choline kinase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme that is active in the first step of choline phosphoglyceride (lecithin) biosynthesis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP. Ethanolamine and its methyl and ethyl derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.32.

Top Publications

  1. Campos J, Nunez M, Conejo Garcia A, Sanchez Martin R, Hernandez Alcoceba R, Rodriguez Gonzalez A, et al. QSAR-derived choline kinase inhibitors: how rational can antiproliferative drug design be?. Curr Med Chem. 2003;10:1095-112 pubmed
    This review presents an overview of Choline Kinase (ChoK) inhibitors with antiproliferative activity. The consideration of ChoK as a novel target for the development of new anticancer drugs is justified...
  2. Al Saffar N, Troy H, Ramirez de Molina A, Jackson L, Madhu B, Griffiths J, et al. Noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopic pharmacodynamic markers of the choline kinase inhibitor MN58b in human carcinoma models. Cancer Res. 2006;66:427-34 pubmed
    MN58b is a novel anticancer drug that inhibits choline kinase, resulting in inhibition of phosphocholine synthesis...
  3. Malito E, Sekulic N, Too W, Konrad M, Lavie A. Elucidation of human choline kinase crystal structures in complex with the products ADP or phosphocholine. J Mol Biol. 2006;364:136-51 pubmed
    b>Choline kinase, responsible for the phosphorylation of choline to phosphocholine as the first step of the CDP-choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, has been recognized as a new target for anticancer therapy...
  4. Mitsuhashi S, Nishino I. Megaconial congenital muscular dystrophy due to loss-of-function mutations in choline kinase ?. Curr Opin Neurol. 2013;26:536-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will summarize clinicopathological features, genetic cause, and biochemical abnormalities of the disease, trying to decipher the mechanism of this complex disorder...
  5. Gómez Pérez V, McSorley T, See Too W, Konrad M, Campos J. Novel 4-amino bis-pyridinium and bis-quinolinium derivatives as choline kinase inhibitors with antiproliferative activity against the human breast cancer SKBR-3 cell line. ChemMedChem. 2012;7:663-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Choline kinase (ChoK) is the first enzyme in the CDP-choline pathway that synthesizes phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes. Human ChoK has three isoforms: ChoK?1, ?2, and ?...
  6. Wu G, Vance D. Choline kinase and its function. Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;88:559-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Choline kinase (CK) was discovered in 1953. Progress in understanding the function of CK was slow until its purification in 1984. The subsequent cloning and expression of the cDNA led to the description of the gene structures...
  7. Conejo Garcia A, Campos J, Sánchez R, Rodriguez Gonzalez A, Lacal J, Gallo M, et al. Choline kinase inhibitory effect and antiproliferative activity of new 1,1',1"-(benzene-1,3,5-triylmethylene)tris[4-[(disubstituted)amino]pyridinium] tribromides. Eur J Med Chem. 2003;38:109-16 pubmed
    ..tribromides (6-11) were synthesised and examined for their inhibition of human choline kinase (ChoK) and antiproliferative activities...
  8. Ramirez de Molina A, Bañez Coronel M, Gutierrez R, Rodriguez Gonzalez A, Olmeda D, Megias D, et al. Choline kinase activation is a critical requirement for the proliferation of primary human mammary epithelial cells and breast tumor progression. Cancer Res. 2004;64:6732-9 pubmed
    ..b>Choline kinase (ChoK) is increased in human mammary tumors with high incidence, and this activation is associated with ..
  9. Liao H, Aoyama C, Ishidate K, Teraoka H. Deletion and alanine mutation analyses for the formation of active homo- or hetero-dimer complexes of mouse choline kinase-alpha and -beta. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1761:111-20 pubmed
    b>Choline kinase (CK) is the first-step regulatory enzyme for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in all mammalian cells...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Ramirez de Molina A, Sarmentero Estrada J, Belda Iniesta C, Taron M, Ramírez de Molina V, Cejas P, et al. Expression of choline kinase alpha to predict outcome in patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer: a retrospective study. Lancet Oncol. 2007;8:889-97 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to assess whether choline kinase alpha (ChoKalpha) gene expression could identify patients with different prognoses...
  2. Krishnamachary B, Glunde K, Wildes F, Mori N, Takagi T, Raman V, et al. Noninvasive detection of lentiviral-mediated choline kinase targeting in a human breast cancer xenograft. Cancer Res. 2009;69:3464-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Effective silencing of choline kinase (chk), the enzyme that converts choline to PC, is associated with reduced tumor growth...
  3. Mitsuhashi S, Ohkuma A, Talim B, Karahashi M, Koumura T, Aoyama C, et al. A congenital muscular dystrophy with mitochondrial structural abnormalities caused by defective de novo phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88:845-851 pubmed publisher
    ..on muscle biopsy, and we have identified homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding choline kinase beta (CHKB)...
  4. Granata A, Nicoletti R, Tinaglia V, De Cecco L, Pisanu M, Ricci A, et al. Choline kinase-alpha by regulating cell aggressiveness and drug sensitivity is a potential druggable target for ovarian cancer. Br J Cancer. 2014;110:330-40 pubmed publisher
    ..showed that epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) possesses an altered MRS-choline profile, characterised by increased phosphocholine (PCho) content to which mainly contribute over-expression and activation of choline kinase-alpha (ChoK-alpha).
  5. Ramirez de Molina A, Rodriguez Gonzalez A, Penalva V, Lucas L, Lacal J. Inhibition of ChoK is an efficient antitumor strategy for Harvey-, Kirsten-, and N-ras-transformed cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;285:873-9 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations, we have designed an antitumor strategy using choline kinase, the enzyme responsible of PCho production, as a novel target for drug discovery...
  6. Miyagawa T, Kawashima M, Nishida N, Ohashi J, Kimura R, Fujimoto A, et al. Variant between CPT1B and CHKB associated with susceptibility to narcolepsy. Nat Genet. 2008;40:1324-8 pubmed publisher
  7. Nakagami K, Uchida T, Ohwada S, Koibuchi Y, Suda Y, Sekine T, et al. Increased choline kinase activity and elevated phosphocholine levels in human colon cancer. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1999;90:419-24 pubmed
    ..We studied phosphocholine levels enzymatically and analyzed the activity of choline kinase, which catalyzes the phosphorylation of choline to produce phosphocholine, in human colon cancer and adenoma...
  8. SOTO A, Carman G. Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CKI1-encoded choline kinase by zinc depletion. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:10079-88 pubmed publisher
    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the CKI1-encoded choline kinase catalyzes the committed step in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine via the CDP-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway...
  9. Gee P, Kent C. Multiple isoforms of choline kinase from Caenorhabditis elegans: cloning, expression, purification, and characterization. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1648:33-42 pubmed
    b>Choline kinase is the first enzymatic step in the CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis...
  10. Mori N, Glunde K, Takagi T, Raman V, Bhujwalla Z. Choline kinase down-regulation increases the effect of 5-fluorouracil in breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2007;67:11284-90 pubmed
    ..b>Choline kinase (Chk), the enzyme that converts choline to phosphocholine (PC), is elevated in cancer cells and presents a ..
  11. Conejo Garcia A, Entrena A, Campos J, Sanchez Martin R, Gallo M, Espinosa A. Towards a model for the inhibition of choline kinase by a new type of inhibitor. Eur J Med Chem. 2005;40:315-9 pubmed
    Bispyridinium cyclophanes are novel templates for human choline kinase inhibitors...
  12. Glunde K, Shah T, Winnard P, Raman V, Takagi T, Vesuna F, et al. Hypoxia regulates choline kinase expression through hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha signaling in a human prostate cancer model. Cancer Res. 2008;68:172-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore investigated the relationship between hypoxia, choline metabolites, and choline kinase (Chk) in a human prostate cancer model...
  13. Rodriguez Gonzalez A, Ramirez de Molina A, Bañez Coronel M, Megias D, Lacal J. Inhibition of choline kinase renders a highly selective cytotoxic effect in tumour cells through a mitochondrial independent mechanism. Int J Oncol. 2005;26:999-1008 pubmed
    Tumour cells are frequently altered in their phospholipid metabolism. Choline kinase (ChoK, E.C. 2.7.1...
  14. Ramirez de Molina A, Rodriguez Gonzalez A, Lacal J. From Ras signalling to ChoK inhibitors: a further advance in anticancer drug design. Cancer Lett. 2004;206:137-48 pubmed
    ..In this review we will illustrate how the family of Ras GTPases may be a valid model for the development of new cancer therapies. ..
  15. Rodriguez Gonzalez A, Ramirez de Molina A, Fernandez F, Ramos M, Del Carmen Nunez M, Campos J, et al. Inhibition of choline kinase as a specific cytotoxic strategy in oncogene-transformed cells. Oncogene. 2003;22:8803-12 pubmed
    ..The relevance of deregulation of choline kinase (ChoK, E.C. 2.7.1.32) in oncogene-driven cell transformation has been previously demonstrated...
  16. Aoyama C, Nakashima K, Matsui M, Ishidate K. Complementary DNA sequence for a 42 kDa rat kidney choline/ethanolamine kinase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1390:1-7 pubmed
    ..A homology comparison with the previously reported choline kinase cDNAs (CKR1 and CKR2) from rat liver showed 66%-68% in entire nucleotide sequences and 57%-59% in amino acid ..
  17. Uchida T. Stimulation of phospholipid synthesis in HeLa cells by epidermal growth factor and insulin: activation of choline kinase and glycerophosphate acyltransferase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996;1304:89-104 pubmed
    ..The degradation of phosphatidylcholine was not affected by EGF or insulin. Both EGF and insulin increased choline kinase activity equally and promoted the conversion of choline to cholinephosphate, accompanied by an expansion of ..
  18. Glunde K, Raman V, Mori N, Bhujwalla Z. RNA interference-mediated choline kinase suppression in breast cancer cells induces differentiation and reduces proliferation. Cancer Res. 2005;65:11034-43 pubmed
    b>Choline kinase is overexpressed in breast cancer cells and activated by oncogenes and mitogenic signals, making it a potential target for cancer therapy...
  19. Sher R, Aoyama C, Huebsch K, Ji S, Kerner J, Yang Y, et al. A rostrocaudal muscular dystrophy caused by a defect in choline kinase beta, the first enzyme in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:4938-48 pubmed
    ..The rmd mutation is a 1.6-kb intragenic deletion within the choline kinase beta (Chkb) gene, resulting in a complete loss of CHKB protein and enzymatic activity...
  20. Ramirez de Molina A, Penalva V, Lucas L, Lacal J. Regulation of choline kinase activity by Ras proteins involves Ral-GDS and PI3K. Oncogene. 2002;21:937-46 pubmed
    ..kinases as well as enzymes related to phospholipid metabolism regulation such as phospholipases A2 and D, and choline kinase. The precise mechanisms by which ras oncogenes impinge into these later molecules and their relevance to the ..
  21. Choubey V, Guha M, Maity P, Kumar S, Raghunandan R, Maulik P, et al. Molecular characterization and localization of Plasmodium falciparum choline kinase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1760:1027-38 pubmed
    Generation of phosphocholine by choline kinase is important for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis via Kennedy pathway and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis is essential for intraerythrocytic growth of malaria parasite...
  22. Hong B, Allali Hassani A, Tempel W, Finerty P, MacKenzie F, Dimov S, et al. Crystal structures of human choline kinase isoforms in complex with hemicholinium-3: single amino acid near the active site influences inhibitor sensitivity. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16330-40 pubmed publisher
    Human choline kinase (ChoK) catalyzes the first reaction in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and exists as ChoKalpha (alpha1 and alpha2) and ChoKbeta isoforms...
  23. Teichert F, Verschoyle R, Greaves P, Edwards R, Teahan O, Jones D, et al. Metabolic profiling of transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) tissue by 1H-NMR analysis: evidence for unusual phospholipid metabolism. Prostate. 2008;68:1035-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Here the hypothesis was tested using (1)H-NMR-based metabolic profiling that the TRAMP tumor metabolic phenotype resembles that reported for human prostate cancer...
  24. Gallego Ortega D, Ramirez de Molina A, Ramos M, Valdes Mora F, Barderas M, Sarmentero Estrada J, et al. Differential role of human choline kinase alpha and beta enzymes in lipid metabolism: implications in cancer onset and treatment. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7819 pubmed publisher
    The Kennedy pathway generates phosphocoline and phosphoethanolamine through its two branches. Choline Kinase (ChoK) is the first enzyme of the Kennedy branch of synthesis of phosphocholine, the major component of the plasma membrane...
  25. Beloueche Babari M, Arunan V, Troy H, te Poele R, Te Fong A, Jackson L, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibition increases levels of choline kinase ? and phosphocholine facilitating noninvasive imaging in human cancers. Cancer Res. 2012;72:990-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..indicated that the rise in PC resulted from increased de novo synthesis and correlated with an induction of choline kinase ? expression...
  26. Aoyama C, Liao H, Ishidate K. Structure and function of choline kinase isoforms in mammalian cells. Prog Lipid Res. 2004;43:266-81 pubmed
    b>Choline kinase (CK) catalyzes the first phosphorylation reaction in the CDP-choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC), yielding phosphocholine (P-Cho) from choline and ATP in the presence of Mg(2+)...
  27. Contractor K, Challapalli A, Barwick T, Winkler M, Hellawell G, Hazell S, et al. Use of [11C]choline PET-CT as a noninvasive method for detecting pelvic lymph node status from prostate cancer and relationship with choline kinase expression. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:7673-83 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the accuracy and biological basis for [(11)C]choline-PET-CT in the nodal staging of high risk localized prostate cancer patients...
  28. Chua B, Gallego Ortega D, Ramirez de Molina A, Ullrich A, Lacal J, Downward J. Regulation of Akt(ser473) phosphorylation by choline kinase in breast carcinoma cells. Mol Cancer. 2009;8:131 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, phosphorylation of Akt(ser473), but not thr308, can be severely reduced by inhibition of Choline kinase activity via siRNA or small molecule inhibitors...
  29. Li M, Peng Z, Liu Q, Sun J, Yao S, Liu Q. Value of 11C-choline PET/CT for lung cancer diagnosis and the relation between choline metabolism and proliferation of cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2013;29:205-11 pubmed publisher
    ..lung cancer and the correlation between choline uptake of lung cancer tissue and the expression of choline kinase (ChoK), phosphorylcholine-cytidyl transferase and Ki-67 index...
  30. Mori N, Gadiya M, Wildes F, Krishnamachary B, Glunde K, Bhujwalla Z. Characterization of choline kinase in human endothelial cells. NMR Biomed. 2013;26:1501-7 pubmed publisher
    High choline kinase-? (Chk-?) expression is frequently observed in cancer cells, making it a novel target for pharmacological and molecular inhibition...
  31. Uchida T, Yamashita S. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression in Escherichia coli of a cDNA encoding mammalian choline kinase. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:10156-62 pubmed
    A rat liver lambda gt11 cDNA library was screened with antibody against rat liver choline kinase. One of the putative phage clones obtained was found to express choline kinase activity in infected Escherichia coli cells and used for the ..
  32. Ramirez de Molina A, Gallego Ortega D, Sarmentero J, Bañez Coronel M, Martín Cantalejo Y, Lacal J. Choline kinase is a novel oncogene that potentiates RhoA-induced carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2005;65:5647-53 pubmed
    b>Choline kinase is overexpressed in human breast, lung, colorectal, and prostate tumors, a finding that suggests the involvement of this enzyme in carcinogenesis...
  33. Choubey V, Maity P, Guha M, Kumar S, Srivastava K, Puri S, et al. Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum choline kinase by hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide: a possible antimalarial mechanism. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:696-706 pubmed
    b>Choline kinase is the first enzyme in the Kennedy pathway (CDP-choline pathway) for the biosynthesis of the most essential phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine, in Plasmodium falciparum...
  34. Peisach D, Gee P, Kent C, Xu Z. The crystal structure of choline kinase reveals a eukaryotic protein kinase fold. Structure. 2003;11:703-13 pubmed
    b>Choline kinase catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of choline, the first committed step in the CDP-choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. The 2.0 A crystal structure of a choline kinase from C...
  35. Glunde K, Bhujwalla Z. Choline kinase alpha in cancer prognosis and treatment. Lancet Oncol. 2007;8:855-7 pubmed
  36. Iorio E, Ricci A, Bagnoli M, Pisanu M, Castellano G, Di Vito M, et al. Activation of phosphatidylcholine cycle enzymes in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2010;70:2126-35 pubmed publisher
    ..with normal and nontumoral immortalized counterparts (EONT) may derive from (a) enhanced choline transport and choline kinase (ChoK)-mediated phosphorylation, (b) increased PC-specific phospholipase C (PC-plc) activity, and (c) ..
  37. Rodriguez Gonzalez A, Ramirez de Molina A, Benítez Rajal J, Lacal J. Phospholipase D and choline kinase: their role in cancer development and their potential as drug targets. Prog Cell Cycle Res. 2003;5:191-201 pubmed
    ..Evidence supporting choline kinase and phospholipase D as such novel targets is provided.
  38. Gallego Ortega D, Gómez del Pulgar T, Valdes Mora F, Cebrian A, Lacal J. Involvement of human choline kinase alpha and beta in carcinogenesis: a different role in lipid metabolism and biological functions. Adv Enzyme Regul. 2011;51:183-94 pubmed publisher
    ..2007). Therefore, further research should be supported on the utility of ChoK isoforms as a promising area to improve cancer diagnosis and treatment. ..
  39. Ramirez de Molina A, Gallego Ortega D, Sarmentero Estrada J, Lagares D, Gómez del Pulgar T, Bandres E, et al. Choline kinase as a link connecting phospholipid metabolism and cell cycle regulation: implications in cancer therapy. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40:1753-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Choline kinase alpha (ChoKalpha) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of phospholipids recently found to play a relevant role in the regulation of cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and human carcinogenesis...
  40. Spanner S, Ansell G. Choline kinase and ethanolamine kinase activity in the cytosol of nerve endings from rat forebrain. Biochem J. 1979;178:753-60 pubmed
    Both choline kinase and ethanolamine kinase are present in the cytosol of nerve endings prepared from rat brain are the products of their action, phosphocholine (84 nmol/g fresh wt. of brain) and phosphoethanolamine (190 nmol/g fresh wt...
  41. Milanese L, Espinosa A, Campos J, Gallo M, Entrena A. Insight into the inhibition of human choline kinase: homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. ChemMedChem. 2006;1:1216-28 pubmed
    A homology model of human choline kinase (CK-alpha) based on the X-ray crystallographic structure of C. elegans choline kinase (CKA-2) is presented...
  42. Aoyama C, Nakashima K, Ishidate K. Molecular cloning of mouse choline kinase and choline/ethanolamine kinase: their sequence comparison to the respective rat homologs. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1393:179-85 pubmed
    ..Aoyama et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1390 (1998) 1-7] and to a 50-kDa choline kinase [T. Uchida and S. Yamashita, J. Biol. Chem...
  43. Rodriguez Gonzalez A, Ramirez de Molina A, Fernandez F, Lacal J. Choline kinase inhibition induces the increase in ceramides resulting in a highly specific and selective cytotoxic antitumoral strategy as a potential mechanism of action. Oncogene. 2004;23:8247-59 pubmed
    b>Choline kinase (ChoK, E.C. 2.7.1.32) is involved in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC), and has been found to be increased in human tumors and tumor-derived cell lines...
  44. Yuan C, Kent C. Identification of critical residues of choline kinase A2 from Caenorhabditis elegans. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:17801-9 pubmed
    b>Choline kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of choline by ATP, the first committed step in the CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis...
  45. Quinlivan R, Mitsuahashi S, Sewry C, Cirak S, Aoyama C, Mooore D, et al. Muscular dystrophy with large mitochondria associated with mutations in the CHKB gene in three British patients: extending the clinical and pathological phenotype. Neuromuscul Disord. 2013;23:549-56 pubmed publisher
    ..CHKB activity was reduced in all three patients and complex 1 activity was significantly reduced in one patient...
  46. Gruber J, See Too W, Wong M, Lavie A, McSorley T, Konrad M. Balance of human choline kinase isoforms is critical for cell cycle regulation: implications for the development of choline kinase-targeted cancer therapy. FEBS J. 2012;279:1915-28 pubmed publisher
    The enzyme choline kinase (CK), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP, has an essential role in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the major constituent of all mammalian cell ..
  47. Mitsuhashi S, Hatakeyama H, Karahashi M, Koumura T, Nonaka I, Hayashi Y, et al. Muscle choline kinase beta defect causes mitochondrial dysfunction and increased mitophagy. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:3841-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Choline kinase is the first step enzyme for phosphatidylcholine (PC) de novo biosynthesis...
  48. Kim K, Carman G. Phosphorylation and regulation of choline kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by protein kinase A. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:9531-8 pubmed
    The CKI1-encoded choline kinase (ATP:choline phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.32) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was phosphorylated in vivo on multiple serine residues...
  49. Ackerstaff E, Glunde K, Bhujwalla Z. Choline phospholipid metabolism: a target in cancer cells?. J Cell Biochem. 2003;90:525-33 pubmed
    ..In this article, we have summarized some of the observations on the choline phospholipid metabolism of cancer cells and tumors, and make a case for targeting the aberrant choline phospholipid metabolism of cancer cells. ..
  50. Ramirez de Molina A, Gutierrez R, Ramos M, Silva J, Silva J, Bonilla F, et al. Increased choline kinase activity in human breast carcinomas: clinical evidence for a potential novel antitumor strategy. Oncogene. 2002;21:4317-22 pubmed
    b>Choline kinase (ChoK) and its product, phosphocholine (PCho), have been implicated in human carcinogenesis. Inhibition of this enzyme has been shown to be an efficient antitumor strategy in vivo...
  51. Gallego Ortega D, Ramirez de Molina A, Gutierrez R, Ramos M, Sarmentero J, Cejas P, et al. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against choline kinase alpha and their potential use as diagnostic tools in cancer. Int J Oncol. 2006;29:335-40 pubmed
    b>Choline kinase alpha (ChoKalpha) is a metabolic enzyme involved in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, recently implicated in cancer onset since it is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers such as mammary, lung, colorectal and ..
  52. Yalcin A, Clem B, Makoni S, Clem A, Nelson K, Thornburg J, et al. Selective inhibition of choline kinase simultaneously attenuates MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling. Oncogene. 2010;29:139-49 pubmed publisher
    Choline is an essential anabolic substrate for the synthesis of phospholipids. Choline kinase phosphorylates choline to phosphocholine that serves as a precursor for the production of phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid ..
  53. Wu G, Sher R, Cox G, Vance D. Understanding the muscular dystrophy caused by deletion of choline kinase beta in mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1791:347-56 pubmed publisher
    b>Choline kinase in mice is encoded by two genes, Chka and Chkb...