phosphorylase kinase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.

Top Publications

  1. Rice N, Nadeau O, Yang Q, Carlson G. The calmodulin-binding domain of the catalytic gamma subunit of phosphorylase kinase interacts with its inhibitory alpha subunit: evidence for a Ca2+ sensitive network of quaternary interactions. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:14681-7 pubmed
    ..conformation has consistently shown that activators, including Ca(2+) ions, of the (alphabetagammadelta)(4) phosphorylase kinase holoenzyme (PhK) alter the interactions between its regulatory alpha and catalytic gamma subunits...
  2. Wüllrich Schmoll A, Kilimann M. Structure of the human gene encoding the phosphorylase kinase beta subunit (PHKB). Eur J Biochem. 1996;238:374-80 pubmed
    We have determined the cDNA sequence and the gene structure of the human phosphorylase kinase beta subunit (PHKB). With 95% amino acid sequence identity, the predicted primary structure is highly similar to that of the rabbit beta subunit...
  3. Harmann B, Zander N, Kilimann M. Isoform diversity of phosphorylase kinase alpha and beta subunits generated by alternative RNA splicing. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:15631-7 pubmed
    ..sequenced rabbit cDNAs that encode one isoform of the alpha subunit and two isoforms of the beta subunit of phosphorylase kinase, in addition to the single isoform from fast skeletal muscle that has been characterized to date for each ..
  4. Burwinkel B, Maichele A, Aagenaes O, Bakker H, Lerner A, Shin Y, et al. Autosomal glycogenosis of liver and muscle due to phosphorylase kinase deficiency is caused by mutations in the phosphorylase kinase beta subunit (PHKB). Hum Mol Genet. 1997;6:1109-15 pubmed
    Glycogen storage disease due to phosphorylase kinase deficiency occurs in several variants that differ in mode of inheritance and tissue-specificity...
  5. Brushia R, Walsh D. Phosphorylase kinase: the complexity of its regulation is reflected in the complexity of its structure. Front Biosci. 1999;4:D618-41 pubmed
    ..The molecular mechanisms of regulation are currently poorly understood, but new insights are beginning to emerge. This review discusses current knowledge and concepts of the structure, function and regulation of Phk. ..
  6. Rylatt D, Aitken A, Bilham T, Condon G, Embi N, Cohen P. Glycogen synthase from rabbit skeletal muscle. Amino acid sequence at the sites phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase-3, and extension of the N-terminal sequence containing the site phosphorylated by phosphorylase kinase. Eur J Biochem. 1980;107:529-37 pubmed
    ..from the sites phosphorylated preferentially by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (sites 1a and 1b) and phosphorylase kinase (site 2)...
  7. Jeyasingham M, Artigues A, Nadeau O, Carlson G. Structural evidence for co-evolution of the regulation of contraction and energy production in skeletal muscle. J Mol Biol. 2008;377:623-9 pubmed publisher
    Skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase (PhK) is a Ca(2+)-dependent enzyme complex, (alpha beta gamma delta)(4), with the delta subunit being tightly bound endogenous calmodulin (CaM)...
  8. van den Berg I, van Beurden E, de Klerk J, van Diggelen O, Malingre H, Boer M, et al. Autosomal recessive phosphorylase kinase deficiency in liver, caused by mutations in the gene encoding the beta subunit (PHKB). Am J Hum Genet. 1997;61:539-46 pubmed
    The association of autosomal recessive phosphorylase kinase deficiency in liver of a 3 1/2-year-old female child with mutations in the gene encoding the common part of the beta subunit of phosphorylase kinase is reported...
  9. Chebotareva N, Makeeva V, Bazhina S, Eronina T, Gusev N, Kurganov B. Interaction of Hsp27 with native phosphorylase kinase under crowding conditions. Macromol Biosci. 2010;10:783-9 pubmed publisher
    ..three-dimensional (3D) mutant (mimicking phosphorylation at Ser15, 78, and 82) with rabbit skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase (PhK) has been studied under crowding conditions modeled by addition of 1 M trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Venien Bryan C, Lowe E, Boisset N, Traxler K, Johnson L, Carlson G. Three-dimensional structure of phosphorylase kinase at 22 A resolution and its complex with glycogen phosphorylase b. Structure. 2002;10:33-41 pubmed
    b>Phosphorylase kinase (PhK) integrates hormonal and neuronal signals and is a key enzyme in the control of glycogen metabolism...
  2. Andreeva I, Rice N, Carlson G. The regulatory alpha subunit of phosphorylase kinase may directly participate in the binding of glycogen phosphorylase. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2002;67:1197-202 pubmed
    ..has been used to identify potential regions of interaction of the largest regulatory subunit, alpha, of phosphorylase kinase (PhK) with two fragments of its protein substrate, glycogen phosphorylase b (Phb)...
  3. Wuyts W, Reyniers E, Ceuterick C, Storm K, de Barsy T, Martin J. Myopathy and phosphorylase kinase deficiency caused by a mutation in the PHKA1 gene. Am J Med Genet A. 2005;133A:82-4 pubmed
    b>Phosphorylase kinase (PhK) deficiency is the underlying cause of variable clinical symptoms depending on the tissues involved...
  4. Hilder T, Carlson G, Haystead T, Krebs E, Graves L. Caspase-3 dependent cleavage and activation of skeletal muscle phosphorylase b kinase. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;275:233-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, these studies indicate that PhK may be a substrate for caspase regulation during apoptosis and suggest that activation of this enzyme may be important for the generation of ATP during programmed cell death. ..
  5. Chebotareva N, Meremyanin A, Makeeva V, Livanova N, Kurganov B. Cooperative self-association of phosphorylase kinase from rabbit skeletal muscle. Biophys Chem. 2008;133:45-53 pubmed publisher
    Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-induced association of phosphorylase kinase (PhK) from rabbit skeletal muscle has been studied at the magnitudes of the ionic strength close to the physiological values (40 mM Hepes, pH 6.8, containing 0.1 M NaCl, 0...
  6. Camus S, Quevedo C, Menendez S, Paramonov I, Stouten P, Janssen R, et al. Identification of phosphorylase kinase as a novel therapeutic target through high-throughput screening for anti-angiogenesis compounds in zebrafish. Oncogene. 2012;31:4333-42 pubmed publisher
    ..target of these compounds and have identified and validated a previously uncharacterized involvement of phosphorylase kinase subunit G1 (PhKG1) in angiogenesis in vivo...
  7. Burwinkel B, Hu B, Schroers A, Clemens P, Moses S, Shin Y, et al. Muscle glycogenosis with low phosphorylase kinase activity: mutations in PHKA1, PHKG1 or six other candidate genes explain only a minority of cases. Eur J Hum Genet. 2003;11:516-26 pubmed
    Muscle-specific deficiency of phosphorylase kinase (Phk) causes glycogen storage disease, clinically manifesting in exercise intolerance with early fatiguability, pain, cramps and occasionally myoglobinuria...
  8. Nadeau O, Gogol E, Carlson G. Cryoelectron microscopy reveals new features in the three-dimensional structure of phosphorylase kinase. Protein Sci. 2005;14:914-20 pubmed
    b>Phosphorylase kinase (PhK), a regulatory enzyme in the cascade activation of glycogenolysis, is a 1.3-MDa hexadecameric complex, (alphabetagammadelta)(4)...
  9. Priddy T, Macdonald B, Heller W, Nadeau O, Trewhella J, Carlson G. Ca2+-induced structural changes in phosphorylase kinase detected by small-angle X-ray scattering. Protein Sci. 2005;14:1039-48 pubmed
    b>Phosphorylase kinase (PhK), a 1.3-MDa (alphabetagammadelta)(4) hexadecameric complex, is a Ca(2+)-dependent regulatory enzyme in the cascade activation of glycogenolysis...
  10. Traxler K, Norcum M, Hainfeld J, Carlson G. Direct visualization of the calmodulin subunit of phosphorylase kinase via electron microscopy following subunit exchange. J Struct Biol. 2001;135:231-8 pubmed
    ..The delta subunits were determined to be near the edge of the lobes, just distal to the interlobal bridges and proximal to a previously identified region of the enzyme's catalytic gamma subunit. ..
  11. Akman H, Sampayo J, Ross F, Scott J, Wilson G, Benson L, et al. Fatal infantile cardiac glycogenosis with phosphorylase kinase deficiency and a mutation in the gamma2-subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase. Pediatr Res. 2007;62:499-504 pubmed
    ..Our studies confirm that mutations in PRKAG2 can cause fatal infantile cardiomyopathy, often associated with apparent PHK deficiency. ..
  12. Cook A, Johnson L, McDonnell J. Structural characterization of Ca2+/CaM in complex with the phosphorylase kinase PhK5 peptide. FEBS J. 2005;272:1511-22 pubmed
    b>Phosphorylase kinase (PhK) is a large hexadecameric enzyme consisting of four copies of four subunits: (alphabetagammadelta)4. An intrinsic calmodulin (CaM, the delta subunit) binds directly to the gamma protein kinase chain...
  13. Carrière C, Mornon J, Venien Bryan C, Boisset N, Callebaut I. Calcineurin B-like domains in the large regulatory alpha/beta subunits of phosphorylase kinase. Proteins. 2008;71:1597-606 pubmed publisher
    b>Phosphorylase kinase (PhK) is a large hexadecameric complex that catalyzes the phosphorylation and activation of glycogen phosphorylase (GP)...
  14. Wüllrich A, Hamacher C, Schneider A, Kilimann M. The multiphosphorylation domain of the phosphorylase kinase alpha M and alpha L subunits is a hotspot of differential mRNA processing and of molecular evolution. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:23208-14 pubmed
    We have cloned and sequenced human cDNAs encoding the complete phosphorylase kinase alpha subunit muscle isoform (alpha M)...
  15. Francke U, Darras B, Zander N, Kilimann M. Assignment of human genes for phosphorylase kinase subunits alpha (PHKA) to Xq12-q13 and beta (PHKB) to 16q12-q13. Am J Hum Genet. 1989;45:276-82 pubmed
    b>Phosphorylase kinase (PHK), the enzyme that activates glycogen phosphorylases in muscle, liver, and other tissues, is composed of four different subunits...
  16. Hayes J, Skamnaki V, Archontis G, Lamprakis C, Sarrou J, Bischler N, et al. Kinetics, in silico docking, molecular dynamics, and MM-GBSA binding studies on prototype indirubins, KT5720, and staurosporine as phosphorylase kinase ATP-binding site inhibitors: the role of water molecules examined. Proteins. 2011;79:703-19 pubmed publisher
    ..4 nM) and staurosporine (K(i) = 0.37 nM) as phosphorylase kinase (PhK?trnc) ATP-binding site inhibitors, with the latter two revealed as potent inhibitors in the low nM ..
  17. Huang C, Yuan C, Blumenthal D, Graves D. Identification of the substrate and pseudosubstrate binding sites of phosphorylase kinase gamma-subunit. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:7183-8 pubmed
    ..we proposed that an autoinhibitory domain(s) is located at the C-terminal region (301-386) of the phosphorylase kinase gamma-subunit (Huang, C.-Y.F., Yuan C.-J., Livanova, N.B., and Graves, D.J. (1993) Mol. Cell. Biochem...
  18. Nadeau O, Carlson G, Gogol E. A Ca(2+)-dependent global conformational change in the 3D structure of phosphorylase kinase obtained from electron microscopy. Structure. 2002;10:23-32 pubmed
    b>Phosphorylase kinase (PhK), a Ca(2+)-dependent regulatory enzyme of the glycogenolytic cascade in skeletal muscle, is a 1...
  19. Priddy T, Middaugh C, Carlson G. Electrostatic changes in phosphorylase kinase induced by its obligatory allosteric activator Ca2+. Protein Sci. 2007;16:517-27 pubmed
    Skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase (PhK) is a 1.3-MDa hexadecameric complex that catalyzes the phosphorylation and activation of glycogen phosphorylase b...
  20. Priddy T, Price E, Johnson C, Carlson G. Single molecule analyses of the conformational substates of calmodulin bound to the phosphorylase kinase complex. Protein Sci. 2007;16:1017-23 pubmed
    The four integral delta subunits of the phosphorylase kinase (PhK) complex are identical to calmodulin (CaM) and confer Ca(2+) sensitivity to the enzyme, but bind independently of Ca(2+)...
  21. Owen D, Noble M, Garman E, Papageorgiou A, Johnson L. Two structures of the catalytic domain of phosphorylase kinase: an active protein kinase complexed with substrate analogue and product. Structure. 1995;3:467-82 pubmed
    ..Structural studies of phosphorylase kinase (Phk), the major substrate of which is glycogen phosphorylase, may be expected to shed light on its ..
  22. Dasgupta M, Blumenthal D. Characterization of the regulatory domain of the gamma-subunit of phosphorylase kinase. The two noncontiguous calmodulin-binding subdomains are also autoinhibitory. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:22283-9 pubmed
    b>Phosphorylase kinase is a multimeric protein kinase (alpha 4 beta 4 gamma 4 delta 4) whose enzymatic activity is conferred by its gamma-subunit...
  23. Venien Bryan C, Jonic S, Skamnaki V, Brown N, Bischler N, Oikonomakos N, et al. The structure of phosphorylase kinase holoenzyme at 9.9 angstroms resolution and location of the catalytic subunit and the substrate glycogen phosphorylase. Structure. 2009;17:117-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Phosphorylase kinase (PhK) coordinates hormonal and neuronal signals to initiate the breakdown of glycogen...
  24. Lowe E, Noble M, Skamnaki V, Oikonomakos N, Owen D, Johnson L. The crystal structure of a phosphorylase kinase peptide substrate complex: kinase substrate recognition. EMBO J. 1997;16:6646-58 pubmed
    The structure of a truncated form of the gamma-subunit of phosphorylase kinase (PHKgammat) has been solved in a ternary complex with a non-hydrolysable ATP analogue (adenylyl imidodiphosphate, AMPPNP) and a heptapeptide substrate related ..
  25. Wehner M, Clemens P, Engel A, Kilimann M. Human muscle glycogenosis due to phosphorylase kinase deficiency associated with a nonsense mutation in the muscle isoform of the alpha subunit. Hum Mol Genet. 1994;3:1983-7 pubmed
    Heritable phosphorylase kinase (Phk) deficiency is responsible for several forms of glycogen storage disease in humans and animals that differ in mode of inheritance and tissue-specificity...
  26. Winchester J, Rouchka E, Rowland N, Rice N. In Silico characterization of phosphorylase kinase: evidence for an alternate intronic polyadenylation site in PHKG1. Mol Genet Metab. 2007;92:234-42 pubmed
    b>Phosphorylase kinase (PhK), the key enzyme that regulates glycogenolysis, has traditionally been thought to be expressed predominantly in muscle and liver...
  27. Andreeva I, Makeeva V, Kurganov B, Chebotareva N, Livanova N. A tentative mechanism of the ternary complex formation between phosphorylase kinase, glycogen phosphorylase b and glycogen. FEBS Lett. 1999;445:173-6 pubmed
    The kinetics of rabbit skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase interaction with glycogen has been studied. At pH 6.8 the binding of phosphorylase kinase to glycogen proceeds only in the presence of Mg2+, whereas at pH 8...
  28. Liu W, Priddy T, Carlson G. Physicochemical changes in phosphorylase kinase associated with its activation. Protein Sci. 2008;17:2111-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Phosphorylase kinase (PhK) regulates glycogenolysis through its Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation and activation of glycogen phosphorylase. The activity of PhK increases dramatically as the pH is raised from 6.8 to 8...
  29. Burwinkel B, Rootwelt T, Kvittingen E, Chakraborty P, Kilimann M. Severe phenotype of phosphorylase kinase-deficient liver glycogenosis with mutations in the PHKG2 gene. Pediatr Res. 2003;54:834-9 pubmed
    b>Phosphorylase kinase-deficient liver glycogenosis manifests in infancy with hepatomegaly, growth retardation, and elevated plasma aminotransferases and lipids...
  30. Nadeau O, Anderson D, Yang Q, Artigues A, Paschall J, Wyckoff G, et al. Evidence for the location of the allosteric activation switch in the multisubunit phosphorylase kinase complex from mass spectrometric identification of chemically crosslinked peptides. J Mol Biol. 2007;365:1429-45 pubmed
    b>Phosphorylase kinase (PhK), an (alphabetagammadelta)(4) complex, regulates glycogenolysis...
  31. Burwinkel B, Shin Y, Bakker H, Deutsch J, Lozano M, Maire I, et al. Mutation hotspots in the PHKA2 gene in X-linked liver glycogenosis due to phosphorylase kinase deficiency with atypical activity in blood cells (XLG2). Hum Mol Genet. 1996;5:653-8 pubmed
    ..glycogenosis subtype 2 (XLG2), we have identified mutations in the gene encoding the liver isoform of the phosphorylase kinase alpha subunit (PHKA2)...
  32. Harris W, Malencik D, Johnson C, Carr S, Roberts G, Byles C, et al. Purification and characterization of catalytic fragments of phosphorylase kinase gamma subunit missing a calmodulin-binding domain. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:11740-5 pubmed
    A catalytic fragment preparation of rabbit muscle phosphorylase kinase produced by limited chymotryptic digestion was isolated and identified as the NH2-terminal region of the gamma subunit by Edman degradation...
  33. Pallen M. Glucoamylase-like domains in the alpha- and beta-subunits of phosphorylase kinase. Protein Sci. 2003;12:1804-7 pubmed
    b>Phosphorylase kinase is a four-subunit enzyme involved in the regulation of glycogen breakdown. The traditional textbook view is that only the gamma subunit has enzymatic activity, whereas the other three subunits have a regulatory role...
  34. Harris W, Graves D. Kinetic analysis of the separate phosphorylation events in the phosphorylase kinase reaction. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1990;276:102-8 pubmed
    Glycogen phosphorylase, a dimer of identical subunits, is activated by phosphorylase kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of one serine residue in each subunit...
  35. Preisler N, Orngreen M, Echaniz Laguna A, Laforet P, Lonsdorfer Wolf E, Doutreleau S, et al. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency: a neutral metabolic variant or a disease?. Neurology. 2012;78:265-8 pubmed publisher
    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)...
  36. Dasgupta M, Honeycutt T, Blumenthal D. The gamma-subunit of skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase contains two noncontiguous domains that act in concert to bind calmodulin. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:17156-63 pubmed
    b>Phosphorylase kinase is a Ca2+-regulated, multisubunit enzyme that contains calmodulin as an integral subunit (termed the delta-subunit)...
  37. Kilimann M, Zander N, Kuhn C, Crabb J, Meyer H, Heilmeyer L. The alpha and beta subunits of phosphorylase kinase are homologous: cDNA cloning and primary structure of the beta subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:9381-5 pubmed
    We have cloned cDNA molecules encoding the beta subunit of phosphorylase kinase (ATP:phosphorylase-b phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.1...
  38. Embi N, Rylatt D, Cohen P. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 from rabbit skeletal muscle. Separation from cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase and phosphorylase kinase. Eur J Biochem. 1980;107:519-27 pubmed
  39. Paudel H. The regulatory Ser262 of microtubule-associated protein tau is phosphorylated by phosphorylase kinase. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:1777-85 pubmed
    ..One of the above two Ca2+-dependent tau kinase activity peaks also contained phosphorylase kinase activity...
  40. Burwinkel B, Scott J, Buhrer C, van Landeghem F, Cox G, Wilson C, et al. Fatal congenital heart glycogenosis caused by a recurrent activating R531Q mutation in the gamma 2-subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKAG2), not by phosphorylase kinase deficiency. Am J Hum Genet. 2005;76:1034-49 pubmed
    Fatal congenital nonlysosomal cardiac glycogenosis has been attributed to a subtype of phosphorylase kinase deficiency, but the underlying genes and mutations have not been identified...
  41. Maichele A, Farwell N, Chamberlain J. A B2 repeat insertion generates alternate structures of the mouse muscle gamma-phosphorylase kinase gene. Genomics. 1993;16:139-49 pubmed
    A variety of cDNA and genomic clones for the gamma-subunit of mouse muscle phosphorylase kinase (Phk-gamma M) have been isolated and characterized...
  42. Grand R, Shenolikar S, Cohen P. The amino acid sequence of the delta subunit (calmodulin) of rabbit skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase. Eur J Biochem. 1981;113:359-67 pubmed
    The amino acid sequence of the phosphorylase kinase delta subunit has been determined using cyanogen bromide peptides. These peptides were ordered by isolation of the tryptic peptides containing carboxyl[14C]methylmethionine...
  43. Heilmeyer L, Serwe M, Weber C, Metzger J, Hoffmann Posorske E, Meyer H. Farnesylcysteine, a constituent of the alpha and beta subunits of rabbit skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase: localization by conversion to S-ethylcysteine and by tandem mass spectrometry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:9554-8 pubmed
    The primary structure of the alpha and beta subunits of phosphorylase kinase reveals that both proteins contain a carboxyl-terminal CA1A2X motif (where C is cysteine, A1 and A2 are aliphatic amino acids, and X is an uncharged amino acid), ..
  44. Ozawa E. Regulation of phosphorylase kinase by low concentrations of Ca ions upon muscle contraction: the connection between metabolism and muscle contraction and the connection between muscle physiology and Ca-dependent signal transduction. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2011;87:486-508 pubmed
    ..from the sarcoplasmic reticulum for the regulation of muscle contraction simultaneously reversibly activate phosphorylase kinase, the enzyme regulating glycogenolysis...
  45. Nardini M, Scaccini C, Packer L, Virgili F. In vitro inhibition of the activity of phosphorylase kinase, protein kinase C and protein kinase A by caffeic acid and a procyanidin-rich pine bark (Pinus marittima) extract. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1474:219-25 pubmed
    ..of some protein kinases involved in the regulation of fundamental cellular processes were studied in vitro: phosphorylase kinase (PhK), protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC)...
  46. Polishchuk S, Brandt N, Meyer H, Varsanyi M, Heilmeyer L. Does phosphorylase kinase control glycogen biosynthesis in skeletal muscle?. FEBS Lett. 1995;362:271-5 pubmed
    ..protein, glycogenin, in the protein-glycogen complex, in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and in phosphorylase kinase. In all three compartments glycogenin occurs in different, albeit, defined glucosylated forms, which upon ..
  47. Malencik D, Zhao Z, Anderson S. Phosphorylase kinase: development of a continuous fluorometric assay for the determination of catalytic activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;174:344-50 pubmed
    ..by rabbit muscle phosphorylase a is the basis of a continuous fluorometric assay for phosphorylase kinase. The maximum rate of change in fluorescence (d delta F/dt) is dependent on both the concentration of ..
  48. Heller S, Worona L, Consuelo A. Nutritional therapy for glycogen storage diseases. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;47 Suppl 1:S15-21 pubmed publisher
  49. Yuan C, Huang C, Graves D. Oxidation and site-directed mutagenesis of the sulfhydryl groups of a truncated gamma catalytic subunit of phosphorylase kinase. Functional and structural effects. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:24367-73 pubmed
    A truncated form of the gamma subunit of phosphorylase kinase is inactivated by Cu2+ with the formation of two intra-molecular disulfide bonds...
  50. Bahri S, Chia W. DPhK-gamma, a putative Drosophila kinase with homology to vertebrate phosphorylase kinase gamma subunits: molecular characterisation of the gene and phenotypic analysis of loss of function mutants. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;245:588-97 pubmed
    ..and total loss of function mutant alleles of a putative Drosophila homologue (DPhK-gamma) of the vertebrate phosphorylase kinase gamma-subunit gene have been isolated...
  51. Lyon J. The X-chromosome and the enzymes controlling muscle glycogen: phosphorylase kinase. Biochem Genet. 1970;4:169-85 pubmed
  52. Meinke M, Edstrom R. Muscle glycogenolysis. Regulation of the cyclic interconversion of phosphorylase a and phosphorylase b. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:2259-66 pubmed
    ..That enzyme is activated by phosphorylase kinase and inactivated by protein phosphatase-1 in a cyclic process of covalent modification...
  53. Wauters J, Bossuyt P, Davidson J, Hendrickx J, Kilimann M, Willems P. Regional mapping of a liver alpha-subunit gene of phosphorylase kinase (PHKA) to the distal region of human chromosome Xp. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1992;60:194-6 pubmed
    X-linked liver glycogenosis (XLG) is a glycogen storage disorder resulting from deficient activity of phosphorylase kinase (PHK). PHK consists of four different subunits: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta...