glycerol kinase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.

Top Publications

  1. Martinez Agosto J, McCabe E. Conserved family of glycerol kinase loci in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Genet Metab. 2006;88:334-45 pubmed
    b>Glycerol kinase (GK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol, the rate-limiting step in glycerol utilization...
  2. Anderson M, DeLaBarre B, Raghunathan A, Palsson B, Brunger A, Quake S. Crystal structure of a hyperactive Escherichia coli glycerol kinase mutant Gly230 --> Asp obtained using microfluidic crystallization devices. Biochemistry. 2007;46:5722-31 pubmed
    The crystal structure of an Escherichia coli glycerol kinase mutant Gly230 --> Asp (GKG230D) was determined to 2.0 A resolution using a microfluidics based crystallization platform...
  3. Bartoloni L, Wattenhofer M, Kudoh J, Berry A, Shibuya K, Kawasaki K, et al. Cloning and characterization of a putative human glycerol 3-phosphate permease gene (SLC37A1 or G3PP) on 21q22.3: mutation analysis in two candidate phenotypes, DFNB10 and a glycerol kinase deficiency. Genomics. 2000;70:190-200 pubmed
    ..Glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) is produced by glycerol kinase (GK) and is found in several biochemical pathways in different cellular compartments, such as the glycerol ..
  4. Hibuse T, Maeda N, Funahashi T, Yamamoto K, Nagasawa A, Mizunoya W, et al. Aquaporin 7 deficiency is associated with development of obesity through activation of adipose glycerol kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:10993-8 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated the enhanced glycerol kinase enzymatic activity in Aqp7-KO and -knockdown adipocytes...
  5. Huq A, Lovell R, Ou C, Beaudet A, Craigen W. X-linked glycerol kinase deficiency in the mouse leads to growth retardation, altered fat metabolism, autonomous glucocorticoid secretion and neonatal death. Hum Mol Genet. 1997;6:1803-9 pubmed
    b>Glycerol kinase is an X chromosome-encoded enzyme involved in the metabolism of endogenous and dietary glycerolipids. The physiological significance of its activity in mammals is not well understood...
  6. Maclennan N, Rahib L, Shin C, Fang Z, Horvath S, Dean J, et al. Targeted disruption of glycerol kinase gene in mice: expression analysis in liver shows alterations in network partners related to glycerol kinase activity. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:405-15 pubmed
    b>Glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD) is an X-linked inborn error of metabolism with metabolic and neurological crises. Liver shows the highest level of glycerol kinase (GK) activity in humans and mice...
  7. Hurley J, Faber H, Worthylake D, Meadow N, Roseman S, Pettigrew D, et al. Structure of the regulatory complex of Escherichia coli IIIGlc with glycerol kinase. Science. 1993;259:673-7 pubmed
    ..The crystal structure at 2.6 A resolution of one of the targets, glycerol kinase (GK), in complex with unphosphorylated IIIGlc, glycerol, and adenosine diphosphate was determined...
  8. Sakasegawa S, Takehara H, Yoshioka I, Takahashi M, Kagimoto Y, Misaki H, et al. Increasing the thermostability of Flavobacterium meningosepticum glycerol kinase by changing Ser329 to Asp in the subunit interface region. Protein Eng. 2001;14:663-7 pubmed
    The thermostability enhancement of Flavobacterium meningosepticum glycerol kinase (FGK) by random mutagenesis in the subunit interface region was investigated...
  9. Yu P, Lasagna M, Pawlyk A, Reinhart G, Pettigrew D. IIAGlc inhibition of glycerol kinase: a communications network tunes protein motions at the allosteric site. Biochemistry. 2007;46:12355-65 pubmed
    ..The unphosphorylated form of the phosphocarrier protein IIAGlc is an allosteric inhibitor of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase, binding more than 25 A from the kinase active site...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Schweizer H, Jump R, Po C. Structure and gene-polypeptide relationships of the region encoding glycerol diffusion facilitator (glpF) and glycerol kinase (glpK) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microbiology. 1997;143 ( Pt 4):1287-97 pubmed
    ..A second protein, glycerol kinase, is involved in entry of external glycerol into cellular metabolism by trapping glycerol in the cytoplasm as ..
  2. Rahib L, Sriram G, Harada M, Liao J, Dipple K. Transcriptomic and network component analysis of glycerol kinase in skeletal muscle using a mouse model of glycerol kinase deficiency. Mol Genet Metab. 2009;96:106-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycerol kinase (GK) is at the interface of fat and carbohydrate metabolism and has been linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
  3. Yeh J, Charrier V, Paulo J, Hou L, Darbon E, Claiborne A, et al. Structures of enterococcal glycerol kinase in the absence and presence of glycerol: correlation of conformation to substrate binding and a mechanism of activation by phosphorylation. Biochemistry. 2004;43:362-73 pubmed
    The first structure of a glycerol kinase from a Gram-positive organism, Enterococcus casseliflavus, has been determined to 2.8 A resolution in the presence of glycerol and to 2.5 A resolution in the absence of substrate...
  4. Rahib L, Maclennan N, Horvath S, Liao J, Dipple K. Glycerol kinase deficiency alters expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and insulin signaling. Eur J Hum Genet. 2007;15:646-57 pubmed
    b>Glycerol kinase (GK) is at the interface of fat and carbohydrate metabolism and has been implicated in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  5. Grauslund M, Lopes J, Rønnow B. Expression of GUT1, which encodes glycerol kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is controlled by the positive regulators Adr1p, Ino2p and Ino4p and the negative regulator Opi1p in a carbon source-dependent fashion. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999;27:4391-8 pubmed
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycerol utilization is mediated by two enzymes, glycerol kinase (Gut1p) and mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gut2p)...
  6. Walmsley T, Potter H, George P, Florkowski C. Pseudo-hypertriglyceridaemia: a measurement artefact due to glycerol kinase deficiency. Postgrad Med J. 2008;84:552-4 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Glycerol kinase deficiency was suspected and was supported by elevated urine glycerol, and confirmed by reduced leucocyte ..
  7. Yeh J, Kettering R, Saxl R, Bourand A, Darbon E, Joly N, et al. Structural characterizations of glycerol kinase: unraveling phosphorylation-induced long-range activation. Biochemistry. 2009;48:346-56 pubmed publisher
    Glycerol metabolism provides a central link between sugar and fatty acid catabolism. In most bacteria, glycerol kinase plays a crucial role in regulating channel/facilitator-dependent uptake of glycerol into the cell...
  8. Maclennan N, Dong J, Aten J, Horvath S, Rahib L, Ornelas L, et al. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis identifies biomarkers in glycerol kinase deficient mice. Mol Genet Metab. 2009;98:203-14 pubmed publisher
    Symptomatic glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD) is associated with episodic metabolic and central nervous system deterioration...
  9. Pettigrew D, Yu G, Liu Y. Nucleotide regulation of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase: initial-velocity and substrate binding studies. Biochemistry. 1990;29:8620-7 pubmed
    Substrate binding to Escherichia coli glycerol kinase (EC 2.7.1.30; ATP-glycerol 3-phosphotransferase) was investigated by using both kinetics and binding methods...
  10. Ormo M, Bystrom C, Remington S. Crystal structure of a complex of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase and an allosteric effector fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. Biochemistry. 1998;37:16565-72 pubmed
    The three-dimensional structures of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase (GK) with bound glycerol in the presence and absence of one of the allosteric regulators of its activity, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), at 3.2 and 3...
  11. Klein R, Thorland E, Gonzales P, Beck P, Dykas D, McGrath J, et al. A multiplex assay for the detection and mapping of complex glycerol kinase deficiency. Clin Chem. 2006;52:1864-70 pubmed
    b>Glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD) is an X-linked recessive disorder that presents in both isolated and complex forms...
  12. Pettigrew D, Liu W, Holmes C, Meadow N, Roseman S. A single amino acid change in Escherichia coli glycerol kinase abolishes glucose control of glycerol utilization in vivo. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:2846-52 pubmed
    Escherichia coli glycerol kinase (EC 2.7.1.30; ATP:glycerol 3-phosphotransferase) is a key element in glucose control of glycerol metabolism...
  13. Zhang Y, Huang B, Niakan K, McCabe L, McCabe E, Dipple K. IL1RAPL1 is associated with mental retardation in patients with complex glycerol kinase deficiency who have deletions extending telomeric of DAX1. Hum Mutat. 2004;24:273 pubmed
    ..Clinical experience has suggested that patients with the contiguous gene syndrome, complex glycerol kinase deficiency (cGKD), will have mental retardation (MR) if they have deletions extending from the GK gene into ..
  14. Kuwada N, Nagano K, Maclennan N, Havens J, Kumar M, Dipple K, et al. Gene therapy for murine glycerol kinase deficiency: importance of murine ortholog. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;335:247-55 pubmed
    A glycerol kinase (Gyk) knock-out (KO) mouse model permits improved understanding of glycerol kinase (GK) deficiency (GKD) pathogenesis, however, early death of affected mice limits its utility...
  15. Holtman C, Pawlyk A, Meadow N, Pettigrew D. Reverse genetics of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase allosteric regulation and glucose control of glycerol utilization in vivo. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3336-44 pubmed
    Reverse genetics is used to evaluate the roles in vivo of allosteric regulation of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase by the glucose-specific phosphocarrier of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system, IIA(Glc) (formerly ..
  16. Sjarif D, Hellerud C, van Amstel J, Kleijer W, Sperl W, Lacombe D, et al. Glycerol kinase deficiency: residual activity explained by reduced transcription and enzyme conformation. Eur J Hum Genet. 2004;12:424-32 pubmed
    Four unrelated patients with glyceroluria ranging from 7 to 170 mmol/l were studied. The activity of glycerol kinase (GK) in cultured fibroblasts was determined with a specific enzyme assay and with two indirect methods, that is, ..
  17. Chagneau C, Heyde M, Alonso S, Portalier R, Laloi P. External-pH-dependent expression of the maltose regulon and ompF gene in Escherichia coli is affected by the level of glycerol kinase, encoded by glpK. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:5675-83 pubmed
    ..associated with the pHo, requires the presence of glycerol in the growth medium and the expression of the glycerol kinase (GlpK). Changes in the level of glpK transcription had a great effect on malT transcription...
  18. Lee D, Park D, Lee Y, An C, Oh Y, Kang J, et al. The effects of thiazolidinedione treatment on the regulations of aquaglyceroporins and glycerol kinase in OLETF rats. Metabolism. 2005;54:1282-9 pubmed
    ..Thiazolidinedione (TZD) has been shown to increase adipose AQP7 and induce glycerol kinase (GlyK) which is nearly absent in adipocytes...
  19. Guan H, Li Y, Jensen M, Newgard C, Steppan C, Lazar M. A futile metabolic cycle activated in adipocytes by antidiabetic agents. Nat Med. 2002;8:1122-8 pubmed
    ..for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, markedly induce adipocyte glycerol kinase (GyK) gene expression...
  20. Ohira R, Dipple K, Zhang Y, McCabe E. Human and murine glycerol kinase: influence of exon 18 alternative splicing on function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;331:239-46 pubmed
    b>Glycerol kinase (GK) is a key enzyme in glycerol metabolism with two alternatively spliced forms-one with an 87bp insertion corresponding to exon 18 (GK+EX18), and one lacking exon 18 (GK-EX18)...
  21. Mazzucotelli A, Viguerie N, Tiraby C, Annicotte J, Mairal A, Klimcakova E, et al. The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)gamma coactivator-1 alpha and the nuclear receptor PPAR alpha control the expression of glycerol kinase and metabolism genes independently of PPAR gamma activation in hu. Diabetes. 2007;56:2467-75 pubmed
    ..To investigate glycerol kinase (GyK), a target of PGC-1 alpha, we measured enzymatic activity and glycerol incorporation into triglycerides...
  22. Eastmond P. Glycerol-insensitive Arabidopsis mutants: gli1 seedlings lack glycerol kinase, accumulate glycerol and are more resistant to abiotic stress. Plant J. 2004;37:617-25 pubmed
    ..Enzyme assays revealed that gli1 lacks glycerol kinase activity. GLI1 mapped to chromosome 1 near the putative glycerol kinase gene NHO1...
  23. Sriram G, Rahib L, He J, Campos A, Parr L, Liao J, et al. Global metabolic effects of glycerol kinase overexpression in rat hepatoma cells. Mol Genet Metab. 2008;93:145-59 pubmed
    b>Glycerol kinase has several diverse activities in mammalian cells. Glycerol kinase deficiency is a complex, single-gene, inborn error of metabolism wherein no genotype-phenotype correlation has been established...
  24. Sherwood K, Cano D, Maupin Furlow J. Glycerol-mediated repression of glucose metabolism and glycerol kinase as the sole route of glycerol catabolism in the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:4307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, a gene encoding a glycerol kinase homolog (glpK; HVO_1541) was deleted from the genome of the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii by a markerless ..
  25. Sargent C, Affara N, Bentley E, Pelmear A, Bailey D, Davey P, et al. Cloning of the X-linked glycerol kinase deficiency gene and its identification by sequence comparison to the Bacillus subtilis homologue. Hum Mol Genet. 1993;2:97-106 pubmed
    ..One clone (142) showed 60% identity to the Bacillus subtilis glycerol kinase gene at both the DNA and amino acid sequence levels...
  26. Kihara F, Itoh K, Iwasaka M, Niimi T, Yamashita O, Yaginuma T. Glycerol kinase activity and glycerol kinase-3 gene are up-regulated by acclimation to 5 degrees C in diapause eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;39:763-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we detected glycerol kinase activity in diapause-terminated eggs and then characterized its properties; maximal activity was seen at pH 8...
  27. Applebee M, Joyce A, Conrad T, Pettigrew D, Palsson B. Functional and metabolic effects of adaptive glycerol kinase (GLPK) mutants in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:23150-9 pubmed publisher
    Herein we measure the effect of four adaptive non-synonymous mutations to the glycerol kinase (glpK) gene on catalytic function and regulation, to identify changes that correlate to increased fitness in glycerol media...
  28. Matsumura K, Chang B, Fujimiya M, Chen W, Kulkarni R, Eguchi Y, et al. Aquaporin 7 is a beta-cell protein and regulator of intraislet glycerol content and glycerol kinase activity, beta-cell mass, and insulin production and secretion. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6026-37 pubmed
    ..Aqp7-/- mice harbored an increased intraislet glycerol concentration with a concomitant increase of the glycerol kinase transcript level and enzyme activity...
  29. Holmberg C, Beijer L, Rutberg B, Rutberg L. Glycerol catabolism in Bacillus subtilis: nucleotide sequence of the genes encoding glycerol kinase (glpK) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (glpD). J Gen Microbiol. 1990;136:2367-75 pubmed
    ..The glpPKD region contains genes required for glycerol catabolism: glpK coding for glycerol kinase, glpD coding for glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) dehydrogenase and glpP, proposed to code for a positively acting ..
  30. Schnick C, Polley S, Fivelman Q, Ranford Cartwright L, Wilkinson S, Brannigan J, et al. Structure and non-essential function of glycerol kinase in Plasmodium falciparum blood stages. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:533-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Microarray analysis identified glycerol kinase (GK) as the second most highly upregulated gene in Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes with no expression ..
  31. Minakshi -, Pundir C. Co-immobilization of lipase, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase and peroxidase on to aryl amine glass beads affixed on plastic strip for determination of triglycerides in serum. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2008;45:111-5 pubmed
    Commercial lipase, glycerol kinase (GK), glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO) and peroxidase (POD) have been co-immobilized covalently on to arylamine glass beads affixed on a plastic strip through diazotization with a conjugation yield of ..
  32. Montell E, Lerin C, Newgard C, Gómez Foix A. Effects of modulation of glycerol kinase expression on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in human muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:2682-6 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have analyzed the role of glycerol kinase (GlK) in the regulation of glycerol metabolism in primary cultured human muscle cells...
  33. Sargent C, Kidd A, Moore S, Dean J, Besley G, Affara N. Five cases of isolated glycerol kinase deficiency, including two families: failure to find genotype:phenotype correlation. J Med Genet. 2000;37:434-41 pubmed
    Little is understood of the genotype/phenotype correlations in X linked glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD) where most cases are caused by extensive deletions of Xp21, which often include genes flanking the GK locus...
  34. Sjarif D, Sinke R, Duran M, Beemer F, Kleijer W, Ploos van Amstel J, et al. Clinical heterogeneity and novel mutations in the glycerol kinase gene in three families with isolated glycerol kinase deficiency. J Med Genet. 1998;35:650-6 pubmed
    Isolated glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD) is an X linked recessive disorder...
  35. Voegele R, Sweet G, Boos W. Glycerol kinase of Escherichia coli is activated by interaction with the glycerol facilitator. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:1087-94 pubmed
    ..Two proteins, the glycerol facilitator and glycerol kinase, are involved in the entry of external glycerol into cellular metabolism...
  36. Dipple K, Zhang Y, Huang B, McCabe L, Dallongeville J, Inokuchi T, et al. Glycerol kinase deficiency: evidence for complexity in a single gene disorder. Hum Genet. 2001;109:55-62 pubmed
    b>Glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD) occurs as part of an Xp21 contiguous gene syndrome or as isolated GKD...
  37. Zhang Y, Dipple K, Vilain E, Huang B, Finlayson G, Therrell B, et al. AluY insertion (IVS4-52ins316alu) in the glycerol kinase gene from an individual with benign glycerol kinase deficiency. Hum Mutat. 2000;15:316-23 pubmed
    b>Glycerol kinase deficiency has three distinct forms: an isolated form which may be benign or symptomatic, and a complex form which is symptomatic and part of an Xp21 contiguous gene syndrome...
  38. Bystrom C, Pettigrew D, Branchaud B, O BRIEN P, Remington S. Crystal structures of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase variant S58-->W in complex with nonhydrolyzable ATP analogues reveal a putative active conformation of the enzyme as a result of domain motion. Biochemistry. 1999;38:3508-18 pubmed
    Escherichia coli glycerol kinase (GK) displays "half-of-the-sites" reactivity toward ATP and allosteric regulation by fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate (FBP), which has been shown to promote dimer-tetramer assembly and to inhibit only ..
  39. Feese M, Faber H, Bystrom C, Pettigrew D, Remington S. Glycerol kinase from Escherichia coli and an Ala65-->Thr mutant: the crystal structures reveal conformational changes with implications for allosteric regulation. Structure. 1998;6:1407-18 pubmed
    b>Glycerol kinase (GK) from Escherichia coli is a velocity-modulated (V system) enzyme that has three allosteric effectors with independent mechanisms: fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP); the phosphocarrier protein IIAGlc; and adenosine ..
  40. Weissenborn D, Wittekindt N, Larson T. Structure and regulation of the glpFK operon encoding glycerol diffusion facilitator and glycerol kinase of Escherichia coli K-12. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:6122-31 pubmed
    ..The glpK gene encodes glycerol kinase. In the present work, the nucleotide sequence of the 5'-end of the operon, including the control region, the ..
  41. Wightman P, Jackson G, Dipple K. Glycerol hypersensitivity in a Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency is affected by mutations in eye pigmentation genes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31779 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycerol kinase plays a critical role in metabolism by converting glycerol to glycerol 3-phosphate in an ATP dependent reaction...
  42. Darbon E, Ito K, Huang H, Yoshimoto T, Poncet S, Deutscher J. Glycerol transport and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent enzyme I- and HPr-catalysed phosphorylation of glycerol kinase in Thermus flavus. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 11):3205-12 pubmed
    The genes glpK and glpF, encoding glycerol kinase and the glycerol facilitator of Thermus flavus, a member of the Thermus/Deinococcus group, have recently been identified...
  43. Lu Z, Li Y, Samuvel D, Jin J, Zhang X, Lopes Virella M, et al. MD-2 is involved in the stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression by interferon-? and high glucose in mononuclear cells - a potential role of MD-2 in Toll-like receptor 4-independent signalling. Immunology. 2013;140:301-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that MD-2 is involved in IFN-? signalling and IFN-?-augmented MMP-1 up-regulation by LPS. ..
  44. Honisch C, Raghunathan A, Cantor C, Palsson B, van den Boom D. High-throughput mutation detection underlying adaptive evolution of Escherichia coli-K12. Genome Res. 2004;14:2495-502 pubmed
    ..Mutations were predominantly found within the glycerol kinase gene...
  45. Wehtje C, Beijer L, Nilsson R, Rutberg B. Mutations in the glycerol kinase gene restore the ability of a ptsGHI mutant of Bacillus subtilis to grow on glycerol. Microbiology. 1995;141 ( Pt 5):1193-8 pubmed
    ..They were shown to carry mutations in the glycerol kinase gene...
  46. Charrier V, Buckley E, Parsonage D, Galinier A, Darbon E, Jaquinod M, et al. Cloning and sequencing of two enterococcal glpK genes and regulation of the encoded glycerol kinases by phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent, phosphotransferase system-catalyzed phosphorylation of a single histidyl residue. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:14166-74 pubmed
    The glpK genes of Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus faecalis, encoding glycerol kinase, the key enzyme of glycerol uptake and metabolism in bacteria, have been cloned and sequenced...
  47. Ding H, Yip C, Geddes B, Oresnik I, Hynes M. Glycerol utilization by Rhizobium leguminosarum requires an ABC transporter and affects competition for nodulation. Microbiology. 2012;158:1369-78 pubmed publisher
  48. Kaneko M, Kurokawa M, Ishibashi S. Binding and function of mitochondrial glycerol kinase in comparison with those of mitochondrial hexokinase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1985;237:135-41 pubmed
    Mitochondrial-bound glycerol kinase in rat brain was examined with reference to factors involved in the binding and significance of the binding in relation to ATP metabolism inside the mitochondria...
  49. Sharp J, Tsuji W, Ory P, Harper Barek C, Wang H, Newmark R. Denosumab prevents metacarpal shaft cortical bone loss in patients with erosive rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010;62:537-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Twice-yearly injections of denosumab with ongoing methotrexate treatment significantly reduced cortical bone loss in RA patients for up to 12 months. These results add to the growing evidence supporting the clinical utility of DXR. ..
  50. Huq A, Lovell R, Sampson M, Decker W, Dinulos M, Disteche C, et al. Isolation, mapping, and functional expression of the mouse X chromosome glycerol kinase gene. Genomics. 1996;36:530-4 pubmed
    b>Glycerol kinase (Gyk) participates in the metabolism of endogenously derived and dietary glycerol...
  51. Yaqoob M, Nabi A. Flow injection chemiluminescent assays for glycerol and triglycerides using a co-immobilized enzyme reactor. Luminescence. 2003;18:67-71 pubmed
    ..2-1.0 mmol/L) with relative standard deviation 1.2-2.4%. The method is applied to the determination of glycerol in blood serum produced off-line from triglycerides using lipase isolated from bovine pancreas. ..
  52. Katsumi R, Koga Y, You D, Matsumura H, Takano K, Kanaya S. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of glycerol kinase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007;63:126-9 pubmed
    b>Glycerol kinase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis was crystallized and preliminary crystallographic studies of the crystals were performed...
  53. Jung J, Yun H, Lee J, Oh M. Production of 1,2-propanediol from glycerol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;21:846-53 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae strains with overexpression of glycerol dissimilation pathway genes, including glycerol kinase (GUT1), glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GUT2), glycerol dehydrogenase (gdh), and a glycerol transporter ..