glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta


Summary: A glycogen synthase kinase-3 type enzyme that functions in ENERGY METABOLISM; EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; and NEUROGENESIS. It is also involved in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS and regulates cell growth and proliferation as a component of the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY and other signaling pathways. Certain polymorphisms in the GSK3B gene have been associated with PARKINSON DISEASE; ALZHEIMER DISEASE; and BIPOLAR DISORDER.

Top Publications

  1. Liu J, Zhang G, Lv Y, Zhang X, Ying C, Yang S, et al. SGK2 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression and mediates GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling in HCC cells. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317700408 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that downregulated SGK2 suppressed the expression level of unphosphorylated (activated) glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta. In addition, SGK2 downregulation decreased the dephosphorylation (activation) of ?-catenin by ..
  2. Paillusson S, Gomez Suaga P, Stoica R, LITTLE D, Gissen P, Devine M, et al. α-Synuclein binds to the ER-mitochondria tethering protein VAPB to disrupt Ca2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial ATP production. Acta Neuropathol. 2017;134:129-149 pubmed publisher
    ..Such disruptions are likely to be particularly damaging to neurons that are heavily dependent on correct Ca2+ signaling and ATP. ..
  3. Ma B, Yuan Z, Zhang L, Lv P, Yang T, Gao J, et al. Long non-coding RNA AC023115.3 suppresses chemoresistance of glioblastoma by reducing autophagy. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2017;1864:1393-1404 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these data indicate that the AC023115.3-miR-26a-GSK3? signalling axis plays an important role in reducing the chemoresistance of glioma. ..
  4. Sinha N, Panda P, Naik P, Maiti T, Bhutia S. Abrus agglutinin targets cancer stem-like cells by eliminating self-renewal capacity accompanied with apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317701634 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Abrus agglutinin has a potential role as an integrative therapeutic approach for combating oral cancer through targeting self-renewability of orospheres via reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis. ..
  5. Chen Z, Wang X, Jin T, Wang Y, Hong C, Tan L, et al. Increase in the radioresistance of normal skin fibroblasts but not tumor cells by mechanical injury. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e2573 pubmed publisher
    ..intracellular chemical signals via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3?) pathways...
  6. Bai Q, Song D, Gu L, Verkhratsky A, Peng L. Bi-phasic regulation of glycogen content in astrocytes via Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3? pathway by fluoxetine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017;234:1069-1077 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that bi-phasic regulation of glycogen content via Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3? pathway by fluoxetine may be responsible for both therapeutic and side effects of the drug. ..
  7. Mitra T, Roy S. Co-Activation of TGF? and Wnt Signalling Pathways Abrogates EMT in Ovarian Cancer Cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;41:1336-1345 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, tumourigenesis might be affected by the concentration of ligand/ growth factors for the respective signalling pathways activated in the tumour microenvironment and interaction between them might alter tumourigenesis. ..
  8. Yoo G, Kim T, Chung C, Hwang D, Lim D. The novel YAP target gene, SGK1, upregulates TAZ activity by blocking GSK3?-mediated TAZ destabilization. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:650-656 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, SGK1 inhibits ubiquitin-mediated degradation of TAZ by inhibiting GSK3? activity. These findings expand our understanding of YAP/TAZ regulation to include the novel downstream target of YAP, SGK1. ..
  9. Vohwinkel C, Buchäckert Y, Al tamari H, Mazzocchi L, Eltzschig H, Mayer K, et al. Restoration of Megalin-Mediated Clearance of Alveolar Protein as a Novel Therapeutic Approach for Acute Lung Injury. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2017;57:589-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, we discovered that the TGF-β-GSK3β-megalin axis is centrally involved in disturbances of alveolar protein clearance in acute lung injury and provide preclinical evidence for therapeutic efficacy of GSK3β inhibition. ..

More Information


  1. Gao Y, Ye D, Zhou W, Chu Y. The discovery of novel benzothiazinones as highly selective non-ATP competitive glycogen synthase kinase 3? inhibitors for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;135:370-381 pubmed publisher
  2. Nayak A, Siddharth S, Das S, Nayak D, Sethy C, Kundu C. Nanoquinacrine caused apoptosis in oral cancer stem cells by disrupting the interaction between GLI1 and ? catenin through activation of GSK3?. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;330:53-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, data suggest NQC caused OCSCs death by disrupting the crosstalk between ? catenin and GLI1 by activation of GSK3?. ..
  3. Kang X, Zhang J, Zhang Q, Cui Y, Wang Y, Kou W, et al. Degradation of Mcl-1 through GSK-3? Activation Regulates Apoptosis Induced by Bufalin in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer H1975 Cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;41:2067-2076 pubmed publisher
    ..Bufalin induced cell apoptosis in H1975 cells may be through downregulation of Mcl-1. Proteasomal degradation of Mcl-1 via GSK-3? activation was involved in bufalin-induced apoptosis. ..
  4. Lee F, Peng S, Lin K, Chen R, Ho T, Tsai F, et al. HSF1 phosphorylation by ERK/GSK3 suppresses RNF126 to sustain IGF-IIR expression for hypertension-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. J Cell Physiol. 2018;233:979-989 pubmed publisher
    ..HSF1 could be a valuable therapeutic target for cardiac diseases among hypertensive patients. ..
  5. Brydges N, Seckl J, Torrance H, Holmes M, Evans K, Hall J. Juvenile stress produces long-lasting changes in hippocampal DISC1, GSK3ß and NRG1 expression. Mol Psychiatry. 2014;19:854-5 pubmed publisher
  6. Liz M, Mar F, Santos T, Pimentel H, Marqués A, Morgado M, et al. Neuronal deletion of GSK3? increases microtubule speed in the growth cone and enhances axon regeneration via CRMP-2 and independently of MAP1B and CLASP2. BMC Biol. 2014;12:47 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, our results support that a precise control of microtubule dynamics, specifically in the growth cone, is required to optimize axon regrowth. ..
  7. Koh C, Khattar E, Leow S, Liu C, Müller J, Ang W, et al. Telomerase regulates MYC-driven oncogenesis independent of its reverse transcriptase activity. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:2109-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these data, we conclude that reactivation of TERT, a direct transcriptional MYC target in tumors, provides a feed-forward mechanism to potentiate MYC-dependent oncogenesis. ..
  8. Kohara T, Nakayama K, Watanabe K, Kusaka S, Sakai D, Tanaka H, et al. Discovery of novel 2-(4-aryl-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-4-ones as glycogen synthase kinase-3? inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:3733-3738 pubmed publisher
  9. Higgins C, Richardson G, Ferdinando D, Westgate G, Jahoda C. Modelling the hair follicle dermal papilla using spheroid cell cultures. Exp Dermatol. 2010;19:546-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This method of DP cell culture may provide us with a tool to elucidate our understanding of signalling within the DP as it relates to induction, maintenance or even inhibition of hair growth. ..
  10. Varano G, Raffel S, Sormani M, Zanardi F, Lonardi S, Zasada C, et al. The B-cell receptor controls fitness of MYC-driven lymphoma cells via GSK3? inhibition. Nature. 2017;546:302-306 pubmed publisher
    ..The BCR attenuates glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3?) activity to support MYC-controlled gene expression...
  11. Kuo L, Cheng L, Lee C, Lin C, Chen P, Li L. Estrogen and cigarette sidestream smoke particulate matter exhibit ER?-dependent tumor-promoting effects in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;313:L477-L490 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that estrogen has ER?-dependent tumor-promoting activity. CSSP acts like estrogen and shows a potential to enhance estrogen-induced ER? action. ..
  12. Jordan J, Tank J. Complexity of impaired parasympathetic heart rate regulation in diabetes. Diabetes. 2014;63:1847-9 pubmed publisher
  13. Brogi S, Ramunno A, Savi L, Chemi G, Alfano G, Pecorelli A, et al. First dual AK/GSK-3? inhibitors endowed with antioxidant properties as multifunctional, potential neuroprotective agents. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;138:438-457 pubmed publisher
    ..These compounds inhibit human adenosine kinase (hAK) and human glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (hGSK-3?) enzymes...
  14. Chen X, Wang R, Liu X, Wu Y, Zhou T, Yang Y, et al. A Chemical-Genetic Approach Reveals the Distinct Roles of GSK3? and GSK3? in Regulating Embryonic Stem Cell Fate. Dev Cell. 2017;43:563-576.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study opens new avenues for defining GSK3 isozyme-specific functions in various cellular processes. ..
  15. Schlegel P, Reinkober J, Meinhardt E, Tscheschner H, Gao E, Schumacher S, et al. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 promotes cardiac hypertrophy. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182110 pubmed publisher
    ..expression leading to enhanced signaling via protein kinase B (PKB or Akt), consecutively inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), such promoting nuclear accumulation and activation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells ..
  16. Yagi M, Kishigami S, Tanaka A, Semi K, Mizutani E, Wakayama S, et al. Derivation of ground-state female ES cells maintaining gamete-derived DNA methylation. Nature. 2017;548:224-227 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide insights into the derivation of female ES cells reminiscent of the inner cell mass of preimplantation embryos...
  17. Anzovino A, Chiang S, Brown B, Hawkins C, Richardson D, Huang M. Molecular Alterations in a Mouse Cardiac Model of Friedreich Ataxia: An Impaired Nrf2 Response Mediated via Upregulation of Keap1 and Activation of the Gsk3? Axis. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:2858-2875 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are in contrast to the frataxin-deficient skeletal muscle, where Nrf2 was not decreased. ..
  18. Gao W, Zhao B, Liu L, Yuan Q, Wu X, Xia Z. Myocardial ischemic post-conditioning protects the lung against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage by activating GSK-3?. Acta Cir Bras. 2017;32:376-387 pubmed publisher
    ..Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury induces acute lung injury by induction of inflammation and cell apoptosis. Ischemic post-conditioning protects the lung from ALI following MIRI by increasing p-GSK-3?. ..
  19. Song K, Bae S, Chang J, Park J, Jo I, Cho K, et al. Telmisartan mitigates hyperglycemia-induced vascular inflammation by increasing GSK3?-Ser9 phosphorylation in endothelial cells and mouse aortas. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:903-911 pubmed publisher
  20. Song Y, Li Z, Liu X, Wang R, Li L, Zhang Q. The Wnt/?-catenin and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways promote EMT in gastric cancer by epigenetic regulation via H3 lysine 27 acetylation. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317712617 pubmed publisher
    ..First, we used immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of phosphorylated Akt, phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, and ?-catenin in gastric cancer tissues and adjacent tissues...
  21. Nam E, Hayashida K, Aquino R, Couchman J, Kozar R, Liu J, et al. Syndecan-1 limits the progression of liver injury and promotes liver repair in acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice. Hepatology. 2017;66:1601-1615 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that syndecan-1 is a critical endogenous factor that controls the balance between prosurvival signaling and apoptosis in hepatocytes in APAP liver disease. (Hepatology 2017;66:1601-1615). ..
  22. Ding L, Liou G, Schmitt D, Storz P, Zhang J, Billadeau D. Glycogen synthase kinase-3? ablation limits pancreatitis-induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia. J Pathol. 2017;243:65-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ..
  23. Song F, Jiang D, Wang T, Wang Y, Lou Y, Zhang Y, et al. Mechanical Stress Regulates Osteogenesis and Adipogenesis of Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells through PI3K/Akt/GSK-3?/?-Catenin Signaling Pathway. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:6027402 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that mechanical stress-regulated osteogenesis and adipogenesis of rat BMSCs are mediated, at least in part, by the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling pathway. ..
  24. Wu H, Lay I, Shibu M, Ho T, Cheng S, Lin C, et al. Zanthoxylum avicennae extract enhances GSK-3? to attenuate ?-catenin via phosphatase 2A to block metastatic effects of HA22T cells and hepatocellular carcinoma xenografted nude mice. Environ Toxicol. 2017;32:2133-2143 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, both in vitro and in vivo models clearly demonstrated that YBBE inhibits ?-catenin involved metastatic signaling in highly metastatic HA22T cells through PP2A activation. ..
  25. da Silva T, Eira J, Lopes A, Malheiro A, Sousa V, Luoma A, et al. Peripheral nervous system plasmalogens regulate Schwann cell differentiation and myelination. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:2560-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, these studies identify a mechanism by which the lack of a membrane phospholipid causes neuropathology, implicating plasmalogens as regulators of membrane and cell signaling. ..
  26. Jain S, Ghanghas P, Rana C, Sanyal S. Role of GSK-3? in Regulation of Canonical Wnt/?-catenin Signaling and PI3-K/Akt Oncogenic Pathway in Colon Cancer. Cancer Invest. 2017;35:473-483 pubmed publisher
  27. Ma Z, Yuan Y, Zhang X, Xu S, Wang S, Tang Q. Piperine Attenuates Pathological Cardiac Fibrosis Via PPAR-?/AKT Pathways. EBioMedicine. 2017;18:179-187 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, piperine attenuated cardiac fibrosis via the activation of PPAR-? and the resultant inhibition of AKT/GSK3?. ..
  28. Huang S, Turlova E, Li F, Bao M, Szeto V, Wong R, et al. Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 channels (TRPM2) mediate neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in mice. Exp Neurol. 2017;296:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetically eliminating TRPM2 channels can provide neuroprotection against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and this effect is elicited in part through regulation of GSK-3β. ..
  29. Chatterjee R, Gupta S, Law S. Hematopathological alterations of major tumor suppressor cascade, vital cell cycle inhibitors and hematopoietic niche components in experimental myelodysplasia. Chem Biol Interact. 2017;273:1-10 pubmed publisher
  30. Park G, Song H, Park S, Son H, Um Y, Kim H, et al. Cytotoxic activity of the twigs of Cinnamomum cassia through the suppression of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018;18:28 pubmed publisher
    ..From these findings, TC-HW has potential to be a candidate for the development of chemoprevention or therapeutic agents for human colorectal cancer. ..
  31. Xiao H, Deng M, Yang B, Tang J, Hu Z. Role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 in ischemia-induced blood-brain barrier disruption in aged female rats. J Neurochem. 2017;142:194-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study suggested that activation of ER? may protect against brain ischemia-induced BBB disruption by inhibiting GSK3?-mediated signaling. ..
  32. Chen P, Bendris N, Hsiao Y, Reis C, Mettlen M, Chen H, et al. Crosstalk between CLCb/Dyn1-Mediated Adaptive Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Increases Metastasis. Dev Cell. 2017;40:278-288.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..We define molecular mechanisms for adaptive CME in cancer cells and a role for the reciprocal crosstalk between signaling and CME in cancer progression. ..
  33. Gao S, Li S, Duan X, Gu Z, Ma Z, Yuan X, et al. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) suppresses the progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by modifying STAT3 activity. Mol Carcinog. 2017;56:2301-2316 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results reveal that higher GSK3β expression promotes ESCC progression through STAT3 in vitro and in vivo, and GSK3β-STAT3 signaling could be a potential therapeutic target for ESCC treatment. ..
  34. Velmurugan B, Lee C, Chiang S, Hua C, Chen M, Lin S, et al. PP2A deactivation is a common event in oral cancer and reactivation by FTY720 shows promising therapeutic potential. J Cell Physiol. 2018;233:1300-1311 pubmed publisher
    ..All our results suggest that PP2A is frequently deactivated in oral cancer and determines poor outcome, restoring its expression by FTY720 can be an alternative therapeutic approach in OSCC. ..
  35. Dillon G, Tyler W, Omuro K, Kambouris J, Tyminski C, Henry S, et al. CLASP2 Links Reelin to the Cytoskeleton during Neocortical Development. Neuron. 2017;93:1344-1358.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data reveal that CLASP2 is an essential Reelin effector orchestrating cytoskeleton dynamics during brain development. ..
  36. Zheng M, Zou C, Li M, Huang G, Gao Y, Liu H. Folic Acid Reduces Tau Phosphorylation by Regulating PP2A Methylation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..These results support that folic acid can serve as a multitarget neuronal therapeutic agent for treating diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction. ..
  37. Furuta T, Sabit H, Dong Y, Miyashita K, Kinoshita M, Uchiyama N, et al. Biological basis and clinical study of glycogen synthase kinase- 3?-targeted therapy by drug repositioning for glioblastoma. Oncotarget. 2017;8:22811-22824 pubmed publisher
    ..Repositioning of the GSK3?-inhibitory drugs improved the prognosis of refractory GBM patients with active GSK3? in tumors. Combination of CLOVA cocktail and TMZ is a promising approach for recurrent GBM. ..
  38. Long M, Lin H, Parvez S, Zhao Y, Poganik J, Huang P, et al. β-TrCP1 Is a Vacillatory Regulator of Wnt Signaling. Cell Chem Biol. 2017;24:944-957.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..Because AR is a negative regulator of Wnt regardless of β-catenin N terminus, this switch of function is likely sufficient to establish a new Wnt/AR equilibrium during tumorigenesis. ..
  39. Zhang Y, Xie L, Gunasekar S, Tong D, Mishra A, Gibson W, et al. SWELL1 is a regulator of adipocyte size, insulin signalling and glucose homeostasis. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:504-517 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies identify SWELL1 as a cell-autonomous sensor of adipocyte size that regulates adipocyte growth, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. ..
  40. Wu A, Li M, Mai Z, Li S, Yang Z. [CK2? Regulates the Metastases and Migration of Lung Adenocarcinoma ?A549 Cell Line through PI3K/Akt/GSK-3? Signal Pathway]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi. 2017;20:233-238 pubmed publisher
  41. Bai L, Chang H, Cheng J, Chu G, Leung P, Yang G. Lithium Chloride Increases COX-2 Expression and PGE2 Production in a Human Granulosa-Lutein SVOG Cell Line Via a GSK-3?/?-Catenin Signaling Pathway. Endocrinology. 2017;158:2813-2825 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that LiCl upregulates the expression of COX-2 and the subsequent production of PGE2 through the canonical GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling pathway in hGL cells. ..
  42. Conduit S, Ramaswamy V, Remke M, Watkins D, Wainwright B, Taylor M, et al. A compartmentalized phosphoinositide signaling axis at cilia is regulated by INPP5E to maintain cilia and promote Sonic Hedgehog medulloblastoma. Oncogene. 2017;36:5969-5984 pubmed publisher
  43. Liu R, Sun D, Jiao Y, Wang P, Zhang J, Wang M, et al. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes tumor aggressiveness of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma via activation of Akt and inactivation of GSK3β. Cancer Lett. 2018;412:289-296 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, repression of MIF expression resulted in activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) and subsequent decrease of active β-catenin, as well as its downstream targets ..
  44. Chen W, Tang H, Liu X, Zhou M, Zhang J, Tang K. Dickkopf1 Up-Regulation Induced by a High Concentration of Dexamethasone Promotes Rat Tendon Stem Cells to Differentiate Into Adipocytes. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015;37:1738-49 pubmed publisher
  45. Li X, Lai Y, Li J, Zou M, Zou C. Oxidative stress destabilizes protein arginine methyltransferase 4 via glycogen synthase kinase 3? to impede lung epithelial cell migration. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2017;313:C285-C294 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations demonstrate that oxidative stress destabilizes PRMT4 via GSK-3? signaling to impede lung epithelial cell migration that may hinder the lung repair and regeneration process. ..
  46. Fang R, Zhang L, Zhang L, Li W, Li M, Wen K. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Postconditioning Protects Against Myocardial Ischemia/reperfusion Injury in Rats via Mitochondrial Signaling and Akt-Gsk3? Phosphorylation. Arch Med Res. 2017;48:147-155 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that S1P postconditioning protects against MIRI by regulating mitochondrial signaling and Akt/Gsk3? phosphorylation. ..
  47. Beurel E, Song L, Jope R. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 is necessary for the rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine in mice. Mol Psychiatry. 2011;16:1068-70 pubmed publisher
  48. Lee J, Jung S, Yang K, Bae E, Ahn S, Park J, et al. A20 promotes metastasis of aggressive basal-like breast cancers through multi-monoubiquitylation of Snail1. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:1260-1273 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings uncover an essential role of the A20-Snail1 axis in TGF-?1-induced EMT and metastasis of basal-like breast cancers. ..
  49. Demin A, Lee M, Lee C, Seo Y. GSK-3? Homolog Rim11 and the Histone Deacetylase Complex Ume6-Sin3-Rpd3 Are Involved in Replication Stress Response Caused by Defects in Dna2. Genetics. 2017;206:829-842 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results establish Rim11, Ume6, the histone deacetylase complex Sin3-Rpd3 and Sml1 as new factors important in the events of faulty lagging strand synthesis. ..
  50. Liao S, Chiang C, Hsu C, Chen Y, Jen J, Juan H, et al. CK1δ/GSK3β/FBXW7α axis promotes degradation of the ZNF322A oncoprotein to suppress lung cancer progression. Oncogene. 2017;36:5722-5733 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a new mechanism of ZNF322A oncoprotein destruction regulated by the CK1δ/GSK3β/FBXW7α axis. Deregulation of this signaling axis results in ZNF322A overexpression and promotes cancer progression. ..
  51. Zhu Z, Dai J, Liao Y, Wang T. Sox9 Protects against Human Lung Fibroblast Cell Apoptosis Induced by LPS through Activation of the AKT/GSK3? Pathway. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2017;82:606-612 pubmed publisher
    ..All these findings suggest that Sox9 acts as a novel marker for neonatal pneumonia and could be a new therapeutic target for this disease. ..
  52. Jeon K, Phipps R, Sime P, Huxlin K. Antifibrotic Actions of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Ligands in Corneal Fibroblasts Are Mediated by ?-Catenin-Regulated Pathways. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:1660-1669 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PPAR? ligands, by blocking TGF-?1-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, prevent increases in both total and active ?-catenin through p38 MAPK-GSK3? signaling. ..
  53. Liu Y, Yan Y, Inagaki Y, Logan S, Bosnjak Z, Bai X. Insufficient Astrocyte-Derived Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Contributes to Propofol-Induced Neuron Death Through Akt/Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3?/Mitochondrial Fission Pathway. Anesth Analg. 2017;125:241-254 pubmed publisher