Genomes and Genes
phosphoenolpyruvate sugar phosphotransferase system
Summary: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
- Vu Khac H, Miller K. Regulation of mannose phosphotransferase system permease and virulence gene expression in Listeria monocytogenes by the EII(t)Man transporter. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:6671-8 pubmed publisher..The results show that EII(t)(Man) participates to various extents in glucose-mediated CCR of PTS operons and makes a small, albeit significant, contribution to downregulation of virulence gene transcription by glucose in strain EGD-e. ..
- Teplyakov A, Lim K, Zhu P, Kapadia G, Chen C, Schwartz J, et al. Structure of phosphorylated enzyme I, the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system sugar translocation signal protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16218-23 pubmed
- Diep D, Skaugen M, Salehian Z, Holo H, Nes I. Common mechanisms of target cell recognition and immunity for class II bacteriocins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:2384-9 pubmed
- Francl A, Thongaram T, Miller M. The PTS transporters of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:77 pubmed publisher..The experiments revealed the extensive contribution of PTS transporters to carbohydrate utilization by L. gasseri ATCC 33323 and the general inadequacy of the annotated sugar specificity of lactobacilli PTS transporters. ..
- Bettenbrock K, Fischer S, Kremling A, Jahreis K, Sauter T, Gilles E. A quantitative approach to catabolite repression in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2578-84 pubmed..The different phenomena affecting the phosphorylation level of EIIACrr, the key regulation molecule for inducer exclusion and catabolite repression in enteric bacteria, can now be explained quantitatively. ..
- Hernández Montalvo V, Martinez A, Hernández Chávez G, Bolivar F, Valle F, Gosset G. Expression of galP and glk in a Escherichia coli PTS mutant restores glucose transport and increases glycolytic flux to fermentation products. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003;83:687-94 pubmed
- Zeng L, Das S, Burne R. Utilization of lactose and galactose by Streptococcus mutans: transport, toxicity, and carbon catabolite repression. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:2434-44 pubmed publisher..Collectively, the results reveal a remarkably high degree of complexity in the regulation of lactose/galactose catabolism. ..
- Houot L, Watnick P. A novel role for enzyme I of the Vibrio cholerae phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system in regulation of growth in a biofilm. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:311-20 pubmed..As the PTS is highly conserved among bacteria, the enzyme I regulatory pathway may be relevant to a number of biofilm-based infections. ..
- Barrangou R, Azcarate Peril M, Duong T, Conners S, Kelly R, Klaenhammer T. Global analysis of carbohydrate utilization by Lactobacillus acidophilus using cDNA microarrays. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:3816-21 pubmed..L. acidophilus's adaptability to environmental conditions likely contributes to its competitive ability for limited carbohydrate sources available in the human gastrointestinal tract. ..
- Doménech R, Martinez Rodriguez S, Velazquez Campoy A, Neira J. Peptides as inhibitors of the first phosphorylation step of the Streptomyces coelicolor phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system. Biochemistry. 2012;51:7393-402 pubmed publisher..Because the affinity of intact EIN(sc) for the whole HPr(sc) is 12 ?M, we suggest that the assayed peptides might be considered as good hit compounds for inhibiting the interaction between HPr(sc) and EIN(sc)...
- Jeong J, Kim Y, Cho N, Shin D, Nam T, Ryu S, et al. Expression of ptsG encoding the major glucose transporter is regulated by ArcA in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:38513-8 pubmed..These results suggest that the response regulator ArcA regulates expression of enzyme IICB(Glc) mediating the first step of glucose metabolism in response to the redox conditions of growth in E. coli. ..
- Hu K, Saier M. Phylogeny of phosphoryl transfer proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar-transporting phosphotransferase system. Res Microbiol. 2002;153:405-15 pubmed..Our findings define the evolutionary histories of these important bacterial proteins and provide guides for functional assignment of PTS-related proteins encoded by genes revealed by genome sequencing. ..
- Vadyvaloo V, Arous S, Gravesen A, Hechard Y, Chauhan Haubrock R, Hastings J, et al. Cell-surface alterations in class IIa bacteriocin-resistant Listeria monocytogenes strains. Microbiology. 2004;150:3025-33 pubmed..The authors' findings strongly indicate that all these factors could contribute to class IIa bacteriocin resistance and that the combination and contribution of each of these factors determine the level of bacteriocin resistance. ..
- Mertins S, Joseph B, Goetz M, Ecke R, Seidel G, Sprehe M, et al. Interference of components of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system with the central virulence gene regulator PrfA of Listeria monocytogenes. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:473-90 pubmed..These data suggest that it is not the component(s) of the CCR or the common PTS pathway but, rather, the component(s) of subsequent steps that seem to be involved in the modulation of PrfA activity. ..
- Prell J, Mulley G, Haufe F, White J, Williams A, Karunakaran R, et al. The PTS(Ntr) system globally regulates ATP-dependent transporters in Rhizobium leguminosarum. Mol Microbiol. 2012;84:117-29 pubmed publisher..ABC transport may be inactivated at low energy charge, conserving ATP for essential processes including K(+) homeostasis...
- Muñoz A, Hernández Chávez G, de Anda R, Martinez A, Bolivar F, Gosset G. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for improving L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) synthesis from glucose. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;38:1845-52 pubmed publisher..6 mg/g/h, L-DOPA yield from glucose of 51.7 mg/g and a final L-DOPA titer of 320 mg/l. In a batch fermentor culture in rich medium this strain produced 1.51 g/l of L-DOPA in 50 h. ..
- Kawamoto H, Morita T, Shimizu A, Inada T, Aiba H. Implication of membrane localization of target mRNA in the action of a small RNA: mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation of glucose transporter in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 2005;19:328-38 pubmed
- Kawamoto H, Koide Y, Morita T, Aiba H. Base-pairing requirement for RNA silencing by a bacterial small RNA and acceleration of duplex formation by Hfq. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:1013-22 pubmed..We also showed in vitro that SgrS forms a stable duplex with the ptsG mRNA, and that Hfq markedly facilitates the rate of duplex formation. ..
- Dominguez C, Boelens R, Bonvin A. HADDOCK: a protein-protein docking approach based on biochemical or biophysical information. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:1731-7 pubmed..In all cases, the best structures generated by HADDOCK, that is, the structures with the lowest intermolecular energies, were the closest to the published structure of the respective complexes (within 2.0 A backbone RMSD). ..
- Meadow N, Savtchenko R, Remington S, Roseman S. Effects of mutations and truncations on the kinetic behavior of IIAGlc, a phosphocarrier and regulatory protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:11450-5 pubmed..The results support the hypothesis (Wang, G., Peterkofsky, A., and Clore, G. M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39811-39814) that the N-terminal 18-residue domain "docks" IIAGlc to the lipid bilayer of membranes containing IICBGlc. ..
- Möglich A, Koch B, Gronwald W, Hengstenberg W, Brunner E, Kalbitzer H. Solution structure of the active-centre mutant I14A of the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein from Staphylococcus carnosus. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:4815-24 pubmed
- Tessema G, Møretrø T, Kohler A, Axelsson L, Naterstad K. Complex phenotypic and genotypic responses of Listeria monocytogenes strains exposed to the class IIa bacteriocin sakacin P. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:6973-80 pubmed publisher..The great diversity among the resistant strains exposed to the same stress conditions suggests that there are different resistance mechanisms. ..
- Singh K, Schmalisch M, Stülke J, Görke B. Carbon catabolite repression in Bacillus subtilis: quantitative analysis of repression exerted by different carbon sources. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:7275-84 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that the hierarchy in CCR exerted by the different substrates is exclusively determined by the activity of HPrK/P. ..
- Houot L, Chang S, Absalon C, Watnick P. Vibrio cholerae phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system control of carbohydrate transport, biofilm formation, and colonization of the germfree mouse intestine. Infect Immun. 2010;78:1482-94 pubmed publisher..cholerae through its life cycle of pathogenesis and environmental persistence. ..
- Pflüger K, di Bartolo I, Velazquez F, De Lorenzo V. Non-disruptive release of Pseudomonas putida proteins by in situ electric breakdown of intact cells. J Microbiol Methods. 2007;71:179-85 pubmed..The method is applicable to other bacteria as well. ..
- Mishra A, Krumbach K, Rittmann D, Appelmelk B, Pathak V, Pathak A, et al. Lipoarabinomannan biosynthesis in Corynebacterineae: the interplay of two ?(1?2)-mannopyranosyltransferases MptC and MptD in mannan branching. Mol Microbiol. 2011;80:1241-59 pubmed publisher..Overall, our study enhances our understanding of complex lipoglycan biosynthesis in Corynebacterineae and sheds further light on the structural and functional relationship of these classes of polysaccharides...
- Blüschke B, Volkmer Engert R, Schneider E. Topography of the surface of the signal-transducing protein EIIA(Glc) that interacts with the MalK subunits of the maltose ATP-binding cassette transporter (MalFGK2) of Salmonella typhimurium. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:12833-40 pubmed..Moreover, a synthetic peptide encompassing residues 69-91 was demonstrated to partially inhibit ATPase activity. We also show for the first time that the N-terminal domain of EIIA(Glc) is essential for inducer exclusion...
- Poncet S, Mijakovic I, Nessler S, Gueguen Chaignon V, Chaptal V, Galinier A, et al. HPr kinase/phosphorylase, a Walker motif A-containing bifunctional sensor enzyme controlling catabolite repression in Gram-positive bacteria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1697:123-35 pubmed..The structures of the complexes of HprK/P with HPr and P-Ser-HPr have also been determined, which allowed proposing a detailed mechanism for the kinase and phosphorylase functions of HprK/P. ..
- Lopian L, Elisha Y, Nussbaum Shochat A, Amster Choder O. Spatial and temporal organization of the E. coli PTS components. EMBO J. 2010;29:3630-45 pubmed publisher..Hence, the PTS components appear to control bgl operon expression by ushering BglG between the cellular compartments. Our results reinforce the notion that signal transduction in bacteria involves dynamic localization of proteins. ..
- Arous S, Dalet K, Hechard Y. Involvement of the mpo operon in resistance to class IIa bacteriocins in Listeria monocytogenes. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;238:37-41 pubmed..We show a cross-regulation between mpo and mpt. In particular, the mpo mutant has a defect in mpt expression that possibly could explain its intermediate resistance phenotype. ..
- Cases I, Velazquez F, De Lorenzo V. The ancestral role of the phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) as exposed by comparative genomics. Res Microbiol. 2007;158:666-70 pubmed..Instead, available evidence suggests that a core set of C-responsive phosphotransferases have been evolutionarily drafted towards diversity of regulatory functions in response inter alia to the global economy of the C and N pools. ..
- Lee C, Koo B, Cho S, Kim Y, Yoon M, Peterkofsky A, et al. Requirement of the dephospho-form of enzyme IIANtr for derepression of Escherichia coli K-12 ilvBN expression. Mol Microbiol. 2005;58:334-44 pubmed
- Morita T, Kawamoto H, Mizota T, Inada T, Aiba H. Enolase in the RNA degradosome plays a crucial role in the rapid decay of glucose transporter mRNA in the response to phosphosugar stress in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2004;54:1063-75 pubmed..In addition, we show that PNPase and RhlB within the degradosome cooperate to eliminate short degradation intermediates of ptsG mRNA. ..
- Flores N, Escalante A, de Anda R, Báez Viveros J, Merino E, Franco B, et al. New insights into the role of sigma factor RpoS as revealed in escherichia coli strains lacking the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;14:176-92 pubmed..The role of RpoS in the transcription of these genes was analyzed and evidence that the expression of this group of genes could be regulated by a common factor in addition to RpoS was discussed. ..
- Flores S, Flores N, de Anda R, Gonzalez A, Escalante A, Sigala J, et al. Nutrient-scavenging stress response in an Escherichia coli strain lacking the phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system, as explored by gene expression profile analysis. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005;10:51-63 pubmed..This condition is responsible of the utilization of secondary carbon sources in the presence of glucose. ..
- Gröger C, Möglich A, Pons M, Koch B, Hengstenberg W, Kalbitzer H, et al. NMR-spectroscopic mapping of an engineered cavity in the I14A mutant of HPr from Staphylococcus carnosus using xenon. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:8726-7 pubmed..In contrast, wild-type HPr only exhibits minor chemical shift changes due to the nonspecific interactions with the xenon atoms in solution. ..
- Boel G, Mijakovic I, Mazé A, Poncet S, Taha M, Larribe M, et al. Transcription regulators potentially controlled by HPr kinase/phosphorylase in Gram-negative bacteria. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;5:206-15 pubmed..We propose that HprK/P might control the phosphorylation state of HPr and EIIAs, which in turn could control the transcription regulators. ..
- Commichau F, Forchhammer K, Stülke J. Regulatory links between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2006;9:167-72 pubmed..The regulatory networks enable the bacteria to make the appropriate metabolic responses to changing nutrient availabilities in the environment. ..
- Wadler C, Vanderpool C. Characterization of homologs of the small RNA SgrS reveals diversity in function. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:5477-85 pubmed publisher..Genetic evidence suggests that a secondary structure in the E. coli SgrS 5' region inhibits sgrT translation. This structure is not present in S. typhimurium SgrS, which explains its higher level of SgrT production. ..
- Lee C, Cho S, Kim H, Kim M, Peterkofsky A, Seok Y. Potassium mediates Escherichia coli enzyme IIA(Ntr) -dependent regulation of sigma factor selectivity. Mol Microbiol. 2010;78:1468-83 pubmed publisher..Taken together, the data suggest that EIIA(Ntr) controls sigma factor selectivity by regulating the intracellular K(+) level. ..
- Barabote R, Saier M. Comparative genomic analyses of the bacterial phosphotransferase system. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2005;69:608-34 pubmed..Our studies provide insight into the development of complex multicomponent enzyme systems and lead to predictions regarding the types of protein-protein interactions that promote efficient PTS-mediated phosphoryl transfer. ..
- Pflüger Grau K, Chavarría M, De Lorenzo V. The interplay of the EIIA(Ntr) component of the nitrogen-related phosphotransferase system (PTS(Ntr)) of Pseudomonas putida with pyruvate dehydrogenase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1810:995-1005 pubmed publisher..This type of control might connect metabolism to many other cellular functions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Systems Biology of Microorganisms. ..
- Santana M, Crasnier Mednansky M. The adaptive genome of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;260:127-33 pubmed..Evidence suggests that this organism may not be a strict anaerobic sulfate reducer typical of the ocean, but a versatile organism capable of bidirectional transmigration and adaptation to both water and terrestrial environments. ..
- Castro R, Neves A, Fonseca L, Pool W, Kok J, Kuipers O, et al. Characterization of the individual glucose uptake systems of Lactococcus lactis: mannose-PTS, cellobiose-PTS and the novel GlcU permease. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:795-806 pubmed publisher..This work completes the identification of the glucose transport systems in L. lactis MG1363. ..
- Vanderpool C, Gottesman S. Involvement of a novel transcriptional activator and small RNA in post-transcriptional regulation of the glucose phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system. Mol Microbiol. 2004;54:1076-89 pubmed..Decreased ptsG mRNA results in decreased production of glucose transport machinery, thus limiting further accumulation of glucose phosphate. ..
- Lengeler J, Jahreis K. Bacterial PEP-dependent carbohydrate: phosphotransferase systems couple sensing and global control mechanisms. Contrib Microbiol. 2009;16:65-87 pubmed publisher..The analogy between the PTS and other prokaryotic systems, and more complex sensory systems from eukaryotic organisms which share elements with regulatory systems is obvious. ..
- Old L, Lowes S, Russell R. Genomic variation in Streptococcus mutans: deletions affecting the multiple pathways of beta-glucoside metabolism. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2006;21:21-7 pubmed publisher..The extensive genetic and phenotypic variation found in beta-glucoside metabolism indicates that there may be extensive heterogeneity in the species...
- Schumacher M, Seidel G, Hillen W, Brennan R. Structural mechanism for the fine-tuning of CcpA function by the small molecule effectors glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. J Mol Biol. 2007;368:1042-50 pubmed
- Pfl ger K, de Lorenzo V. Growth-dependent phosphorylation of the PtsN (EIINtr) protein of Pseudomonas putida. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:18206-11 pubmed publisher..The large variations of non-phosphorylated PtsN in different growth conditions, in contrast to the systematic excess of the phosphorylated PtsN form, suggested that the P-free PtsN is the predominant signaling species of the protein...
- Morita T, El Kazzaz W, Tanaka Y, Inada T, Aiba H. Accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate or fructose 6-phosphate is responsible for destabilization of glucose transporter mRNA in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:15608-14 pubmed..We conclude that the RNase E-dependent destabilization of ptsG mRNA occurs in response to accumulation of glucose-6-P or fructose-6-P. ..
- Flores N, Leal L, Sigala J, de Anda R, Escalante A, Martinez A, et al. Growth recovery on glucose under aerobic conditions of an Escherichia coli strain carrying a phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system deletion by inactivating arcA and overexpressing the genes coding for glucokinase and galactose pe. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;13:105-16 pubmed..However, the highest growth rate was obtained when glk and galP were overexpressed in the arcA(-) background. These results indicated that the arcA mutation enhanced glycolytic and respiratory capacities of the engineered strain. ..
- Zeng L, Burne R. Multiple sugar: phosphotransferase system permeases participate in catabolite modification of gene expression in Streptococcus mutans. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:197-208 pubmed publisher..Collectively, the results reveal the existence of a global regulatory network in S. mutans that governs the utilization of non-preferred carbohydrates in response to the availability and source of multiple preferred carbohydrates. ..