with a peptide comprising the NH(2)-terminal 17 amino acid residues of Rac1-dependent signaling pathways resulting in physical association between Rac1 and Stat3 and the formation of a novel multiprotein complex with PKC. ..
  51. Chen R, Daining C, Sun H, Fraser R, Stokes S, Leitges M, et al. Protein kinase C? is a modulator of the dopamine D2 autoreceptor-activated trafficking of the dopamine transporter. J Neurochem. 2013;125:663-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously we reported that DAT expression and activity are subject to modulation by protein kinase C? (PKC?). Here, we further demonstrate that PKC? is integral for the interaction between DAT and D2autoR...
  52. Tabit C, Shenouda S, Holbrook M, Fetterman J, Kiani S, Frame A, et al. Protein kinase C-? contributes to impaired endothelial insulin signaling in humans with diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2013;127:86-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental studies indicate that disruption of endothelial insulin signaling, through the activity of protein kinase C-? (PKC?) and nuclear factor ?B, reduces nitric oxide availability...
  53. Morioka N, Yoshida Y, Nakamura Y, Hidaka N, Hisaoka Nakashima K, Nakata Y. The regulation of exon-specific brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression by protein kinase C in rat cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. Brain Res. 2013;1509:20-31 pubmed publisher
    ..cultures of DRG neurons were stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a potent activator of protein kinase C (PKC), which resulted in the robust expression of both BDNF mRNA and protein...
  54. Goulas S, Conder R, Knoblich J. The Par complex and integrins direct asymmetric cell division in adult intestinal stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;11:529-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that mechanisms for intrinsically asymmetric cell division can be adapted to allow for the flexibility in lineage decisions that is required in adult stem cells. ..
  55. Chen J, Zhang M. The Par3/Par6/aPKC complex and epithelial cell polarity. Exp Cell Res. 2013;319:1357-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on recent developments of the Par3/Par6/aPKC complex and its interacting proteins in epithelial cell polarity. ..
  56. Tan W, Huang H, Wang Y, Wong T, Wang C, Leung L. Bisphenol A differentially activates protein kinase C isoforms in murine placental tissue. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;269:163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Tracking the related signaling pathway, we found that protein kinase C ?/? and ? were activated in the placentas of bisphenol A-treated mice...
  57. Shou L, Zhang Q, Li W, Xie X, Chen K, Lian L, et al. Cantharidin and norcantharidin inhibit the ability of MCF-7 cells to adhere to platelets via protein kinase C pathway-dependent downregulation of ?2 integrin. Oncol Rep. 2013;30:1059-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The repression of ?2 integrin expression was found to be executed through the protein kinase C pathway, the activation of which could have been due to PP2A inhibition.
  58. Esseltine J, Ribeiro F, Ferguson S. Rab8 modulates metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 intracellular trafficking and signaling in a protein kinase C-dependent manner. J Neurosci. 2012;32:16933-42a pubmed publisher
    ..and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, which results in the release of intracellular calcium stores and protein kinase C (PKC) activation...
  59. Yao Y, Shao C, Jothianandan D, Tcherepanov A, SHOUVAL H, Sacktor T. Matching biochemical and functional efficacies confirm ZIP as a potent competitive inhibitor of PKM? in neurons. Neuropharmacology. 2013;64:37-44 pubmed publisher
    PKM? is an autonomously active, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoform that is both necessary and sufficient for maintaining long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory...
  60. Kong K, Altman A. In and out of the bull's eye: protein kinase Cs in the immunological synapse. Trends Immunol. 2013;34:234-42 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Protein kinase C (PKC)? localizes in the T cell IS within the central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC), where it ..