Summary: Allosteric enzymes that regulate glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. These enzymes catalyze phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to either fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 reaction), or to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-2 reaction).

Top Publications

  1. Ronimus R, Morgan H. The biochemical properties and phylogenies of phosphofructokinases from extremophiles. Extremophiles. 2001;5:357-73 pubmed
    ..the crenarchaeal pyrophosphate-dependent PFK of Thermoprotetus tenax) and plant pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinases; the PFKB family, exemplified by the minor ATP-dependent PFK activity of Escherichia coli (PFK 2), but ..
  2. Scuteri A, Sanna S, Chen W, Uda M, Albai G, Strait J, et al. Genome-wide association scan shows genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with obesity-related traits. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e115 pubmed
    ..These changes could have a significant impact on the risk of obesity-related morbidity in the general population. ..
  3. McNae I, Martinez Oyanedel J, Keillor J, Michels P, Fothergill Gilmore L, Walkinshaw M. The crystal structure of ATP-bound phosphofructokinase from Trypanosoma brucei reveals conformational transitions different from those of other phosphofructokinases. J Mol Biol. 2009;385:1519-33 pubmed publisher
    ..brucei PFK compared with bacterial and mammalian PFKs give optimism for the discovery of species-specific drugs for the treatment of diseases caused by protist parasites of the trypanosomatid family. ..
  4. Banaszak K, Mechin I, Obmolova G, Oldham M, Chang S, Ruiz T, et al. The crystal structures of eukaryotic phosphofructokinases from baker's yeast and rabbit skeletal muscle. J Mol Biol. 2011;407:284-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Crystallographic results have been used as the basis for structure-based effector design. ..
  5. Madsen M, Danø S, Sørensen P. On the mechanisms of glycolytic oscillations in yeast. FEBS J. 2005;272:2648-60 pubmed
  6. Bagyan S, Mair T, Dulos E, Boissonade J, De Kepper P, Muller S. Glycolytic oscillations and waves in an open spatial reactor: Impact of feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase. Biophys Chem. 2005;116:67-76 pubmed
    ..The generation of travelling NADH-waves is observed in the diffusive layer, when feeding the yeast extract with substrates. Break-up of circular-shaped waves is repeatedly observed, resulting in the formation of rotating NADH-spirals. ..
  7. Lovingshimer M, Siegele D, Reinhart G. Construction of an inducible, pfkA and pfkB deficient strain of Escherichia coli for the expression and purification of phosphofructokinase from bacterial sources. Protein Expr Purif. 2006;46:475-82 pubmed
    ..In addition to having both pfkA and pfkB deleted, RL257 contains the lacI(q) allele, which allows for inducible expression when coupled with an expression vector containing either the lac or tac promoter. ..
  8. Reijenga K, van Megen Y, Kooi B, Bakker B, Snoep J, van Verseveld H, et al. Yeast glycolytic oscillations that are not controlled by a single oscillophore: a new definition of oscillophore strength. J Theor Biol. 2005;232:385-98 pubmed
    ..These results constitute proof that glycolytic oscillations in yeast are not caused by a single oscillophore and provide a new, subtle, definition for the oscillophore strength of an enzyme. ..
  9. Strier D, Ponce Dawson S. Turing patterns inside cells. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1053 pubmed
    ..Turing patterns inside cells could provide a check-point that combines mechanical and biochemical information to trigger events during the cell division process. ..

More Information


  1. Alice A, Perez Martinez G, Sanchez Rivas C. Existence of a true phosphofructokinase in Bacillus sphaericus: cloning and sequencing of the pfk gene. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:6410-5 pubmed
    ..A careful sequence analysis revealed the conservation of different catalytic and regulatory residues, as well as the enzyme's phylogenetic affiliation with the family of allosteric ATP-PFK enzymes. ..
  2. Straube R, Vermeer S, Nicola E, Mair T. Inward rotating spiral waves in glycolysis. Biophys J. 2010;99:L4-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Numerical simulations with an allosteric model for the phosphofructokinase can reproduce these inward propagating waves over a wide range of parameters if the octameric structure of yeast phosphofructokinase is taken into account. ..
  3. du Preez F, van Niekerk D, Kooi B, Rohwer J, Snoep J. From steady-state to synchronized yeast glycolytic oscillations I: model construction. FEBS J. 2012;279:2810-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The mathematical models described here have been submitted to the JWS Online Cellular Systems Modelling Database and can be accessed at ..
  4. Inal Gultekin G, Raj K, Lehman S, Hillstrom A, Giger U. Missense mutation in PFKM associated with muscle-type phosphofructokinase deficiency in the Wachtelhund dog. Mol Cell Probes. 2012;26:243-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Knowledge of the molecular basis of PFK deficiency in Wachtelhunds provides an opportunity to screen and control the spread of this deleterious trait...
  5. Samokhvalov V, Mel nikov G, Ignatov V. [Role of trehalose and glycogen in the survival of aging Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells]. Mikrobiologiia. 2004;73:449-54 pubmed
    ..The possible reasons for these changes are discussed. ..
  6. Pitkänen J, Törmä A, Alff S, Huopaniemi L, Mattila P, Renkonen R. Excess mannose limits the growth of phosphomannose isomerase PMI40 deletion strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:55737-43 pubmed
  7. Mueller A, Pallauf J, Rafael J. The chemical form of selenium affects insulinomimetic properties of the trace element: investigations in type II diabetic dbdb mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2003;14:637-47 pubmed
  8. Kinni H, Guo M, Ding J, Konakondla S, Dornbos D, Tran R, et al. Cerebral metabolism after forced or voluntary physical exercise. Brain Res. 2011;1388:48-55 pubmed publisher
  9. Lelevich S. [Dose-dependent effects of morphine hydrochloride on glycolysis in the rat liver]. Biomed Khim. 2004;50:273-6 pubmed
    ..The elevated morphine dose did not change glycolytic enzyme activities, decreasing glucose and glucose-6-phosphate contents. ..
  10. Yamano S, Eto D, Sugiura T, Kai M, Hiraga A, Tokuriki M, et al. Effect of growth and training on muscle adaptation in Thoroughbred horses. Am J Vet Res. 2002;63:1408-12 pubmed
    ..The most noticeable change was for the SDH activity of type-IIX/B fibers. These changes in the gluteus medius muscle of adolescent Thoroughbreds were considered to be appropriate adaptations to running middle distances at high speeds. ..
  11. Puype J, Van Proeyen K, Raymackers J, Deldicque L, Hespel P. Sprint interval training in hypoxia stimulates glycolytic enzyme activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45:2166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In CON, all measurements were constant throughout the study. SIT in hypoxia up-regulated muscle phosphofructokinase activity and the anaerobic threshold more than SIT in normoxia but did not enhance endurance exercise performance. ..
  12. Day N, Butler P. The effects of acclimation to reversed seasonal temperatures on the swimming performance of adult brown trout Salmo trutta. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:2683-92 pubmed
    ..These data have important implications for the design of experiments using fish that experience predictable, usually seasonal, changes in their natural environment (temperature, dissolved oxygen, changes in water levels, etc.). ..
  13. Visser D, van Zuylen G, van Dam J, Eman M, Pröll A, Ras C, et al. Analysis of in vivo kinetics of glycolysis in aerobic Saccharomyces cerevisiae by application of glucose and ethanol pulses. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2004;88:157-67 pubmed
    ..Our results confirm that FBP stimulates pyruvate kinase and suggest that this effect is pronounced. Furthermore, it appears that PEP does not play an important role in the allosteric regulation of phosphofructo kinase. ..
  14. Martinez M, Guderley H, Nelson J, Webber D, Dutil J. Once a fast cod, always a fast cod: maintenance of performance hierarchies despite changing food availability in cod (Gadus morhua). Physiol Biochem Zool. 2002;75:90-100 pubmed
    ..The hierarchy of sprint performance of the cod was maintained, regardless of the preceding feeding regime, whereas those of muscle metabolic capacities were not. ..
  15. Green H, Bombardier E, Burnett M, Iqbal S, D Arsigny C, O Donnell D, et al. Organization of metabolic pathways in vastus lateralis of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;295:R935-41 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparison of enzyme ratios indicated greater potentials for glucose phosphorylation relative to the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain and glycogenolysis and glycolysis relative to beta-oxidation. ..
  16. Letellier C. Topological analysis of chaos in a three-variable biochemical model. Acta Biotheor. 2002;50:1-13 pubmed
    ..The dynamics from a single time series are also investigated to determine whether it is possible to investigate the dynamics of this biochemical model from the measure of a single concentration. ..
  17. Bielen A, Willquist K, Engman J, van der Oost J, Van Niel E, Kengen S. Pyrophosphate as a central energy carrier in the hydrogen-producing extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;307:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Pyruvate kinase activity appeared to be allosterically affected by PPi. Altogether, these findings suggest an important role for PPi in the central energy metabolism of C. saccharolyticus. ..
  18. Rathi S, Grover J, Vats V. The effect of Momordica charantia and Mucuna pruriens in experimental diabetes and their effect on key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Phytother Res. 2002;16:236-43 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of action of MC and MP is discussed...
  19. Martinez Oyanedel J, McNae I, Nowicki M, Keillor J, Michels P, Fothergill Gilmore L, et al. The first crystal structure of phosphofructokinase from a eukaryote: Trypanosoma brucei. J Mol Biol. 2007;366:1185-98 pubmed
  20. Occhipinti R, Somersalo E, Calvetti D. Astrocytes as the glucose shunt for glutamatergic neurons at high activity: an in silico study. J Neurophysiol. 2009;101:2528-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulate that the ANLS is a shunt utilized by glutamatergic neurons to bypass their glycolysis impaired by the inhibition of PFK in connection with increased oxidative phosphorylation at high neuronal activity. ..
  21. Venediktova N, Kosenko E, Kaminsky Y. Studies on ammocytes: development, metabolic characteristics, and detoxication of ammonium. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2008;146:730-2 pubmed
    ..Hence, ammocytes are functionally active cells and can be used as a protective system in pathological hyperammonemia, while the method can be regarded as a new technology for medicine and veterinary. ..
  22. Ronimus R, Kawarabayasi Y, Kikuchi H, Morgan H. Cloning, expression and characterisation of a Family B ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase activity from the hyperthermophilic crenarachaeon Aeropyrum pernix. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;202:85-90 pubmed
    ..The implications of the presence of a Family B phosphofructokinase in the Crenarchaea are discussed with reference to the origins of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. ..
  23. Santamaria B, Estevez A, Martínez Costa O, Aragon J. Creation of an allosteric phosphofructokinase starting with a nonallosteric enzyme. The case of dictyostelium discoideum phosphofructokinase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:1210-6 pubmed
  24. Nascimben L, Ingwall J, Lorell B, Pinz I, Schultz V, Tornheim K, et al. Mechanisms for increased glycolysis in the hypertrophied rat heart. Hypertension. 2004;44:662-7 pubmed
    ..This, in turn, results in enhanced synthesis of F-2,6-P2 and increased sarcolemma localization of glucose transporters, leading to coordinated increases in glucose transport and activation of PFK. ..
  25. Malaisse W, Zhang Y, Sener A. Enzyme-to-enzyme channeling in the early steps of glycolysis in rat pancreatic islets. Endocrine. 2004;24:105-9 pubmed
  26. Nyasse B, Nkwengoua E, Sondengam B, Denier C, Willson M. Modified berberine and protoberberines from Enantia chlorantha as potential inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei. Pharmazie. 2002;57:358-61 pubmed
    ..The inhibitory activities observed were in the range of 20 microM (ED50 values). ..
  27. Chen R, Agrawal M, Mao Z. Impact of expression of EMP enzymes on glucose metabolism in Zymomonas mobilis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2013;170:805-18 pubmed publisher
  28. Keillor J, Lherbet C, Castonguay R, Lapierre D, Martinez Oyanedel J, Fothergill Gilmore L, et al. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Trypanosoma brucei phosphofructokinase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003;59:532-4 pubmed
    ..The availability of this first eukaryotic PFK structure will be of particular significance for structure-based drug design and will also provide important additional structural evidence for the allosteric control of PFK activity. ..
  29. Silver R, Bartman M. A metronome-like control of the calcium signal leading to nuclear envelope breakdown and mitosis in sand dollar (Echinaracnius parma) cells. Biol Bull. 2002;203:213-5 pubmed
  30. El Bacha T, de Freitas M, Sola Penna M. Cellular distribution of phosphofructokinase activity and implications to metabolic regulation in human breast cancer. Mol Genet Metab. 2003;79:294-9 pubmed
  31. Barnard E, McFerran N, Trudgett A, Nelson J, Timson D. Detection and localisation of protein-protein interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a split-GFP method. Fungal Genet Biol. 2008;45:597-604 pubmed publisher
  32. Otton R, Mendonça J, Curi R. Diabetes causes marked changes in lymphocyte metabolism. J Endocrinol. 2002;174:55-61 pubmed
    ..Alloxan-induced diabetes did change lymphocyte metabolism and this may be an important mechanism leading to impairment of lymphocyte function. ..
  33. Magnusson A, Powell T, Wennergren M, Jansson T. Glucose metabolism in the human preterm and term placenta of IUGR fetuses. Placenta. 2004;25:337-46 pubmed
    ..These results do not support the hypothesis of increased placental glucose consumption but suggest an altered glycolytic pathway in the IUGR placenta. ..
  34. Barmo C, Ciacci C, Fabbri R, Olivieri S, Bianchi N, Gallo G, et al. Pleiotropic effects of hexavalent chromium (CrVI) in Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland. Chemosphere. 2011;83:1087-95 pubmed publisher
  35. Alba Loureiro T, Hirabara S, Mendonça J, Curi R, Pithon Curi T. Diabetes causes marked changes in function and metabolism of rat neutrophils. J Endocrinol. 2006;188:295-303 pubmed
    ..The treatment with insulin abolished the changes induced by the diabetic state even with no marked change in glycemia. Therefore, insulin may have a direct effect on neutrophil metabolism and function. ..
  36. Gea J, Pasto M, Carmona M, Orozco Levi M, Palomeque J, Broquetas J. Metabolic characteristics of the deltoid muscle in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J. 2001;17:939-45 pubmed
    ..This coexists with a greater capacity in the anaerobic part of the glycolysis. These findings are different to those previously observed in muscles of the lower limbs. ..
  37. Deveci D, Egginton S. Differing mechanisms of cold-induced changes in capillary supply in m. tibialis anterior of rats and hamsters. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:829-40 pubmed
    ..These responses are consistent with the strategies of resisting and accommodating, respectively, an annual fall in environmental temperature. ..
  38. Andreasen C, Mogensen M, Borch Johnsen K, Sandbaek A, Lauritzen T, Sørensen T, et al. Non-replication of genome-wide based associations between common variants in INSIG2 and PFKP and obesity in studies of 18,014 Danes. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2872 pubmed publisher
    ..However, if replicated, the INSIG2 rs7566605 may influence the level of BMI in combination with the level of physical activity. ..
  39. Ota H, Sakasegawa S, Yasuda Y, Imamura S, Tamura T. A novel nucleoside kinase from Burkholderia thailandensis: a member of the phosphofructokinase B-type family of enzymes. FEBS J. 2008;275:5865-72 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first detailed analysis of a bacterial nucleoside kinase in the PFK-B family. ..
  40. Saavedra E, Ramos Casillas L, Marin Hernandez A, Moreno Sanchez R, Guerra Sánchez G. Glycolysis in Ustilago maydis. FEMS Yeast Res. 2008;8:1313-23 pubmed publisher
  41. Han B, Cai Y, Hu X, Yuan Z. [Cloning, expression and elementary characterization of phosphofructokinase from Bacillus sphaericus C3-41]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2008;48:602-7 pubmed
    ..coli strain DF1020. The expressed PFK had the conventional phosphofructokinase activity, and settled the foundation for the further research of catabolism of B. sphaericus. ..
  42. Asanuma N, Kanada K, Hino T. Molecular properties and transcriptional control of the phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase genes in a ruminal bacterium, Streptococcus bovis. Anaerobe. 2008;14:237-41 pubmed publisher
  43. Green H, Bombardier E, Duhamel T, Holloway G, Tupling A, Ouyang J. Acute responses in muscle mitochondrial and cytosolic enzyme activities during heavy intermittent exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;104:931-7 pubmed publisher
  44. Treberg J, MacCormack T, Lewis J, Almeida Val V, Val A, Driedzic W. Intracellular glucose and binding of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase to particulate fractions increase under hypoxia in heart of the amazonian armored catfish (Liposarcus pardalis). Physiol Biochem Zool. 2007;80:542-50 pubmed
    ..Such binding may be associated with increased glycolytic flux rates through modulation of enzyme-specific kinetics. The binding of HK and PFK occurs before any significant decrease in glycogen level. ..
  45. Hayot M, Michaud A, Koechlin C, Caron M, Leblanc P, Prefaut C, et al. Skeletal muscle microbiopsy: a validation study of a minimally invasive technique. Eur Respir J. 2005;25:431-40 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the current study shows the feasibility and validity of a minimally invasive muscle biopsy technique that appears more comfortable for subjects, compared with the Bergström technique. ..
  46. Mei G, Di Venere A, De Matteis F, Rosato N. The recovery of dipolar relaxation times from fluorescence decays as a tool to probe local dynamics in single tryptophan proteins. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;417:159-64 pubmed
    ..These findings may have important implications on the analysis of small-scale protein dynamics, since dielectric relaxation directly probes a local structural change around the excited state of tryptophan. ..
  47. Ghneim H, Al Saleh S, al Shammary F, Kordee Z. Changes in adenosine deaminase activity in ageing cultured human cells and the role of zinc. Cell Biochem Funct. 2003;21:275-82 pubmed
    ..From the results we concluded that it is possible to restore ADA activity in aged skin fibroblasts to normal levels by raising the zinc concentration in the culture medium to four or five times the control normal plasma zinc level. ..
  48. Morishima Yamato M, Hisaoka F, Shinomiya S, Harada N, Matoba H, Takahashi A, et al. Cloning and establishment of a line of rats for high levels of voluntary wheel running. Life Sci. 2005;77:551-61 pubmed
  49. Imbeault P, Tremblay A, Simoneau J, Joanisse D. Weight loss-induced rise in plasma pollutant is associated with reduced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;282:E574-9 pubmed
    ..33 < r < 0.33, NS). These results suggest that the weight loss-induced increase in plasma pollutant levels is likely to be associated with reduced skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism in men but not in women. ..
  50. Nyasse B, Ngantchou I, Tchana E, Sonke B, Denier C, Fontaine C. Inhibition of both Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream form and related glycolytic enzymes by a new kolavic acid derivative isolated from Entada abyssinica. Pharmazie. 2004;59:873-5 pubmed
    ..The new derivative showed a strong and selective inhibitory activity on the GAPDH enzyme of Trypanosoma brucei with an IC50 value of 0.012 mM. ..
  51. Wang Y, San K, Bennett G. Improvement of NADPH bioavailability in Escherichia coli through the use of phosphofructokinase deficient strains. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97:6883-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that the flux distribution of fructose-6-phosphate between glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway determines the amount of NAPDH available for reductive biosynthesis. ..
  52. Bai X, Grewal P. Identification of two down-regulated genes in entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora infective juveniles upon contact with insect hemolymph. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007;156:162-6 pubmed
    ..This first report of H. bacteriophora differential gene expression provides a glimpse at the gene expression profile of H. bacteriophora IJ recovery process...
  53. Vallejo J, Hardin C. Expression of caveolin-1 in lymphocytes induces caveolae formation and recruitment of phosphofructokinase to the plasma membrane. FASEB J. 2005;19:586-7 pubmed
    ..We therefore conclude that CAV-1 functions as a scaffolding protein for PFK and that this may contribute to the elucidation of the basis for carbohydrate compartmentation to the plasma membrane in a wide variety of cell types. ..