orthophosphate dikinase pyruvate


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of ATP, pyruvate, and orthophosphate to form AMP plus phosphoenolpyruvate plus pyrophosphate. EC

Top Publications

  1. Burnell J, Chastain C. Cloning and expression of maize-leaf pyruvate, Pi dikinase regulatory protein gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;345:675-80 pubmed publisher
  2. Taniguchi Y, Ohkawa H, Masumoto C, Fukuda T, Tamai T, Lee K, et al. Overproduction of C4 photosynthetic enzymes in transgenic rice plants: an approach to introduce the C4-like photosynthetic pathway into rice. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:1799-809 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible mechanisms underlying these phenotypic effects, as well as possibilities and limitations of introducing the C(4)-like photosynthetic pathway into C(3) plants, are discussed. ..
  3. Glackin C, Grula J. Organ-specific transcripts of different size and abundance derive from the same pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase gene in maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:3004-8 pubmed
  4. Hibberd J, Quick W. Characteristics of C4 photosynthesis in stems and petioles of C3 flowering plants. Nature. 2002;415:451-4 pubmed
    ..These biochemical characteristics of C4 photosynthesis in cells around the vascular bundles of stems of C3 plants might explain why C4 photosynthesis has evolved independently many times. ..
  5. Burnell J, Hatch M. Regulation of C4 photosynthesis: identification of a catalytically important histidine residue and its role in the regulation of pyruvate,Pi dikinase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1984;231:175-82 pubmed
    ..The significance of these results is discussed with regard to the mechanism of regulation of pyruvate,Pi dikinase in vivo. ..
  6. Sheen J. Molecular mechanisms underlying the differential expression of maize pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase genes. Plant Cell. 1991;3:225-45 pubmed
    ..The low expression of cyppdkZm2 can be attributed to an absence of upstream positive elements and weak activity of the TATA promoter element. ..
  7. Doyle J, Burnell J, Haines D, Llewellyn L, Motti C, Tapiolas D. A rapid screening method to detect specific inhibitors of pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase as leads for C4 plant-selective herbicides. J Biomol Screen. 2005;10:67-75 pubmed
    ..Sequential addition of phosphoenolpyruvate and oxaloacetate to the assay facilitated identification of 83 extracts that specifically inhibited PPDK. ..
  8. Fukayama H, Tsuchida H, Agarie S, Nomura M, Onodera H, Ono K, et al. Significant accumulation of C(4)-specific pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase in a C(3) plant, rice. Plant Physiol. 2001;127:1136-46 pubmed
    ..The activity of the maize PPDK protein expressed in rice leaves was light/dark regulated as it is in maize. This is the first reported evidence for the presence of an endogenous PPDK regulatory protein in a C(3) plant. ..
  9. Oster s M, Driscoll B, Finan T. Increased pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase activity results in an alternative gluconeogenic pathway in Rhizobium (Sinorhizobium) meliloti. Microbiology. 1997;143 ( Pt 5):1639-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The suppressor phenotype was dependent on the combined activities of malic enzyme and PPDK, which thus represent an alternative route for the formation of PEP in R. meliloti. PPDK activity was not required for symbiotic N2 fixation...

More Information


  1. Vu J, Allen L. Growth at elevated CO(2) delays the adverse effects of drought stress on leaf photosynthesis of the C(4) sugarcane. J Plant Physiol. 2009;166:107-16 pubmed publisher
  2. Abyzov A, Bjornson R, Felipe M, Gerstein M. RigidFinder: a fast and sensitive method to detect rigid blocks in large macromolecular complexes. Proteins. 2010;78:309-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the method are in excellent agreement with the expert-described rigid blocks. ..
  3. Feng X, Cao L, Adam R, Zhang X, Lu S. The catalyzing role of PPDK in Giardia lamblia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;367:394-8 pubmed publisher
    ..PPDK is not found in vertebrates, so specific inhibitors may be useful for treatment of infections caused by anaerobic protists that depend on pyrophosphate-dependent glycolysis. ..
  4. Wang X, Gowik U, Tang H, Bowers J, Westhoff P, Paterson A. Comparative genomic analysis of C4 photosynthetic pathway evolution in grasses. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R68 pubmed publisher
  5. Hennen Bierwagen T, Lin Q, Grimaud F, Planchot V, Keeling P, James M, et al. Proteins from multiple metabolic pathways associate with starch biosynthetic enzymes in high molecular weight complexes: a model for regulation of carbon allocation in maize amyloplasts. Plant Physiol. 2009;149:1541-59 pubmed publisher
    ..PPDK and SUS-SH1 required SSIII, SSIIa, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb for assembly into the 670-kD complex. These complexes may function in global regulation of carbon partitioning between metabolic pathways in developing seeds. ..
  6. Lara M, Drincovich M, Andreo C. Induction of a crassulacean acid-like metabolism in the C(4) succulent plant, Portulaca oleracea L: study of enzymes involved in carbon fixation and carbohydrate metabolism. Plant Cell Physiol. 2004;45:618-26 pubmed
    ..Based on the results obtained, including those from in situ immunolocalization studies, we propose a scheme for the possible CO(2) fixation pathways used by P. oleracea under conditions of sufficient and limiting water supply...
  7. Wakayama M, Ueno O, Ohnishi J. Photosynthetic enzyme accumulation during leaf development of Arundinella hirta, a C4 grass having Kranz cells not associated with veins. Plant Cell Physiol. 2003;44:1330-40 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that, although the DCs are not associated with veins, they behaved like BSCs with respect to enzyme induction and cellular differentiation. ..
  8. Chastain C, Botschner M, Harrington G, Thompson B, Mills S, Sarath G, et al. Further analysis of maize C(4) pyruvate,orthophosphate dikinase phosphorylation by its bifunctional regulatory protein using selective substitutions of the regulatory Thr-456 and catalytic His-458 residues. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000;375:165-70 pubmed
    ..For these latter studies, synthetic phosphopeptide-directed antibodies specific for the Thr(456)-P form of maize C(4) PPDK were developed and characterized. ..
  9. Huang S, Colmer T, Millar A. Does anoxia tolerance involve altering the energy currency towards PPi?. Trends Plant Sci. 2008;13:221-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This will be crucial in unraveling this currency switch and its contribution to anoxia tolerance. ..
  10. Ohta S, Ishida Y, Usami S. Expression of cold-tolerant pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase cDNA, and heterotetramer formation in transgenic maize plants. Transgenic Res. 2004;13:475-85 pubmed
    ..Arrhenius plot analysis of the enzyme extracted from one such plant revealed that the break point was shifted about 3 degrees C lower than that of the wild type. ..
  11. Matsuoka M, Ozeki Y, Yamamoto N, Hirano H, Kano Murakami Y, Tanaka Y. Primary structure of maize pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase as deduced from cDNA sequence. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:11080-3 pubmed
    ..We have compared the primary structure of the pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase transit peptide to those of other proteins and found sequences similar to the consensus sequences found in other transit peptides. ..
  12. Matsuoka M. Structure, genetic mapping, and expression of the gene for pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase from maize. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:16772-7 pubmed
    ..In both cases, expression of the beta-glucuronidase gene was observed, indicating that the 5'-flanking region of the gene can act as a promoter in tobacco cells. ..
  13. Tazoe Y, Noguchi K, Terashima I. Effects of growth light and nitrogen nutrition on the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus in leaves of a C4 plant, Amaranthus cruentus. Plant Cell Environ. 2006;29:691-700 pubmed
    ..Vein density was highest in HL-HN leaves, and leaf thickness was unaffected by the growth light treatments. From these results, we conclude that A. cruentus leaves would not acclimate efficiently to low growth light. ..
  14. Raverdy S, Foster J, Roopenian E, Carlow C. The Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi has an active pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2008;160:163-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the development of wBm-PPDK as a promising new drug target in an anti-symbiotic approach to controlling filarial infection. ..
  15. Chastain C, Heck J, Colquhoun T, Voge D, Gu X. Posttranslational regulation of pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase in developing rice (Oryza sativa) seeds. Planta. 2006;224:924-34 pubmed
    ..These and related observations lead us to postulate a putative function for the enzyme that aligns its PEP to pyruvate-forming reaction with biosynthetic processes that are specific to early cereal seed development. ..
  16. Acosta H, Dubourdieu M, Quiñones W, Caceres A, Bringaud F, Concepcion J. Pyruvate phosphate dikinase and pyrophosphate metabolism in the glycosome of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;138:347-56 pubmed
    ..Indeed, PPDK seems to replace pyrophosphatase in its classical thermodynamic role of displacing the equilibrium of PPi-producing reactions, as well as in its role of eliminating the toxic PPi. ..
  17. Slamovits C, Keeling P. Pyruvate-phosphate dikinase of oxymonads and parabasalia and the evolution of pyrophosphate-dependent glycolysis in anaerobic eukaryotes. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:148-54 pubmed
  18. Maeda M. [Determination of biological substances using bioluminescent reaction based on luciferin-luciferase]. Rinsho Byori. 2004;52:595-603 pubmed
    ..In this article, the use of various enzymes as labels in the design and development of immunoassays, and the combination of PCR/novel bioluminescent pyrophosphate assay, for detecting biomolecules is reviewed. ..
  19. Tapiolas D, Bowden B, Abou Mansour E, Willis R, Doyle J, Muirhead A, et al. Eusynstyelamides A, B, and C, nNOS inhibitors, from the ascidian Eusynstyela latericius. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:1115-20 pubmed publisher
    ..6 and 6.5 mM, respectively) and mild inhibitory activity toward the C(4) plant regulatory enzyme pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) (IC(50) values of 19 and 20 mM, respectively). ..
  20. Voznesenskaya E, Franceschi V, Kiirats O, Artyusheva E, Freitag H, Edwards G. Proof of C4 photosynthesis without Kranz anatomy in Bienertia cycloptera (Chenopodiaceae). Plant J. 2002;31:649-62 pubmed
  21. Burnell J, Hatch M. Regulation of C4 photosynthesis: purification and properties of the protein catalyzing ADP-mediated inactivation and Pi-mediated activation of pyruvate,Pi dikinase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1985;237:490-503 pubmed
    ..Both the activation and inactivation reactions catalyzed by PDRP have a broad pH optimum between 7.8 and 8.3. The results are discussed in terms of the likely mechanism of dark/light regulation of pyruvate,Pi dikinase in vivo. ..
  22. Herzberg O, Chen C, Liu S, Tempczyk A, Howard A, Wei M, et al. Pyruvate site of pyruvate phosphate dikinase: crystal structure of the enzyme-phosphonopyruvate complex, and mutant analysis. Biochemistry. 2002;41:780-7 pubmed
    ..There are also important structural differences; most notably, the machinery for acid/base catalysis is different. ..
  23. Lin Y, Lusin J, Ye D, Dunaway Mariano D, Ames J. Examination of the structure, stability, and catalytic potential in the engineered phosphoryl carrier domain of pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Biochemistry. 2006;45:1702-11 pubmed
    ..These results are interpreted as evidence that the central domain, although solvent-compatible, must be tethered by the flexible linkers to the N-terminal domain for the productive domain-domain docking required for efficient catalysis. ..
  24. Tamada Y, Imanari E, Kurotani K, Nakai M, Andreo C, Izui K. Effect of photooxidative destruction of chloroplasts on the expression of nuclear genes for C4 photosynthesis and for chloroplast biogenesis in maize. J Plant Physiol. 2003;160:3-8 pubmed
    ..Diurnal changes of the levels of transcripts for photosynthetic genes persisted in the norflurazon-treated seedlings indicating non-involvement of chloroplast in this light control. ..
  25. Yoshino T, Nishimura T, Mori T, Suzuki S, Kambara H, Takeyama H, et al. Nano-sized bacterial magnetic particles displaying pyruvate phosphate dikinase for pyrosequencing. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;103:130-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The recycling of enzymes was also shown to be promising and applicable for the development of an inexpensive DNA sequencing at a low running cost. ..
  26. Chastain C, Fries J, Vogel J, Randklev C, Vossen A, Dittmer S, et al. Pyruvate,orthophosphate dikinase in leaves and chloroplasts of C(3) plants undergoes light-/dark-induced reversible phosphorylation. Plant Physiol. 2002;128:1368-78 pubmed
  27. Prioul J, Méchin V, Damerval C. Molecular and biochemical mechanisms in maize endosperm development: the role of pyruvate-Pi-dikinase and Opaque-2 in the control of C/N ratio. C R Biol. 2008;331:772-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The direct effect of O2 on PPDK gene expression provides a clue for explaining the competition between C and N metabolisms. This epistatic relationship between PPDK and O2 is further supported by quantitative and association genetics. ..
  28. Shiau R, Wen Y, Jeang C. Identification of three proteins up-regulated by raw starch in Cytophaga sp. Arch Microbiol. 2008;190:651-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Finding these proteins up-regulated by raw starch may provide an insight into how Cytophaga sp. cells respond to raw starch stimulation. ..
  29. Arakawa H, Karasawa K, Munakata E, Obinata R, Maeda M, Suzuki S, et al. Development of bioluminescent pyrophosphate assay using pyruvate phosphate dikinase and its application to single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis. Anal Biochem. 2008;379:86-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This method, which does not require expensive equipment, can be used to rapidly monitor one point mutation in the gene. ..
  30. Méchin V, Thevenot C, Le Guilloux M, Prioul J, Damerval C. Developmental analysis of maize endosperm proteome suggests a pivotal role for pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase. Plant Physiol. 2007;143:1203-19 pubmed
  31. Bielen A, Willquist K, Engman J, van der Oost J, Van Niel E, Kengen S. Pyrophosphate as a central energy carrier in the hydrogen-producing extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;307:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Pyruvate kinase activity appeared to be allosterically affected by PPi. Altogether, these findings suggest an important role for PPi in the central energy metabolism of C. saccharolyticus. ..
  32. Wakayama M, Ohnishi J, Ueno O. Structure and enzyme expression in photosynthetic organs of the atypical C4 grass Arundinella hirta. Planta. 2006;223:1243-55 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the main role of DCs is to keep a constant quantitative balance between the MCs and Kranz cells, which is a prerequisite for effective C4 pathway operation. ..
  33. Parsley K, Hibberd J. The Arabidopsis PPDK gene is transcribed from two promoters to produce differentially expressed transcripts responsible for cytosolic and plastidic proteins. Plant Mol Biol. 2006;62:339-49 pubmed
    ..We propose that in cotyledons PPDK may be important in supplying PEP to gluconeogenesis, and in ageing leaves it allows remobilisation of nitrogen to supply reproductive tissue. ..
  34. Yanagisawa S. Dof1 and Dof2 transcription factors are associated with expression of multiple genes involved in carbon metabolism in maize. Plant J. 2000;21:281-8 pubmed
    ..Speculation raised by these results concerning the evolution of the C4pepc gene is also discussed. ..
  35. Kang H, Park S, Matsuoka M, An G. White-core endosperm floury endosperm-4 in rice is generated by knockout mutations in the C-type pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase gene (OsPPDKB). Plant J. 2005;42:901-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This mRNA was localized mainly in the endosperm, aleurone, and scutellum of the developing kernel. Our results suggest that cytosolic PPDK functions in rice to modulate carbon metabolism during grain filling...
  36. Taylor L, Nunes Nesi A, Parsley K, Leiss A, Leach G, Coates S, et al. Cytosolic pyruvate,orthophosphate dikinase functions in nitrogen remobilization during leaf senescence and limits individual seed growth and nitrogen content. Plant J. 2010;62:641-52 pubmed publisher
  37. Stephen P, Vijayan R, Bhat A, Subbarao N, Bamezai R. Molecular modeling on pyruvate phosphate dikinase of Entamoeba histolytica and in silico virtual screening for novel inhibitors. J Comput Aided Mol Des. 2008;22:647-60 pubmed
    ..Further, the phylogeny study was carried out to assess the possibility of using the proposed ligands as inhibitors in related pathogens. ..
  38. Bringaud F, Baltz D, Baltz T. Functional and molecular characterization of a glycosomal PPi-dependent enzyme in trypanosomatids: pyruvate, phosphate dikinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7963-8 pubmed
    ..The precise role of PPDK in trypanosomatid carbohydrate metabolism remains to be clarified...
  39. Motti C, Bourne D, Burnell J, Doyle J, Haines D, Liptrot C, et al. Screening marine fungi for inhibitors of the C4 plant enzyme pyruvate phosphate dikinase: unguinol as a potential novel herbicide candidate. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:1921-7 pubmed
    ..Unguinol had deleterious effects on a model C(4) plant but no effect on a model C(3) plant. These results indicate that unguinol inhibits PPDK via a novel mechanism of action which also translates to an herbicidal effect on whole plants...
  40. Maldonado R, Fairlamb A. Cloning of a pyruvate phosphate dikinase from Trypanosoma cruzi. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2001;112:183-91 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic studies indicate that bacterial and protist PPDKs cluster as a separate group from those of plants. The evolutionary implications and possible role of this enzyme in T. cruzi is discussed. ..
  41. Marshall J, Ashton A, Govers F, Hardham A. Isolation and characterization of four genes encoding pyruvate, phosphate dikinase in the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi. Curr Genet. 2001;40:73-81 pubmed
    ..The possibility that PPDK and other enzymes of pyrophosphate-based metabolism may provide targets for the development of novel control measures for Phytophthora and other oomycete pathogens is discussed. ..
  42. Häusler R, Hirsch H, Kreuzaler F, Peterhansel C. Overexpression of C(4)-cycle enzymes in transgenic C(3) plants: a biotechnological approach to improve C(3)-photosynthesis. J Exp Bot. 2002;53:591-607 pubmed
    ..Bearing in mind that C(4)-cycle enzymes are also present in C(3) plants, the pitfalls encountered when C(3) metabolism is perturbed by the overexpression of individual C(4) genes will also be discussed. ..
  43. Ito K, Nakagawa K, Murakami S, Arakawa H, Maeda M. Highly sensitive simultaneous bioluminescent measurement of acetate kinase and pyruvate phosphate dikinase activities using a firefly luciferase-luciferin reaction and its application to a tandem bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Anal Sci. 2003;19:105-9 pubmed
    ..03 x 10(-20) and 2.05 x 10(-20) mol per assay, respectively. The method was applicable to a bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay for the assay of insulin and C-peptide in the same sample. ..
  44. Manicacci D, Camus Kulandaivelu L, Fourmann M, Arar C, Barrault S, Rousselet A, et al. Epistatic interactions between Opaque2 transcriptional activator and its target gene CyPPDK1 control kernel trait variation in maize. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:506-20 pubmed publisher
  45. Crafts Brandner S, Salvucci M. Sensitivity of photosynthesis in a C4 plant, maize, to heat stress. Plant Physiol. 2002;129:1773-80 pubmed
    ..We conclude that inactivation of Rubisco was the primary constraint on the rate of Pn of maize leaves as leaf temperature increased above 30 degrees C. ..
  46. Saavedra E, Olivos A, Encalada R, Moreno Sanchez R. Entamoeba histolytica: kinetic and molecular evidence of a previously unidentified pyruvate kinase. Exp Parasitol. 2004;106:11-21 pubmed
    ..A putative EhPK gene fragment found in EhDNA was analyzed. The data indicate that E. histolytica trophozoites contain an active PK, which might contribute to the generation of glycolytic ATP for parasite survival. ..
  47. Tazoe Y, Hanba Y, Furumoto T, Noguchi K, Terashima I. Relationships between quantum yield for CO2 assimilation, activity of key enzymes and CO2 leakiness in Amaranthus cruentus, a C4 dicot, grown in high or low light. Plant Cell Physiol. 2008;49:19-29 pubmed
    ..Ecological implications of the increase in phi in LL are discussed. ..
  48. Howard B, Endrizzi J, Remington S. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli malate synthase G complexed with magnesium and glyoxylate at 2.0 A resolution: mechanistic implications. Biochemistry. 2000;39:3156-68 pubmed
    ..Interesting similarities in the overall folds and modes of substrate recognition are discussed in comparisons of malate synthase with pyruvate kinase and pyruvate phosphate dikinase. ..
  49. Chastain C, Lee M, Moorman M, Shameekumar P, Chollet R. Site-directed mutagenesis of maize recombinant C4-pyruvate,orthophosphate dikinase at the phosphorylatable target threonine residue. FEBS Lett. 1997;413:169-73 pubmed
    ..The T456V mutant, however, could not be phosphorylated and was, thus, resistant to ADP-dependent inactivation by RP. ..
  50. Cosenza L, Bringaud F, Baltz T, Vellieux F. The 3.0 A resolution crystal structure of glycosomal pyruvate phosphate dikinase from Trypanosoma brucei. J Mol Biol. 2002;318:1417-32 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that the requirements of domain motion during enzyme catalysis might include widening of the nucleotide-binding cleft to allow access and departure of the AMP or ATP ligand. ..
  51. Naidu S, Moose S, AL Shoaibi A, Raines C, Long S. Cold tolerance of C4 photosynthesis in Miscanthus x giganteus: adaptation in amounts and sequence of C4 photosynthetic enzymes. Plant Physiol. 2003;132:1688-97 pubmed
    ..The maintenance of PPDK and Rubisco large subunit amounts in M. x giganteus is consistent with the hypothesis that these proteins are critical to maintaining high rates of C(4) photosynthesis at low temperature. ..
  52. Zou B, Chen Z, Zhou G. [Expression of PPDK from Microbispora rosea subsp. aerata in Escherichia coli and its application in pyrosequencing]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2008;24:679-83 pubmed
    ..The PPDK was purified by His * Bind Resin affinity chromatography and ultrafiltration using 10 kD cut-off membrane. The successful application of PPDK in pyrosequencing was also demonstrated. ..
  53. Wei M, Ye D, Dunaway Mariano D. Investigation of the role of the domain linkers in separate site catalysis by Clostridium symbiosum pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Biochemistry. 2001;40:13466-73 pubmed
    ..It is hypothesized that while the linkers play a passive role in central domain-terminal domain docking, their structural design minimizes the conformational space searched in the diffusion process. ..
  54. Casati P, Zhang X, Burlingame A, Walbot V. Analysis of leaf proteome after UV-B irradiation in maize lines differing in sensitivity. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2005;4:1673-85 pubmed
    ..These could be genetically fixed traits conferring UV-B tolerance and offer clues to specific adaptations to living in high ambient UV-B conditions. ..
  55. Niersbach M, Kreuzaler F, Geerse R, Postma P, Hirsch H. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli K-12 ppsA gene, encoding PEP synthase. Mol Gen Genet. 1992;231:332-6 pubmed
    ..These enzymes include pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinases from plants and Bacteroides symbiosus and Enzyme I of the bacterial PEP:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system. ..
  56. Moons A, Valcke R, Van Montagu M. Low-oxygen stress and water deficit induce cytosolic pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) expression in roots of rice, a C3 plant. Plant J. 1998;15:89-98 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that cytosolic PPDK is involved in a metabolic response to water deficit and low-oxygen stress in rice, an anoxia-tolerant species. ..
  57. Wang D, Portis A, Moose S, Long S. Cool C4 photosynthesis: pyruvate Pi dikinase expression and activity corresponds to the exceptional cold tolerance of carbon assimilation in Miscanthus x giganteus. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:557-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that increases in either PPDK RNA transcription and/or the stability of this RNA are important for the increase in PPDK protein content and activity in M. x giganteus under chilling conditions relative to maize...
  58. Nakanishi T, Ohki Y, Oda J, Matsuoka M, Sakata K, Kato H. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies on pyruvate phosphate dikinase from maize. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:193-4 pubmed
    ..The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 108.2, b = 100.2, c = 108.4 A, beta = 96.5 degrees, and diffract to 2.3 A using SPring-8 synchrotron radiation. ..
  59. Sturm M, Schramm V. Detecting ricin: sensitive luminescent assay for ricin A-chain ribosome depurination kinetics. Anal Chem. 2009;81:2847-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Kinetic analysis of the catalytic action of RTA on rabbit reticulocyte 80S ribosomes establishes a catalytic efficiency of 2.6 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), a diffusion limited reaction indicating catalytic perfection even with large reactants. ..
  60. Roeske C, Kutny R, Budde R, Chollet R. Sequence of the phosphothreonyl regulatory site peptide from inactive maize leaf pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:6683-7 pubmed
  61. Tjaden B, Plagens A, Dörr C, Siebers B, Hensel R. Phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase and pyruvate, phosphate dikinase of Thermoproteus tenax: key pieces in the puzzle of archaeal carbohydrate metabolism. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:287-98 pubmed
    ..Comparative genomic analyses indicate the coexistence of PEPS, PPDK and PK in other Archaea as well, suggesting a similar regulation of the carbohydrate metabolism in these organisms...
  62. Ku M, Cho D, Li X, Jiao D, Pinto M, Miyao M, et al. Introduction of genes encoding C4 photosynthesis enzymes into rice plants: physiological consequences. Novartis Found Symp. 2001;236:100-11; discussion 111-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that introduction of C4 photosynthesis enzymes into rice has a good potential to enhance its tolerance to stress, photosynthetic capacity and yield. ..
  63. Varela Gómez M, Moreno Sanchez R, Pardo J, Perez Montfort R. Kinetic mechanism and metabolic role of pyruvate phosphate dikinase from Entamoeba histolytica. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:54124-30 pubmed
    ..7 kcal/mol) determined under near physiological conditions indicates that the synthesis of ATP is not thermodynamically favorable in trophozoites of E. histolytica. ..
  64. Taniguchi M, Izawa K, Ku M, Lin J, Saito H, Ishida Y, et al. The promoter for the maize C4 pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase gene directs cell- and tissue-specific transcription in transgenic maize plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 2000;41:42-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the 0.9 kb maize C4Pdk promoter sequences appear to contain the necessary cis-acting elements for its cell- and organ-specific expression. ..
  65. Chastain C, Xu W, Parsley K, Sarath G, Hibberd J, Chollet R. The pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase regulatory proteins of Arabidopsis possess a novel, unprecedented Ser/Thr protein kinase primary structure. Plant J. 2008;53:854-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that vascular plant RPs form a unique protein kinase family now designated as the DUF 299 gene family...
  66. Liao D, Silverton E, Seok Y, Lee B, Peterkofsky A, Davies D. The first step in sugar transport: crystal structure of the amino terminal domain of enzyme I of the E. coli PEP: sugar phosphotransferase system and a model of the phosphotransfer complex with HPr. Structure. 1996;4:861-72 pubmed
    ..The helical subdomain of EIN is not found in pyruvate phosphate dikinase; this subdomain is therefore more likely to be involved in phosphoryl transfer to HPr. ..
  67. Smith C, Duff S, Chollet R. Partial purification and characterization of maize-leaf pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase regulatory protein: a low-abundance, mesophyll-chloroplast stromal protein. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1994;308:200-6 pubmed
    ..0 or 8.0, suggesting that the opposing RP activities are not regulated differentially by reversible covalent modification or pH effects. ..
  68. Ye D, Wei M, McGuire M, Huang K, Kapadia G, Herzberg O, et al. Investigation of the catalytic site within the ATP-grasp domain of Clostridium symbiosum pyruvate phosphate dikinase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:37630-9 pubmed
    ..Residues Glu-279, Asp-280, and Arg-135 are suggested to function in the closure of an active site loop, over the nucleotide ribose-binding site. ..