mitogen activated protein kinases


Summary: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).

Top Publications

  1. Zuin A, Carmona M, Morales Ivorra I, Gabrielli N, Vivancos A, Ayte J, et al. Lifespan extension by calorie restriction relies on the Sty1 MAP kinase stress pathway. EMBO J. 2010;29:981-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that calorie restriction favours oxidative metabolism, reactive oxygen species production and Sty1 MAP kinase activation, and this stress pathway favours lifespan extension. ..
  2. Seo M, Kim J, Lee M, Sohn Y, Kang K, Yoo M. The therapeutic effect of DA-6034 on ocular inflammation via suppression of MMP-9 and inflammatory cytokines and activation of the MAPK signaling pathway in an experimental dry eye model. Curr Eye Res. 2010;35:165-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, to elucidate the mechanism of DA-6034, we evaluated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and transcriptional factor-kappa B (NF-kB) in corneal epithelial cells...
  3. Chen M, Hu D, Pan Z, Lu C, Xue C, Aass I. Curcumin protects against hyperosmoticity-induced IL-1beta elevation in human corneal epithelial cell via MAPK pathways. Exp Eye Res. 2010;90:437-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study suggests that curcumin might have therapeutic potential for treating dry eye disease...
  4. Zhang J, Cavet M, VanDerMeid K, Salvador Silva M, Lopez F, Ward K. BOL-303242-X, a novel selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist, with full anti-inflammatory properties in human ocular cells. Mol Vis. 2009;15:2606-16 pubmed
    ..Data from in vitro and in vivo studies suggest an improved side-effect profile of this compound compared to classical glucocorticoids. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of BOL-303242-X in ocular cells...
  5. Zhou X, Ma Y, Sugiura R, Kobayashi D, Suzuki M, Deng L, et al. MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK)-dependent and -independent activation of Sty1 stress MAPK in fission yeast. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:32818-23 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, knockout of tyrosine phosphatase gene pyp1(+) abolished the Atf1 response to cadmium and LG, but not to osmotic stress, suggesting that Pyp1 is a sensor for cadmium and LG. ..
  6. Bluhm B, Zhao X. Measuring protein kinase and sugar kinase activity in plant pathogenic fusarium species. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;638:201-10 pubmed publisher
  7. Yu L, Moore A, Dixon D. Receptor tyrosine kinases and their hormonal regulation in uterine leiomyoma. Semin Reprod Med. 2010;28:250-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It also presents data on specific signaling pathways activated in uterine leiomyomas and the "cross talk" between the estrogen receptor alpha and RTK signaling pathways. ..
  8. Bae H, Li M, Son J, Seo C, Chung S, Kim S, et al. Sauchinone, a lignan from Saururus chinensis, reduces tumor necrosis factor-alpha production through the inhibition of c-raf/MEK1/2/ERK 1/2 pathway activation. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:1022-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that sauchinone inhibits LPS-induced TNF-alpha expression in macrophages by suppression of NF-kappaB activation via ERK1/2 pathway, which may constitute anti-inflammatory effects of sauchinone. ..
  9. Babour A, Bicknell A, Tourtellotte J, Niwa M. A surveillance pathway monitors the fitness of the endoplasmic reticulum to control its inheritance. Cell. 2010;142:256-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Slt2 is activated via the cell surface receptor Wsc1 by a previously undescribed mechanism. We conclude that the ERSU pathway ensures inheritance of a functional ER. ..

More Information


  1. Liu X, Chen G, Vlantis A, Tse G, van Hasselt C. Iodine induces apoptosis via regulating MAPKs-related p53, p21, and Bcl-xL in thyroid cancer cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;320:128-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, iodine transiently activated the subfamily members of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (ERK1/2, p38 and JNK1/2) which contribute to modulate p53, p21 and Bcl-xL expression...
  2. Mendoza M, Er E, Blenis J. ERK-MAP Kinase signaling in the cytoplasm. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;661:185-203 pubmed publisher
    ..The level of ERK phosphotransferase activity, or (32)P-labeled phosphate transfer, is quantitated using a PhosphorImager. ..
  3. Filomeni G, Desideri E, Cardaci S, Graziani I, Piccirillo S, Rotilio G, et al. Carcinoma cells activate AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent autophagy as survival response to kaempferol-mediated energetic impairment. Autophagy. 2010;6:202-16 pubmed
    ..Experiments performed with another carcinoma cell line yielded the same results, suggesting for kaempferol a unique mechanism of action. ..
  4. Ozawa T, Brennan C, Wang L, Squatrito M, Sasayama T, Nakada M, et al. PDGFRA gene rearrangements are frequent genetic events in PDGFRA-amplified glioblastomas. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2205-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the possibility that these PDGFRA mutants behave as oncogenes in this subset of gliomas, and that the prevalence of such rearrangements may have been considerably underestimated. ..
  5. Sumi Y, Woehrle T, Chen Y, Yao Y, Li A, Junger W. Adrenergic receptor activation involves ATP release and feedback through purinergic receptors. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;299:C1118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that, like formyl peptide receptors, adrenergic receptors require purinergic feedback mechanisms to control complex physiological processes such as smooth muscle contraction and regulation of vascular tone. ..
  6. Wüstehube J, Bartol A, Liebler S, Brütsch R, Zhu Y, Felbor U, et al. Cerebral cavernous malformation protein CCM1 inhibits sprouting angiogenesis by activating DELTA-NOTCH signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:12640-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that the origin of CCM lesions is caused by perturbed Notch signaling-induced excessive capillary sprouting, which can be therapeutically targeted. ..
  7. Yang X, Li Y, Wang Y, Wang Y, Wang P. beta-Tryptase up-regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression via proteinase-activated receptor-2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in bone marrow stromal cells in acute myeloid leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2010;51:1550-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that beta-tryptase up-regulates VEGF production in AML BMSCs via the PAR-2, ERK1/2, and p38MAPK signaling pathways. ..
  8. Zawawi K, Kantarci A, SCHULZE SPATE U, Fujita T, Batista E, Amar S, et al. Moesin-induced signaling in response to lipopolysaccharide in macrophages. J Periodontal Res. 2010;45:589-601 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest an important role for moesin in the innate immune response and TLR4-mediated pattern recognition in periodontal disease. ..
  9. Hayashida K, Hattori M, Nakao R, Tanaka Y, Kim J, Inoue N, et al. A schizont-derived protein, TpSCOP, is involved in the activation of NF-kappaB in Theileria parva-infected lymphocytes. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;174:8-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, TpSCOP likely plays an important role in apoptosis inhibition during Theileria infection. ..
  10. Carvajal Vergara X, Sevilla A, D Souza S, Ang Y, Schaniel C, Lee D, et al. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem-cell-derived models of LEOPARD syndrome. Nature. 2010;465:808-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These features correlate with a potential hypertrophic state. We also provide molecular insights into signalling pathways that may promote the disease phenotype...
  11. Casalbore P, Barone I, Felsani A, D Agnano I, Michetti F, Maira G, et al. Neural stem cells modified to express BDNF antagonize trimethyltin-induced neurotoxicity through PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways. J Cell Physiol. 2010;224:710-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that overexpression of BDNF firmly regulate cell survival and differentiation of NSC and protects differentiated NSC against TMT-induced neurotoxicity through the PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. ..
  12. Masuyama H, Nakatsukasa H, Hiramatsu Y. Effect of oncostatin M on uridine diphosphate-5'-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 through cross talk with constitutive androstane receptor. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:745-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that OSM might play a role in bilirubin metabolism via the CAR-UGT1A1 pathway. ..
  13. Shi X, Zhou B. The role of Nrf2 and MAPK pathways in PFOS-induced oxidative stress in zebrafish embryos. Toxicol Sci. 2010;115:391-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we showed that morpholino-mediated knockdown of Nrf2 reduced PFOS-induced HO-1 gene expression. These findings demonstrate that Nrf2 is protective against PFOS-induced oxidative stress in zebrafish larvae. ..
  14. Feldser D, Kostova K, Winslow M, Taylor S, Cashman C, Whittaker C, et al. Stage-specific sensitivity to p53 restoration during lung cancer progression. Nature. 2010;468:572-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that restoration of pathways important in tumour progression, as opposed to initiation, may lead to incomplete tumour regression due to the stage-heterogeneity of tumour cell populations. ..
  15. Sandhu H, Ansar S, Edvinsson L. Comparison of MEK/ERK pathway inhibitors on the upregulation of vascular G-protein coupled receptors in rat cerebral arteries. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;644:128-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the ability to inhibit G-protein coupled receptor alteration at the clinically relevant time-point 6h post incubation makes it an attractive therapeutic agent for in vivo studies. ..
  16. Braun O, Lu D, Aroonsakool N, Insel P. Uridine triphosphate (UTP) induces profibrotic responses in cardiac fibroblasts by activation of P2Y2 receptors. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;49:362-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that P2Y2 receptor activation is profibrotic in CFs; thus inhibition of P2Y2 receptors may provide a novel means to diminish fibrotic remodeling and turnover of extracellular matrix in the heart. ..
  17. Lee Y, Choi J, Hwang I, Lee J, Lee J, Kim A, et al. Adipocytokine orosomucoid integrates inflammatory and metabolic signals to preserve energy homeostasis by resolving immoderate inflammation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:22174-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that ORM integrates inflammatory and metabolic signals to modulate immune responses to protect adipose tissue from excessive inflammation and thereby from metabolic dysfunction. ..
  18. Mitchell C, Joyce A, Piper J, McKallip R, Fariss M. Role of oxidative stress and MAPK signaling in reference moist smokeless tobacco-induced HOK-16B cell death. Toxicol Lett. 2010;195:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, acute exposure to STE leads to HOK-16B cell death in part through oxidative stress via activation of ASK1 and the JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways. ..
  19. Benz A, Shajari M, Peruzki N, Dehghani F, Maronde E. Early growth response-1 induction by fibroblast growth factor-1 via increase of mitogen-activated protein kinase and inhibition of protein kinase B in hippocampal neurons. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160:1621-30 pubmed publisher
  20. Lee Y, Kim J, Kang D, Lee H. Buddleja officinalis suppresses high glucose-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation: role of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-kappaB and matrix metalloproteinases. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010;235:247-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the present data suggest that EBO could suppress high glucose-induced atherosclerotic processes through inhibition of p38, JNK, NF-kappaB and MMP signal pathways in HASMC...
  21. Geller M, Bui Nguyen T, Rogers L, Ramakrishnan S. Chemotherapy induces macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 production in ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2010;20:918-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemotherapy induction of MCP-1 in ovarian cancer suggests this chemokine plays an important role in the immune response occurring after chemotherapy exposure. ..
  22. Gehmlich K, Hayess K, Legler C, Haebel S, van der Ven P, Ehler E, et al. Ponsin interacts with Nck adapter proteins: implications for a role in cytoskeletal remodelling during differentiation of skeletal muscle cells. Eur J Cell Biol. 2010;89:351-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel ponsin isoform and its interaction with Nck1/2 provide exciting insight into the convergence of signalling pathways at the costameres, and its crucial role for skeletal muscle differentiation and re-generation. ..
  23. Yang Y, Han S, Miller M. MSP hormonal control of the oocyte MAP kinase cascade and reactive oxygen species signaling. Dev Biol. 2010;342:96-107 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that secreted MSP domains and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases function antagonistically to control ROS and MAPK signaling. ..
  24. Eijkelkamp N, Wang H, Garza Carbajal A, Willemen H, Zwartkruis F, Wood J, et al. Low nociceptor GRK2 prolongs prostaglandin E2 hyperalgesia via biased cAMP signaling to Epac/Rap1, protein kinase Cepsilon, and MEK/ERK. J Neurosci. 2010;30:12806-15 pubmed publisher
    ..A reduction in the cellular level of GRK2 enhances activation of the Epac-Rap1 pathway. In vivo, low nociceptor GRK2 leads to prolonged inflammatory hyperalgesia via biased cAMP signaling from PKA to Epac-Rap1, ERK/PKC? pathways. ..
  25. Kim E, Choi E. Pathological roles of MAPK signaling pathways in human diseases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1802:396-405 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize recent findings on the roles of MAPK signaling pathways in human disorders, focusing on cancer and neurodegenerative diseases including AD, PD, and ALS. ..
  26. Komatsu K, Hashimoto M, Ozeki J, Yamaji Y, Maejima K, Senshu H, et al. Viral-induced systemic necrosis in plants involves both programmed cell death and the inhibition of viral multiplication, which are regulated by independent pathways. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2010;23:283-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that systemic necrosis and HR consist of PCD and a restraint of virus multiplication, and that the latter is induced through unknown pathways independent from the former. ..
  27. Thijssen V, Barkan B, Shoji H, Aries I, Mathieu V, Deltour L, et al. Tumor cells secrete galectin-1 to enhance endothelial cell activity. Cancer Res. 2010;70:6216-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these data identify galectin-1 as a proangiogenic factor. These findings have direct implications for current efforts on galectin-1-targeted cancer therapies. ..
  28. Chotiner J, Nielson J, Farris S, Lewandowski G, Huang F, Banos K, et al. Assessment of the role of MAP kinase in mediating activity-dependent transcriptional activation of the immediate early gene Arc/Arg3.1 in the dentate gyrus in vivo. Learn Mem. 2010;17:117-29 pubmed publisher
    ..1 transcription in dentate granule cells in vivo is mediated in part by MAP kinase activation, but other signaling pathways also contribute, especially in the case of Arc/Arg3.1 induction in response to experience. ..
  29. Harden T, Sesma J, Fricks I, Lazarowski E. Signalling and pharmacological properties of the P2Y receptor. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2010;199:149-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This receptor historically was thought to be activated selectively by UDP-glucose and other UDP-sugars. However, UDP is also a very potent agonist of this receptor, and may prove to be one of its most important cognate activators. ..
  30. Kamruzzaman S, Endale M, Oh W, Park S, Kim K, Hong J, et al. Inhibitory effects of Bulnesia sarmienti aqueous extract on agonist-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation involves mitogen-activated protein kinases. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;130:614-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The bark has also been employed to treat stomach and cardiovascular disorders and reported to have antitumor, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, information on its antiplatelet activity is limited...
  31. Imai S, Inokuchi Y, Nakamura S, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Hara H. Systemic administration of a free radical scavenger, edaravone, protects against light-induced photoreceptor degeneration in the mouse retina. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;642:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in light-induced retinal damage and that systemic administration of edaravone may slow the progression of photoreceptor degeneration. ..
  32. Li X, Du Y, Siegel S, Ferro Novick S, Novick P. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, Slt2p, at bud tips blocks a late stage of endoplasmic reticulum inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:1772-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The PI4P5-kinase, Mss4p, is an upstream activator of this pool of Slt2p. Ptc1p-dependant inactivation of Slt2p is also needed for mitochondrial inheritance; however, in this case, the relevant pool of Slt2p is not at the bud tip. ..
  33. Romero Santacreu L, Orozco H, Garre E, Alepuz P. The bidirectional cytomegalovirus immediate/early promoter is regulated by Hog1 and the stress transcription factors Sko1 and Hot1 in yeast. Mol Genet Genomics. 2010;283:511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our results also suggest that CMV could be regulated by the intracellular glucose concentration in human cells. ..
  34. Wei S, Nandi S, Chitu V, Yeung Y, Yu W, Huang M, et al. Functional overlap but differential expression of CSF-1 and IL-34 in their CSF-1 receptor-mediated regulation of myeloid cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:495-505 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the different spatiotemporal expression of IL-34 and CSF-1 allows for complementary activation of the CSF-1R in developing and adult tissues. ..
  35. Nandy S, Jouhten P, Nielsen J. Reconstruction of the yeast protein-protein interaction network involved in nutrient sensing and global metabolic regulation. BMC Syst Biol. 2010;4:68 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae. Furthermore, we propose this annotated reconstruction as a first step towards generation of an extensive annotated protein-protein interaction network of signal transduction and metabolic regulation in this yeast. ..
  36. Bicknell A, Tourtellotte J, Niwa M. Late phase of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response pathway is regulated by Hog1 MAP kinase. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:17545-55 pubmed publisher
    ..From its cytoplasmic location, Hog1 contributes to the activation of autophagy by enhancing the stability of Atg8, a critical autophagy protein. Thus, Hog1 coordinates a multifaceted response to persistent ER stress. ..
  37. Woo H, Yoo W, Bae C, Song S, Kim Y, Park S, et al. Leptin up-regulates MUC5B expression in human airway epithelial cells via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Exp Lung Res. 2010;36:262-9 pubmed publisher
  38. Cao J, Chen T, Gong Y, Ying B, Li D, Xu W, et al. Molecular mechanisms of the secretion of cytokines and chemokines from human monocytes activated by pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA): Roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-kappaB. Microb Pathog. 2010;48:220-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings provide insight for PspA-mediated activation of human monocytes via NF-kappaB and MAPKs signaling cascades in the pathogenesis of invasive pneumococcal infection. ..
  39. Kim M, Lee Y, Han H. Involvement of Cx43 phosphorylation in 5'-N-ethylcarboxamide-induced migration and proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells. J Cell Physiol. 2010;224:187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that NECA-stimulated Cx43 phosphorylation mediated by PI3K/Akt, PKC, MAPKs, and NF-kappaB, which subsequently stimulated cell migration and proliferation through Src, integrin beta1, FAK, and paxillin signal pathways. ..
  40. Cornejo Castro E, Waak J, Weber S, Fiesel F, Oberhettinger P, Schütz M, et al. Parkinson's disease-associated DJ-1 modulates innate immunity signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2010;117:599-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PD-associated DJ-1 contributes to regulation of innate immunity. ..
  41. Burkhard K, Shapiro P. Use of inhibitors in the study of MAP kinases. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;661:107-22 pubmed publisher
  42. Abraha A, Rana K, Whalen M. Role of protein kinase C in TBT-induced inhibition of lytic function and MAPK activation in human natural killer cells. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;59:661-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, TBT-induced activation of the MAPKs, p38 and JNK did not require PKC activation. These results indicate the pivotal role of PKC in the TBT-induced loss of NK lytic function including activation of p44/42 by TBT in NK cells...
  43. Fernández I, Blanco S, Lozano J, Lazo P. VRK2 inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and inversely correlates with ErbB2 in human breast cancer. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:4687-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, VRK2 downregulation in carcinomas permits signal transmission through the MEK-ERK pathway without affecting AKT signaling, causing a signal imbalance among pathways that contributes to the phenotype of breast cancer. ..
  44. Subramaniam V, Chakrabarti R, Prud homme G, Jothy S. Tranilast inhibits cell proliferation and migration and promotes apoptosis in murine breast cancer. Anticancer Drugs. 2010;21:351-61 pubmed publisher
    ..To conclude, tranilast induces cellular and molecular changes in murine breast cancer that can be exploited in preclinical therapeutic trials. ..
  45. Perez J, Gomez A, Roncero C. Upregulation of the PRB1 gene in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae rim101Delta mutant produces proteolytic artefacts that differentially affect some proteins. Yeast. 2010;27:575-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, much stricter experimental protocols than those routinely used are necessary to prevent the artefactual interpretation of protein levels in strains or conditions that increase proteinase B activity. ..
  46. Shin J, Jeong Y, Jo H, Kang M, Chang I, Baek J, et al. Increased interaction between heat shock protein 27 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase) in pre-eclamptic placentas. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2009;35:888-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction between Hsp27 and MAPK was increased, suggesting that phosphorylation of Hsp27 might be induced by p38 and ERK in placentas from patients with pre-eclampsia. ..
  47. Liu F, Jia L, Thompson Baine A, Puglise J, ter Beest M, Zegers M. Cadherins and Pak1 control contact inhibition of proliferation by Pak1-betaPIX-GIT complex-dependent regulation of cell-matrix signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1971-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that cadherins are involved in regulation of contact inhibition by controlling the function of the Pak1-betaPIX-GIT complex at focal contacts...
  48. Duan G, Zhu J, Wan J, Li X, Ge X, Liu L, et al. A synthetic MD-2 mimetic peptide attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in vivo and in vitro. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:1091-100 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that MDMP attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses in vivo and in vitro, and suggests that MDMP may be useful in the treatment of inflammation associated with LPS...
  49. Pacurari M, Castranova V, Vallyathan V. Single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes versus asbestos: are the carbon nanotubes a new health risk to humans?. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2010;73:378-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Assessment of risks to human health and adoption of appropriate exposure controls is critical for the safe and successful introduction of CNT -based products for future applications. ..
  50. Richardson C, Kooistra T, Kim D. An essential role for XBP-1 in host protection against immune activation in C. elegans. Nature. 2010;463:1092-5 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans development and indicate that an ancient, conserved role for XBP-1 may be to protect the host organism from the detrimental effects of mounting an innate immune response to microbes. ..
  51. Dasari A, Messersmith W. New strategies in colorectal cancer: biomarkers of response to epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies and potential therapeutic targets in phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:3811-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we highlight recent progress. ..
  52. Giddabasappa A, Bauler M, Barrett C, Coss C, Wu Z, Miller D, et al. GTx-822, an ER{beta}-selective agonist, protects retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE-19) from oxidative stress by activating MAPK and PI3-K pathways. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:5934-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study open new avenues for the use of a selective ER? agonist in treatment of ocular diseases like AMD where oxidative stress plays a major role in disease pathogenesis. ..