glucokinase

Summary

Summary: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.

Top Publications

  1. Roncero I, Sanz C, Alvarez E, Vazquez P, Barrio P, Blazquez E. Glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory proteins are functionally coexpressed before birth in the rat brain. J Neuroendocrinol. 2009;21:973-81 pubmed publisher
    Our previous description of functional glucokinase (GK) isoforms and their interactions with glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) in adult rat and human brains suggested that both participate in glucose sensing in the central nervous ..
  2. Chen G, Zhang Y, Lu D, Li N, Ross A. Retinoids synergize with insulin to induce hepatic Gck expression. Biochem J. 2009;419:645-53 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic GK (glucokinase) plays a key role in maintaining glucose homoeostasis. Many stimuli regulate GK activity by controlling its gene transcription. We hypothesized that endogenous lipophilic molecules modulate hepatic Gck expression...
  3. Reiling E, van t Riet E, Groenewoud M, Welschen L, van Hove E, Nijpels G, et al. Combined effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GCK, GCKR, G6PC2 and MTNR1B on fasting plasma glucose and type 2 diabetes risk. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1866-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Several reports have shown that genetic variation in the genes for glucokinase (GCK), glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR), islet-specific glucose 6 phosphatase catalytic subunit-related ..
  4. Watanabe F, Furuya E. Quantitative image analysis reveals that phosphorylation of liver-type isozyme of fructose-6-phosphate 2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase does not affect nuclear translocation of glucokinase in rat primary hepatocytes. J Biochem. 2010;148:713-9 pubmed publisher
    We have developed a new quantification method to measure translocation of glucokinase between nucleus and cytoplasm in primary hepatocytes...
  5. Millán C, Martinez F, Cortés Campos C, Lizama I, Yañez M, Llanos P, et al. Glial glucokinase expression in adult and post-natal development of the hypothalamic region. ASN Neuro. 2010;2:e00035 pubmed publisher
    ..GK (glucokinase), the hexokinase involved in glucose sensing in pancreatic beta-cells, is also expressed in the hypothalamus...
  6. Hishida A, Morita E, Naito M, Okada R, Wakai K, Matsuo K, et al. Associations of apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5), glucokinase (GCK) and glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) polymorphisms and lifestyle factors with the risk of dyslipidemia and dysglycemia in Japanese - a cross-sectional data from the J-MICC Study. Endocr J. 2012;59:589-99 pubmed
  7. van Buerck L, Schuster M, Rathkolb B, Sabrautzki S, Hrabe de Angelis M, Wolf E, et al. Enhanced oxidative stress and endocrine pancreas alterations are linked to a novel glucokinase missense mutation in ENU-derived Munich Gck(D217V) mutants. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;362:139-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In one strain, a novel missense mutation (D217V) in the glucokinase (Gck) gene was identified, resulting in decreased glucokinase activity...
  8. Coate K, Kraft G, Irimia J, Smith M, Farmer B, Neal D, et al. Portal vein glucose entry triggers a coordinated cellular response that potentiates hepatic glucose uptake and storage in normal but not high-fat/high-fructose-fed dogs. Diabetes. 2013;62:392-400 pubmed publisher
    ..infusion in the presence of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia triggered an increase in the activity of hepatic glucokinase (GK) and glycogen synthase (GS), which occurred in association with further augmentation in HGU and glycogen ..
  9. Pal M. Recent advances in glucokinase activators for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Drug Discov Today. 2009;14:784-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase is a member of the hexokinase family of enzymes that are responsible for the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate for further utilization in cells. The enzyme plays a key role in glucose homeostasis...
  10. Trethewey R, Geigenberger P, Riedel K, Hajirezaei M, Sonnewald U, Stitt M, et al. Combined expression of glucokinase and invertase in potato tubers leads to a dramatic reduction in starch accumulation and a stimulation of glycolysis. Plant J. 1998;15:109-18 pubmed
    ..In the present paper we introduced a bacterial glucokinase from Zymomonas mobilis into an invertase-expressing transgenic line, with the intention of bringing the glucose ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Roncero I, Sanz C, Alvarez E, Vazquez P, Barrio P, Blazquez E. Glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory proteins are functionally coexpressed before birth in the rat brain. J Neuroendocrinol. 2009;21:973-81 pubmed publisher
    Our previous description of functional glucokinase (GK) isoforms and their interactions with glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) in adult rat and human brains suggested that both participate in glucose sensing in the central nervous ..
  2. Chen G, Zhang Y, Lu D, Li N, Ross A. Retinoids synergize with insulin to induce hepatic Gck expression. Biochem J. 2009;419:645-53 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic GK (glucokinase) plays a key role in maintaining glucose homoeostasis. Many stimuli regulate GK activity by controlling its gene transcription. We hypothesized that endogenous lipophilic molecules modulate hepatic Gck expression...
  3. Reiling E, van t Riet E, Groenewoud M, Welschen L, van Hove E, Nijpels G, et al. Combined effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GCK, GCKR, G6PC2 and MTNR1B on fasting plasma glucose and type 2 diabetes risk. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1866-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Several reports have shown that genetic variation in the genes for glucokinase (GCK), glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR), islet-specific glucose 6 phosphatase catalytic subunit-related ..
  4. Watanabe F, Furuya E. Quantitative image analysis reveals that phosphorylation of liver-type isozyme of fructose-6-phosphate 2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase does not affect nuclear translocation of glucokinase in rat primary hepatocytes. J Biochem. 2010;148:713-9 pubmed publisher
    We have developed a new quantification method to measure translocation of glucokinase between nucleus and cytoplasm in primary hepatocytes...
  5. Millán C, Martinez F, Cortés Campos C, Lizama I, Yañez M, Llanos P, et al. Glial glucokinase expression in adult and post-natal development of the hypothalamic region. ASN Neuro. 2010;2:e00035 pubmed publisher
    ..GK (glucokinase), the hexokinase involved in glucose sensing in pancreatic beta-cells, is also expressed in the hypothalamus...
  6. Hishida A, Morita E, Naito M, Okada R, Wakai K, Matsuo K, et al. Associations of apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5), glucokinase (GCK) and glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) polymorphisms and lifestyle factors with the risk of dyslipidemia and dysglycemia in Japanese - a cross-sectional data from the J-MICC Study. Endocr J. 2012;59:589-99 pubmed
  7. van Buerck L, Schuster M, Rathkolb B, Sabrautzki S, Hrabe de Angelis M, Wolf E, et al. Enhanced oxidative stress and endocrine pancreas alterations are linked to a novel glucokinase missense mutation in ENU-derived Munich Gck(D217V) mutants. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;362:139-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In one strain, a novel missense mutation (D217V) in the glucokinase (Gck) gene was identified, resulting in decreased glucokinase activity...
  8. Coate K, Kraft G, Irimia J, Smith M, Farmer B, Neal D, et al. Portal vein glucose entry triggers a coordinated cellular response that potentiates hepatic glucose uptake and storage in normal but not high-fat/high-fructose-fed dogs. Diabetes. 2013;62:392-400 pubmed publisher
    ..infusion in the presence of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia triggered an increase in the activity of hepatic glucokinase (GK) and glycogen synthase (GS), which occurred in association with further augmentation in HGU and glycogen ..
  9. Pal M. Recent advances in glucokinase activators for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Drug Discov Today. 2009;14:784-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase is a member of the hexokinase family of enzymes that are responsible for the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate for further utilization in cells. The enzyme plays a key role in glucose homeostasis...
  10. Trethewey R, Geigenberger P, Riedel K, Hajirezaei M, Sonnewald U, Stitt M, et al. Combined expression of glucokinase and invertase in potato tubers leads to a dramatic reduction in starch accumulation and a stimulation of glycolysis. Plant J. 1998;15:109-18 pubmed
    ..In the present paper we introduced a bacterial glucokinase from Zymomonas mobilis into an invertase-expressing transgenic line, with the intention of bringing the glucose ..
  11. Lenzen S. A fresh view of glycolysis and glucokinase regulation: history and current status. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:12189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..more than that, in particular in those tissues that express the low affinity glucose-phosphorylating enzyme glucokinase. This enzyme equips the glycolytic pathway with a special steering function for the regulation of intermediary ..
  12. Pfefferkorn J. Strategies for the design of hepatoselective glucokinase activators to treat type 2 diabetes. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2013;8:319-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Small molecule allosteric activators of the glucokinase enzyme, an important regulator of glucose homeostasis, have emerged as a potential new class of therapeutics...
  13. Park K. Identification of YH-GKA, a novel benzamide glucokinase activator as therapeutic candidate for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Pharm Res. 2012;35:2029-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase activator is expectedly associated with a dual mechanism for lowering blood glucose concentration by the enhancement of glucose uptake in the liver and insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cell...
  14. Reimann F, Habib A, Tolhurst G, Parker H, Rogers G, Gribble F. Glucose sensing in L cells: a primary cell study. Cell Metab. 2008;8:532-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These and other pathways identified using this approach will provide exciting opportunities for future physiological and therapeutic exploration. ..
  15. Hagiwara A, Cornu M, Cybulski N, Polak P, Betz C, Trapani F, et al. Hepatic mTORC2 activates glycolysis and lipogenesis through Akt, glucokinase, and SREBP1c. Cell Metab. 2012;15:725-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Fed LiRiKO mice displayed loss of Akt Ser473 phosphorylation and reduced glucokinase and SREBP1c activity in the liver, leading to constitutive gluconeogenesis, and impaired glycolysis and ..
  16. Shirakawa J, Tanami R, Togashi Y, Tajima K, Orime K, Kubota N, et al. Effects of liraglutide on ?-cell-specific glucokinase-deficient neonatal mice. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3066-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In ?-cells, the glycolytic enzyme glucokinase plays a pivotal role as a glucose sensor...
  17. Matschinsky F. Assessing the potential of glucokinase activators in diabetes therapy. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2009;8:399-416 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase, a unique isoform of the hexokinase enzymes, which are known to phosphorylate D-glucose and other hexoses, was identified during the past three to four decades as a new, promising drug target for type 2 diabetes...
  18. Bebernitz G, Beaulieu V, Dale B, Deacon R, Duttaroy A, Gao J, et al. Investigation of functionally liver selective glucokinase activators for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. J Med Chem. 2009;52:6142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Glucokinase (GK) activators are currently under investigation by a number of pharmaceutical companies with only a few ..
  19. Ralph E, Sun S. Biochemical characterization of MODY2 glucokinase variants V62M and G72R reveals reduced enzymatic activities relative to wild type. Biochemistry. 2009;48:2514-21 pubmed publisher
    The glucokinase V62M and G72R mutations are naturally occurring and known to associate with hyperglycemia in humans...
  20. Vogt A, Di Cera E. Conformational selection or induced fit? A critical appraisal of the kinetic mechanism. Biochemistry. 2012;51:5894-902 pubmed
    ..Ligand binding to glucokinase, thrombin, and its precursor prethrombin-2 are used as relevant examples...
  21. De Ceuninck F, Kargar C, Ilic C, Caliez A, Rolin J, Umbdenstock T, et al. Small molecule glucokinase activators disturb lipid homeostasis and induce fatty liver in rodents: a warning for therapeutic applications in humans. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;168:339-53 pubmed publisher
    Small-molecule glucokinase activators (GKAs) are currently being investigated as therapeutic options for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
  22. Anderka O, Boyken J, Aschenbach U, Batzer A, Boscheinen O, Schmoll D. Biophysical characterization of the interaction between hepatic glucokinase and its regulatory protein: impact of physiological and pharmacological effectors. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:31333-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase (GK) is a key enzyme of glucose metabolism in liver and pancreatic beta-cells, and small molecule activators of GK (GKAs) are under evaluation for the treatment of type 2 diabetes...
  23. Kaminski M, Sauer S, Kamiński M, Opp S, Ruppert T, Grigaravicius P, et al. T cell activation is driven by an ADP-dependent glucokinase linking enhanced glycolysis with mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation. Cell Rep. 2012;2:1300-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that TCR-triggered activation of ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADPGK), an alternative, glycolytic enzyme typical for Archaea, mediates generation of the oxidative signal...
  24. Richter S, Richter J, Mehta S, Gribble A, Sutherland Smith A, Stowell K, et al. Expression and role in glycolysis of human ADP-dependent glucokinase. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;364:131-45 pubmed publisher
    A novel murine enzyme, ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADPGK), has been shown to catalyse glucose phosphorylation using ADP as phosphoryl donor...
  25. Pfefferkorn J, Guzman Perez A, Litchfield J, Aiello R, Treadway J, Pettersen J, et al. Discovery of (S)-6-(3-cyclopentyl-2-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propanamido)nicotinic acid as a hepatoselective glucokinase activator clinical candidate for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Med Chem. 2012;55:1318-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase is a key regulator of glucose homeostasis, and small molecule allosteric activators of this enzyme represent a promising opportunity for the treatment of type 2 diabetes...
  26. Kim J, Song E, Lee H, Oh Y, Park Y, Park J, et al. Chronic ethanol consumption-induced pancreatic {beta}-cell dysfunction and apoptosis through glucokinase nitration and its down-regulation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37251-62 pubmed publisher
    ..of pancreatic ?-cells to mediate insulin secretion and ATP production in coordination with the decrease of glucokinase, Glut2, and insulin expression...
  27. Spégel P, Ekholm E, Tuomi T, Groop L, Mulder H, Filipsson K. Metabolite profiling reveals normal metabolic control in carriers of mutations in the glucokinase gene (MODY2). Diabetes. 2013;62:653-61 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the gene encoding glucokinase (GCK) cause a mild hereditary form of diabetes termed maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)2 or GCK-MODY. The disease does not progress over time, and diabetes complications rarely develop...
  28. Lorini R, Klersy C, D Annunzio G, Massa O, Minuto N, Iafusco D, et al. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young in children with incidental hyperglycemia: a multicenter Italian study of 172 families. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1864-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutational analyses of the glucokinase (GCK) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha (HNF1A) genes were performed...
  29. Wei P, Shi M, Barnum S, Cho H, Carlson T, Fraser J. Effects of glucokinase activators GKA50 and LY2121260 on proliferation and apoptosis in pancreatic INS-1 beta cells. Diabetologia. 2009;52:2142-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase (GK), an enzyme that phosphorylates glucose to form glucose 6-phosphate, serves as the glucose sensor that regulates insulin secretion in beta cells...
  30. Bonadonna R, Heise T, Arbet Engels C, Kapitza C, Avogaro A, Grimsby J, et al. Piragliatin (RO4389620), a novel glucokinase activator, lowers plasma glucose both in the postabsorptive state and after a glucose challenge in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a mechanistic study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:5028-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase plays a key role in glucose homeostasis. Glucokinase activators can lower glucose levels in both animal and human type 2 diabetes, but their mechanism of action has never been explored in humans.
  31. Guixé V, Merino F. The ADP-dependent sugar kinase family: kinetic and evolutionary aspects. IUBMB Life. 2009;61:753-61 pubmed publisher
    ..However, recent studies have shown that the ancestral activity in the group is glucokinase, and a combination of gene duplication and lateral gene transfer could have originated the two paralogs in this ..
  32. Liu F, Zhu Y. [Urotensin II inhibits glucokinase expression and glucose-induced insulin secretion]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2010;62:129-36 pubmed
    ..was used to find out if UII could change the expression levels of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and glucokinase (GCK)...
  33. Haynes N, Corbett W, Bizzarro F, Guertin K, Hilliard D, Holland G, et al. Discovery, structure-activity relationships, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of glucokinase activator (2R)-3-cyclopentyl-2-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-N-thiazol-2-yl-propionamide (RO0281675). J Med Chem. 2010;53:3618-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase (GK) is a glucose sensor that couples glucose metabolism to insulin release. The important role of GK in maintaining glucose homeostasis is illustrated in patients with GK mutations...
  34. Durmaz E, Flanagan S, Berdeli A, Semiz S, Akcurin S, Ellard S, et al. Variability in the age at diagnosis of diabetes in two unrelated patients with a homozygous glucokinase gene mutation. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2012;25:805-8 pubmed
    Homozygous mutations in the glucokinase gene (GCK) result in a complete deficiency of the GCK enzyme, which leads to permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus. Whilst there has been one report of a patient (with a homozygous p...
  35. Eiki J, Nagata Y, Futamura M, Sasaki Yamamoto K, Iino T, Nishimura T, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the glucokinase activator MK-0941 in rodent models of type 2 diabetes and healthy dogs. Mol Pharmacol. 2011;80:1156-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase activators (GKAs) are small-molecule agents that enhance glucose sensing by pancreatic ? cells and glucose metabolism by hepatocytes. There is strong interest in these agents as potential therapies for type 2 diabetes...
  36. Li Y, Ji D, Zhong S, Lv Z, Lin T, Chen S, et al. Hybrid of 1-deoxynojirimycin and polysaccharide from mulberry leaves treat diabetes mellitus by activating PDX-1/insulin-1 signaling pathway and regulating the expression of glucokinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in . J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;134:961-70 pubmed publisher
    ..hepatic glucose metabolism and gluconeogenesis by up/down-regulating the expression of rate-limiting enzymes (glucokinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase) in liver and up-regulating the pancreatic and ..
  37. Zelent B, Odili S, Buettger C, Zelent D, Chen P, Fenner D, et al. Mutational analysis of allosteric activation and inhibition of glucokinase. Biochem J. 2011;440:203-15 pubmed publisher
    GK (glucokinase) is activated by glucose binding to its substrate site, is inhibited by GKRP (GK regulatory protein) and stimulated by GKAs (GK activator drugs)...
  38. Cullen K, Matschinsky F, Agius L, Arden C. Susceptibility of glucokinase-MODY mutants to inactivation by oxidative stress in pancreatic ?-cells. Diabetes. 2011;60:3175-85 pubmed publisher
    The posttranslational regulation of glucokinase (GK) differs in hepatocytes and pancreatic ?-cells...
  39. Tam C, Ho J, Wang Y, Lee H, Lam V, Germer S, et al. Common polymorphisms in MTNR1B, G6PC2 and GCK are associated with increased fasting plasma glucose and impaired beta-cell function in Chinese subjects. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11428 pubmed publisher
    ..melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B), islet-specific glucose 6 phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (G6PC2), glucokinase (GCK) and glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) as candidate genes for type 2 diabetes (T2D) acting through ..
  40. Liu Q, Shen Y, Liu S, Weng J, Liu J. Crystal structure of E339K mutated human glucokinase reveals changes in the ATP binding site. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:1175-9 pubmed publisher
    Human glucokinase (GK) plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. An E339K mutation in GK was recently found to be associated with hyperglycemia...
  41. Codner E, Rocha A, Deng L, Martinez Aguayo A, Godoy C, Mericq V, et al. Mild fasting hyperglycemia in children: high rate of glucokinase mutations and some risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009;10:382-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Glucokinase gene (GCK) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha gene (HNF1A) causing two common forms of MODY were sequenced...
  42. Shen Y, Cai M, Liang H, Wang H, Weng J. Insight into the biochemical characteristics of a novel glucokinase gene mutation. Hum Genet. 2011;129:231-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase (GCK) acts as a glucose sensor and regulates ?-cell insulin secretion...
  43. Steele A, Wensley K, Ellard S, Murphy R, Shepherd M, Colclough K, et al. Use of HbA1c in the identification of patients with hyperglycaemia caused by a glucokinase mutation: observational case control studies. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65326 pubmed publisher
    ..for diabetes diagnosis but fasting plasma glucose (FPG) has been useful for identifying patients with glucokinase (GCK) mutations which cause lifelong persistent fasting hyperglycaemia...
  44. Sarabu R, Bizzarro F, Corbett W, Dvorozniak M, Geng W, Grippo J, et al. Discovery of piragliatin--first glucokinase activator studied in type 2 diabetic patients. J Med Chem. 2012;55:7021-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase (GK) activation as a potential strategy to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D) is well recognized...
  45. Wang R, Gao H, Xu W, Li H, Mao Y, Wang Y, et al. Differential expression of genes and changes in glucose metabolism in the liver of liver-specific glucokinase gene knockout mice. Gene. 2013;516:248-54 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the role of liver-specific expression of glucokinase (GCK) in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia and to identify candidate genes involved in mechanisms of the onset and progression of maturity onset diabetes of the young, ..
  46. Choi J, Seo M, Kyeong H, Kim E, Kim H. Molecular basis for the role of glucokinase regulatory protein as the allosteric switch for glucokinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:10171-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase (GK) is a monomeric allosteric enzyme and plays a pivotal role in blood glucose homeostasis. GK is regulated by GK regulatory protein (GKRP), and indirectly by allosteric effectors of GKRP...
  47. Meissner T, Marquard J, Cobo Vuilleumier N, Maringa M, Rodriguez Bada P, Garcia Gimeno M, et al. Diagnostic difficulties in glucokinase hyperinsulinism. Horm Metab Res. 2009;41:320-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase hyperinsulinism is a rare variant of congenital hyperinsulinism caused by activating mutations in the glucokinase gene and has been reported so far to be a result of overactivity of glucokinase within the pancreatic beta-cell...
  48. Nishimura T, Iino T, Mitsuya M, Bamba M, Watanabe H, Tsukahara D, et al. Identification of novel and potent 2-amino benzamide derivatives as allosteric glucokinase activators. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:1357-60 pubmed publisher
    The identification and structure-activity-relationships (SARs) of novel 2-amino benzamide glucokinase activators are described...
  49. Shen H, Pollin T, Damcott C, McLenithan J, Mitchell B, Shuldiner A. Glucokinase regulatory protein gene polymorphism affects postprandial lipemic response in a dietary intervention study. Hum Genet. 2009;126:567-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated whether a common nonsynonymous SNP rs1260326/P446L in the glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) gene influenced variation in the postprandial lipid response after a high-fat ..
  50. Richter S, Morrison S, Connor T, Su J, Print C, Ronimus R, et al. Zinc finger nuclease mediated knockout of ADP-dependent glucokinase in cancer cell lines: effects on cell survival and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65267 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use ZFNs to interrogate the biological function of ADPGK, which encodes an ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADPGK), in human tumour cell lines...
  51. Owen K, Thanabalasingham G, James T, Karpe F, Farmer A, McCarthy M, et al. Assessment of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels as diagnostic discriminator of maturity-onset diabetes of the young due to HNF1A mutations. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:1919-24 pubmed publisher
    ..measured in subjects with HNF1A-MODY (n = 31), autoimmune diabetes (n = 316), type 2 diabetes (n = 240), and glucokinase (GCK) MODY (n = 24) and in nondiabetic individuals (n = 198)...
  52. Pal A, Farmer A, Dudley C, Selwood M, Barrow B, Klyne R, et al. Evaluation of serum 1,5 anhydroglucitol levels as a clinical test to differentiate subtypes of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:252-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1,5AG was measured in U.K. subjects with: HNF1A-MODY (n = 23), MODY due to glucokinase mutations (GCK-MODY, n = 23), type 1 diabetes (n = 29), latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA, n = 42), ..
  53. Zelent B, Buettger C, Grimsby J, Sarabu R, Vanderkooi J, Wand A, et al. Thermal stability of glucokinase (GK) as influenced by the substrate glucose, an allosteric glucokinase activator drug (GKA) and the osmolytes glycerol and urea. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1824:769-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This study establishes the foundation for exploring numerous instability mutants among the more than 600 variant GKs causing diabetes in animals and humans...
  54. Meininger G, Scott R, Alba M, Shentu Y, Luo E, Amin H, et al. Effects of MK-0941, a novel glucokinase activator, on glycemic control in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:2560-6 pubmed publisher
    To assess the efficacy and safety of MK-0941, a glucokinase activator (GKA), when added to stable-dose insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes...
  55. Langer S, Kaminski M, Lenzen S, Baltrusch S. Endogenous activation of glucokinase by 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase is glucose dependent. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:1988-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase (GK) plays a crucial role as glucose sensor in glucose-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic ?-cells...
  56. Valentínová L, Beer N, Staník J, Tribble N, van de Bunt M, Hučková M, et al. Identification and functional characterisation of novel glucokinase mutations causing maturity-onset diabetes of the young in Slovakia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34541 pubmed publisher
    Heterozygous glucokinase (GCK) mutations cause a subtype of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (GCK-MODY). Over 600 GCK mutations have been reported of which ∼65% are missense...
  57. Diggs Andrews K, Zhang X, Song Z, Daphna Iken D, Routh V, Fisher S. Brain insulin action regulates hypothalamic glucose sensing and the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia. Diabetes. 2010;59:2271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..activity of individual glucose-inhibited neurons and hypothalamic glucose sensing protein expression (GLUTs, glucokinase) were measured...
  58. Torres T, Catlin R, Chan R, Fujimoto Y, Sasaki N, Printz R, et al. Restoration of hepatic glucokinase expression corrects hepatic glucose flux and normalizes plasma glucose in zucker diabetic fatty rats. Diabetes. 2009;58:78-86 pubmed publisher
    We examined in 20-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats whether restoration of hepatic glucokinase (GK) expression would alter hepatic glucose flux and improve hyperglycemia...
  59. Bennett K, James C, Mutair A, Al Shaikh H, Sinani A, Hussain K. Four novel cases of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus caused by homozygous mutations in the glucokinase gene. Pediatr Diabetes. 2011;12:192-6 pubmed publisher
    Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) caused by homozygous mutations in the glucokinase gene (GCK) is rare and only eight homozygous GCK mutations have been reported so far...
  60. Peter A, Stefan N, Cegan A, Walenta M, Wagner S, Konigsrainer A, et al. Hepatic glucokinase expression is associated with lipogenesis and fatty liver in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E1126-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase (GCK) phosphorylates glucose to form glucose 6-phosphate and thereby regulates hepatic glucose disposal and activates hepatic lipogenesis...
  61. Hussain K. Mutations in pancreatic ß-cell Glucokinase as a cause of hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and neonatal diabetes mellitus. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2010;11:179-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucokinase is a key enzyme involved in regulating insulin secretion from the pancreatic ß-cell...
  62. Hiskett E, Suwitheechon O, Lindbloom Hawley S, Boyle D, Schermerhorn T. Lack of glucokinase regulatory protein expression may contribute to low glucokinase activity in feline liver. Vet Res Commun. 2009;33:227-40 pubmed publisher
    In most mammals, glucokinase (GK) acts as a hepatic "glucose sensor" that permits hepatic metabolism to respond appropriately to changes in plasma glucose concentrations...