hexokinase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.

Top Publications

  1. Chehtane M, Khaled A. Interleukin-7 mediates glucose utilization in lymphocytes through transcriptional regulation of the hexokinase II gene. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C1560-71 pubmed publisher
    ..of three important regulators of glucose metabolism, the glucose transporter GLUT-1 and two glycolytic enzymes, hexokinase II (HXKII) and phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), using an IL-7-dependent T-cell line and primary lymphocytes...
  2. Zhang Z, Yuan S, Xu F, Yang H, Zhang N, Cheng J, et al. The plastid hexokinase pHXK: a node of convergence for sugar and plastid signals in Arabidopsis. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:3573-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The repressive effects of glucose and chloramphenicol on LHCB expression were inhibited in phxk (plastid hexokinase) mutant...
  3. Park S, Lee J, Lee W, Han K. Biologic correlation between glucose transporters, hexokinase-II, Ki-67 and FDG uptake in malignant melanoma. Nucl Med Biol. 2012;39:1167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..FDG) uptake, and the expressions of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), glucose transporter 3 (GLUT-3), hexokinase II (HK-2), and Ki-67 expression in malignant melanoma...
  4. Qiu M, Han B, Luo H, Zhou Z, Wang Z, Wang F, et al. Expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and hexokinase-II in gastric adenocarcinoma: the impact on prognosis and correlation to clinicopathologic features. Tumour Biol. 2011;32:159-66 pubmed publisher
    The impact of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and hexokinase-II (HK-II) expression on prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma patients has not been clearly established...
  5. Fleck C, Brock M. Aspergillus fumigatus catalytic glucokinase and hexokinase: expression analysis and importance for germination, growth, and conidiation. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:1120-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucose and fructose phosphorylations appear to rely exclusively on glucokinase and hexokinase. Here, we characterized the catalytic glucokinase and hexokinase from the opportunistic human pathogen ..
  6. Yu S, Yoon J, Yang J, Cho E, Kwak M, Jang E, et al. Enhancement of hexokinase II inhibitor-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells via augmenting ER stress and anti-angiogenesis by protein disulfide isomerase inhibition. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2012;44:101-15 pubmed publisher
    3-bromopyruvate (3-BP), a hexokinase (HK) II inhibitor, promotes tumor cell death by inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines...
  7. Smeekens S, Ma J, Hanson J, Rolland F. Sugar signals and molecular networks controlling plant growth. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2010;13:274-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we discuss the growth promoting functions of the hexokinase (HXK) glucose sensor, the trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) signal and the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase pathway, ..
  8. dos Santos R, Diniz L, Galina A, da Silva W. Characterization of non-cytosolic hexokinase activity in white skeletal muscle from goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) and the effect of cold acclimation. Biosci Rep. 2010;30:413-23 pubmed publisher
    HK (hexokinase) is an enzyme involved in the first step in the glucose metabolism pathway, converting glucose into G6P (glucose 6-phosphate)...
  9. Shulga N, Wilson Smith R, Pastorino J. Hexokinase II detachment from the mitochondria potentiates cisplatin induced cytotoxicity through a caspase-2 dependent mechanism. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:3355-64 pubmed
    Cancer cells are frequently glycolytic and overexpress hexokinase II (HXK II). In cancer cells, the majority of hexokinase II is localized to the mitochondria through interaction with the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Sato Tadano A, Suzuki T, Amari M, Takagi K, Miki Y, Tamaki K, et al. Hexokinase II in breast carcinoma: a potent prognostic factor associated with hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and Ki-67. Cancer Sci. 2013;104:1380-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, we demonstrated that the status of hexokinase II (HKII) was associated with carcinoma recurrence in patients with these genes...
  2. Gurel E, Smeele K, Eerbeek O, Koeman A, Demirci C, Hollmann M, et al. Ischemic preconditioning affects hexokinase activity and HKII in different subcellular compartments throughout cardiac ischemia-reperfusion. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106:1909-16 pubmed publisher
    The glycolytic enzyme hexokinase (HK) is suggested to play a role in ischemic preconditioning (IPC)...
  3. Mathew J, Loranger A, Gilbert S, Faure R, Marceau N. Keratin 8/18 regulation of glucose metabolism in normal versus cancerous hepatic cells through differential modulation of hexokinase status and insulin signaling. Exp Cell Res. 2013;319:474-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that the K8/K18-dependent glucose uptake/G6P formation is linked to alterations in hexokinase I/II/IV content and localization at mitochondria, with little effect on GLUT1 status...
  4. Bonnefond A, Vaxillaire M, Labrune Y, Lecoeur C, Chevre J, Bouatia Naji N, et al. Genetic variant in HK1 is associated with a proanemic state and A1C but not other glycemic control-related traits. Diabetes. 2009;58:2687-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, a genome-wide association study reported an association between A1C and rs7072268 within HK1 (encoding hexokinase 1), which catalyzes the first step of glycolysis...
  5. Cuomo C, Desjardins C, Bakowski M, Goldberg J, Ma A, Becnel J, et al. Microsporidian genome analysis reveals evolutionary strategies for obligate intracellular growth. Genome Res. 2012;22:2478-88 pubmed publisher
    ..signal sequences, and in a functional assay these were sufficient to export proteins out of the cell; thus hexokinase may be targeted into the host cell to reprogram it toward biosynthesis...
  6. Corona J, Gimenez Cassina A, Lim F, Diaz Nido J. Hexokinase II gene transfer protects against neurodegeneration in the rotenone and MPTP mouse models of Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:1943-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found that increasing mitochondrial hexokinase II activity can prevent cell death in neuronal cultures treated with rotenone...
  7. Fukumoto T, Kano A, Ohtani K, Inoue M, Yoshihara A, Izumori K, et al. Phosphorylation of D-allose by hexokinase involved in regulation of OsABF1 expression for growth inhibition in Oryza sativa L. Planta. 2013;237:1379-91 pubmed publisher
    ..expressions of gibberellin-responsive genes downstream of SLR1 protein in the gibberellin-signaling through hexokinase (HXK)-dependent pathway...
  8. Gejl M, Egefjord L, Lerche S, Vang K, Bibby B, Holst J, et al. Glucagon-like peptide-1 decreases intracerebral glucose content by activating hexokinase and changing glucose clearance during hyperglycemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2012;32:2146-52 pubmed publisher
  9. Karve A, Moore B. Function of Arabidopsis hexokinase-like1 as a negative regulator of plant growth. J Exp Bot. 2009;60:4137-49 pubmed publisher
    A recent analysis of the hexokinase (HXK) gene family from Arabidopsis revealed that three hexokinase-like (HKL) proteins lack catalytic activity, but share about 50% identity with the primary glucose (glc) sensor/transducer protein ..
  10. Takano J, Tachibana H, Kato M, Narita T, Yanagi T, Yasutomi Y, et al. DNA characterization of simian Entamoeba histolytica-like strains to differentiate them from Entamoeba histolytica. Parasitol Res. 2009;105:929-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence analyses of the hexokinase, glucose phosphate isomerase, and phosphoglucomutase genes supported the previous findings of isoenzyme analyses ..
  11. Kumar R, Gupta S, Srivastava R, Sahasrabuddhe A, Gupta C. Expression of a PTS2-truncated hexokinase produces glucose toxicity in Leishmania donovani. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;170:41-4 pubmed publisher
    ..of these enzymes in the cytosol induces sugar toxicity and accumulation of intermediate metabolites, notably the hexokinase product glucose-6-phosphate. However, the role of hexokinase in sugar mediated toxicity remains unexplored...
  12. Broggi S, Martegani E, Colombo S. Live-cell imaging of endogenous Ras-GTP shows predominant Ras activation at the plasma membrane and in the nucleus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013;45:384-94 pubmed publisher
  13. Devaraneni P, Mishra N, Bhat R. Polyol osmolytes stabilize native-like cooperative intermediate state of yeast hexokinase A at low pH. Biochimie. 2012;94:947-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Yeast hexokinase A exists as a MG state at pH 2.5 that does not show any cooperative transition upon heating...
  14. Gong L, Cui Z, Yu X, Wei Y, Peng J, Leng X. Hexokinase II in CD133+ and CD133- hepatoma BEL-7402 Cells. Pathol Oncol Res. 2012;18:377-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Hexokinase II is a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway and CD133+ human hepatoma cells possess cancer stem cell-like properties. The expression and enzyme activity of hexokinase II in CD133+ and CD133- hepatoma cells were examined...
  15. Gonzalez Gronow M, Cuchacovich M, Francos R, Cuchacovich S, Fernandez M, Blanco A, et al. Antibodies against the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and its protective ligand hexokinase-I in children with autism. J Neuroimmunol. 2010;227:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and hexokinase-I, a VDAC protective ligand, were identified as targets of this autoimmunity in autistic children...
  16. Kim J, Ahn K, Kim J, Kim H, Lee J, Lee J, et al. Role of reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial dysregulation in 3-bromopyruvate induced cell death in hepatoma cells : ROS-mediated cell death by 3-BrPA. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2008;40:607-18 pubmed publisher
    b>Hexokinase type II (HK II) is the key enzyme for maintaining increased glycolysis in cancer cells where it is overexpressed. 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), an inhibitor of HK II, induces cell death in cancer cells...
  17. Marin Hernandez A, Gallardo Pérez J, Rodriguez Enriquez S, Encalada R, Moreno Sanchez R, Saavedra E. Modeling cancer glycolysis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1807:755-67 pubmed publisher
    ..all the pathway enzymes and transporters (as induced by HIF-1? and other oncogenes), and with the expression of hexokinase (HK) and phosphofructokinase type 1 (PFK-1) isoenzymes with different regulatory properties...
  18. Harris M, Walker D, Drew M, Mitchell W, Dao K, Schroeder C, et al. Interrogating a hexokinase-selected small-molecule library for inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum hexokinase. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:3731-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The first step in glycolysis is catalyzed by hexokinase (HK). While the 55.3-kDa P...
  19. Izuishi K, Yamamoto Y, Sano T, Takebayashi R, Nishiyama Y, Mori H, et al. Molecular mechanism underlying the detection of colorectal cancer by 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography. J Gastrointest Surg. 2012;16:394-400 pubmed publisher
    ..proliferative cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA), a marker of proliferation; and glucose transporter (GLUT)1 and hexokinase (HK)2, protein of glucose uptake by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction...
  20. Smeele K, Southworth R, Wu R, Xie C, Nederlof R, Warley A, et al. Disruption of hexokinase II-mitochondrial binding blocks ischemic preconditioning and causes rapid cardiac necrosis. Circ Res. 2011;108:1165-9 pubmed publisher
    Isoforms I and II of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase (HKI and HKII) are known to associate with mitochondria...
  21. Patra K, Wang Q, Bhaskar P, Miller L, Wang Z, Wheaton W, et al. Hexokinase 2 is required for tumor initiation and maintenance and its systemic deletion is therapeutic in mouse models of cancer. Cancer Cell. 2013;24:213-228 pubmed publisher
    ..Hexokinases catalyze the first committed step of glucose metabolism. Hexokinase 2 (HK2) is expressed at high level in cancer cells, but only in a limited number of normal adult tissues...
  22. Mathupala S, Ko Y, Pedersen P. Hexokinase-2 bound to mitochondria: cancer's stygian link to the "Warburg Effect" and a pivotal target for effective therapy. Semin Cancer Biol. 2009;19:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The pivotal player in this frequent cancer phenotype is mitochondrial-bound hexokinase [Bustamante E, Pedersen PL...
  23. Dodson H, Lyda T, Chambers J, Morris M, Christensen K, Morris J. Quercetin, a fluorescent bioflavanoid, inhibits Trypanosoma brucei hexokinase 1. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:423-8 pubmed publisher
    ..that the bioflavanoid quercetin (QCN), a known trypanocide, is a mixed inhibitor of Trypanosoma brucei hexokinase 1 (TbHK1) (IC(50) = 4.1 ± 0.8?M)...
  24. Lee K, Park J, Won R, Lee H, Nam T, Lee B. Inhibition of hexokinase leads to neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal slice culture. J Neurosci Res. 2011;89:96-107 pubmed publisher
    During seizures, glucose concentrations are high in the hippocampus. Mitochondrial hexokinase (HK) catalyzes the first essential step of glucose metabolism and directly couples extramitochondrial glycolysis to intramitochondrial oxidative ..
  25. Soldatkin O, Schuvailo O, Marinesco S, Cespuglio R, Soldatkin A. Microbiosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase co-immobilised on platinum microelectrode for selective ATP detection. Talanta. 2009;78:1023-8 pubmed publisher
    ..covered with a layer of poly-m-phenylendiamine (PPD), and layer of co-immobilised glucose oxidase and hexokinase. Conditions for biosensor measurement of ATP (pH, Mg(2+) and substrates concentration) in vitro and ..
  26. Shoshan Barmatz V, Zakar M, Rosenthal K, Abu Hamad S. Key regions of VDAC1 functioning in apoptosis induction and regulation by hexokinase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1787:421-30 pubmed publisher
    ..VDAC also serves as a site for the docking of cytosolic proteins, such as hexokinase, and is recognized as a key protein in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis...
  27. Shoshan M. 3-Bromopyruvate: targets and outcomes. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2012;44:7-15 pubmed publisher
    ..More research is warranted to better understand the pharmacokinetics of 3-BP, and its potential toxic effects to normal cells, in particular those that are highly ATP-/mitochondrion-dependent. ..
  28. Gómez Pastor R, Perez Torrado R, Matallana E. Modification of the TRX2 gene dose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae affects hexokinase 2 gene regulation during wine yeast biomass production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;94:773-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also allowed us to propose new thioredoxin targets in S. cerevisiae, such as hexokinase 2, with relevance for industrial fermentation performance.
  29. Arzoine L, Zilberberg N, Ben Romano R, Shoshan Barmatz V. Voltage-dependent anion channel 1-based peptides interact with hexokinase to prevent its anti-apoptotic activity. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:3946-55 pubmed publisher
    In brain and tumor cells, the hexokinase isoforms, HK-I and HK-II, bind to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) in the outer mitochondrial membrane...
  30. Krasnov G, Dmitriev A, Lakunina V, Kirpiy A, Kudryavtseva A. Targeting VDAC-bound hexokinase II: a promising approach for concomitant anti-cancer therapy. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2013;17:1221-33 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hexokinase II (HKII) plays a dual role - first, HKII up-regulation results in increased glycolysis rates...
  31. Salani B, Marini C, Rio A, Ravera S, Massollo M, Orengo A, et al. Metformin impairs glucose consumption and survival in Calu-1 cells by direct inhibition of hexokinase-II. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2070 pubmed publisher
    ..The impairment of this energy source results in mitochondrial depolarization and subsequent cell death. These results could represent a starting point to open effective strategies in cancer prevention and treatment. ..
  32. Perevoshchikova I, Zorov S, Kotova E, Zorov D, Antonenko Y. Hexokinase inhibits flux of fluorescently labeled ATP through mitochondrial outer membrane porin. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:2397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..The addition of hexokinase II (HKII) isolated from rat heart led to a decrease in the BODIPY-FL-ATP accumulation, while a 15-residue ..
  33. Yoshino H, Enokida H, Itesako T, Kojima S, Kinoshita T, Tatarano S, et al. Tumor-suppressive microRNA-143/145 cluster targets hexokinase-2 in renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Sci. 2013;104:1567-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression data and in silico database analysis showed that the hexokinase-2 (HK2) gene, which encodes a glycolytic enzyme crucial for the Warburg effect in cancer cells, was a candidate ..
  34. Bergdahl B, Sandström A, Borgström C, Boonyawan T, Van Niel E, Gorwa Grauslund M. Engineering yeast hexokinase 2 for improved tolerance toward xylose-induced inactivation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75055 pubmed publisher
    b>Hexokinase 2 (Hxk2p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a bi-functional enzyme being both a catalyst and an important regulator in the glucose repression signal...
  35. Calmettes G, John S, Weiss J, Ribalet B. Hexokinase-mitochondrial interactions regulate glucose metabolism differentially in adult and neonatal cardiac myocytes. J Gen Physiol. 2013;142:425-36 pubmed publisher
    In mammalian tumor cell lines, localization of hexokinase (HK) isoforms to the cytoplasm or mitochondria has been shown to control their anabolic (glycogen synthesis) and catabolic (glycolysis) activities...
  36. Fukumoto T, Kano A, Ohtani K, Yamasaki Kokudo Y, Kim B, Hosotani K, et al. Rare sugar D-allose suppresses gibberellin signaling through hexokinase-dependent pathway in Oryza sativa L. Planta. 2011;234:1083-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The growth inhibition caused by D-allose was prevented by treatment with hexokinase inhibitors, D-mannoheptulose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine...
  37. Miura T, Tanno M. The mPTP and its regulatory proteins: final common targets of signalling pathways for protection against necrosis. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;94:181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..article briefly describes the understanding of mPTP regulation and interaction of the mPTP with four proteins (hexokinase II, glycogen synthase kinase-3?, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and sirtuin 3) that are ..
  38. Yu S, Yoon J, Lee J, Myung S, Jang E, Kwak M, et al. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible carbonic anhydrase-IX enhances hexokinase II inhibitor-induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2011;32:912-20 pubmed publisher
    ..with CA-IX-specific siRNA, or treated with its inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonamide (CAI#1), and/or the hexokinase II inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP)...
  39. Singh A, Joshi S, Arya R, Kayastha A, Saxena J. Guanidine hydrochloride and urea-induced unfolding of Brugia malayi hexokinase. Eur Biophys J. 2010;39:289-97 pubmed publisher
    Guanidine hydrochloride and urea-induced unfolding of B. malayi hexokinase (BmHk), a tetrameric protein, was examined in detail by using various optical spectroscopic techniques, enzymatic activity measurements, and size-exclusion ..
  40. Palmieri D, Fitzgerald D, Shreeve S, Hua E, Bronder J, Weil R, et al. Analyses of resected human brain metastases of breast cancer reveal the association between up-regulation of hexokinase 2 and poor prognosis. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:1438-45 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hexokinase 2 (HK2) was also of interest because of its increased expression in brain metastases...
  41. Soñanez Organis J, Peregrino Uriarte A, Sotelo Mundo R, Forman H, Yepiz Plascencia G. Hexokinase from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: cDNA sequence, structural protein model and regulation via HIF-1 in response to hypoxia. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;158:242-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Hexokinase (HK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose, the first rate-limiting step in glycolysis. HKs are a conserved family of tissue-specific isozymes, from which very little is known in marine crustaceans...
  42. Cheung E, Ludwig R, Vousden K. Mitochondrial localization of TIGAR under hypoxia stimulates HK2 and lowers ROS and cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20491-6 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that under hypoxia, a fraction of TIGAR protein relocalized to mitochondria and formed a complex with hexokinase 2 (HK2), resulting in an increase in HK2 activity...
  43. Camacho Pereira J, Meyer L, Machado L, Oliveira M, Galina A. Reactive oxygen species production by potato tuber mitochondria is modulated by mitochondrially bound hexokinase activity. Plant Physiol. 2009;149:1099-110 pubmed publisher
    Potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum) mitochondria (PTM) have a mitochondrially bound hexokinase (HK) activity that exhibits a pronounced sensitivity to ADP inhibition...
  44. Sharlow E, Lyda T, Dodson H, Mustata G, Morris M, Leimgruber S, et al. A target-based high throughput screen yields Trypanosoma brucei hexokinase small molecule inhibitors with antiparasitic activity. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e659 pubmed publisher
    ..The first step in this metabolic pathway is mediated by hexokinase (TbHK), an enzyme essential to the parasite that transfers the gamma-phospho of ATP to a hexose...
  45. Azmi K, Schonian G, Schnur L, Nasereddin A, Ereqat S, Abdeen Z. Development of assays using hexokinase and phosphoglucomutase gene sequences that distinguish strains of Leishmania tropica from different zymodemes and microsatellite clusters and their application to Palestinian foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2464 pubmed publisher
    ..Assays employing PCR and subsequent RFLP were applied to sequences found in the Hexokinase (HK) gene, an enzyme that is not used in MLEE, and the Phosphoglucomutase (PGM) gene, an enzyme that is used for ..
  46. Kelly G, Moshelion M, David Schwartz R, Halperin O, Wallach R, Attia Z, et al. Hexokinase mediates stomatal closure. Plant J. 2013;75:977-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of sugars in the regulation of stomata is not yet clear. In this study, we examined the role of hexokinase (HXK), a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing, in guard cells and its effect on stomatal ..
  47. Neary C, Pastorino J. Akt inhibition promotes hexokinase 2 redistribution and glucose uptake in cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2013;228:1943-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Hexokinase II (HK2), the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of glycolysis, is overexpressed in many cancers, as is the central signaling kinase Akt...
  48. Zorov D, Juhaszova M, Yaniv Y, Nuss H, Wang S, Sollott S. Regulation and pharmacology of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;83:213-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides an update on the current state of knowledge regarding the regulation of the mPTP...
  49. Nakamura N, Mori C, Eddy E. Molecular complex of three testis-specific isozymes associated with the mouse sperm fibrous sheath: hexokinase 1, phosphofructokinase M, and glutathione S-transferase mu class 5. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:504-15 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the latter is the spermatogenic cell-specific variant isozyme of hexokinase type 1 (HK1S), characterized by an N-terminal 24-amino acid spermatogenic cell-specific region (SSR)...
  50. Karve R, Lauria M, Virnig A, Xia X, Rauh B, Moore B. Evolutionary lineages and functional diversification of plant hexokinases. Mol Plant. 2010;3:334-46 pubmed publisher
    Sequencing data from 10 species show that a plant hexokinase (HXK) family contains 5-11 genes...
  51. Lambert C, Roy M, Robitaille G, Richard D, Bonnet S. HIF-1 inhibition decreases systemic vascular remodelling diseases by promoting apoptosis through a hexokinase 2-dependent mechanism. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;88:196-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression and mitochondrial activity of hexokinase 2 (HXK2), a primary initiator of glycolysis, are increased during HIF-1 activation...
  52. John S, Weiss J, Ribalet B. Subcellular localization of hexokinases I and II directs the metabolic fate of glucose. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17674 pubmed publisher
    ..This may be an important mechanism by which HK's allow cells to adapt to changing metabolic conditions to maintain energy balance and avoid injury. ..
  53. Heger M, Heemskerk A, van der Zwan G. Absence of 633-nm laser irradiation-induced effects on glucose phosphorylation by hexokinase. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2010;98:216-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Photochem. Photobiol. B 81 (2005) 26-32) it was shown that the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate by hexokinase in vitro was accelerated when ATP, which supplies the reaction with energy, was priorly irradiated at non-..