Genomes and Genes
utp glucose 1 phosphate uridylyltransferase
Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of UDPglucose from UTP plus glucose 1-phosphate. EC 18.104.22.168.
- Borovkov A, McClean P, Secor G. Organization and transcription of the gene encoding potato UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Gene. 1997;186:293-7 pubmed..The regulatory region contained general enhancer, suppressor, and regions responsible for tissue specificity of UGPase expression. ..
- Crater D, Dougherty B, van de Rijn I. Molecular characterization of hasC from an operon required for hyaluronic acid synthesis in group A streptococci. Demonstration of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:28676-80 pubmed..Finally, since sequence analysis identified a potential rho-independent transcription terminator at the 3-prime terminus of the gene, hasC is the third and probably the final gene in the has operon...
- Kim H, Wu C, Kim D, Han Y, Ha S, Kim C, et al. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) from Helicobacter pylori. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:1447-9 pubmed..9 A using a synchrotron-radiation source, the crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 91.47, b = 98.61, c = 245.70 A, alpha = beta = gamma = 90.0 degrees. ..
- Degeest B, Mozzi F, De Vuyst L. Effect of medium composition and temperature and pH changes on exopolysaccharide yields and stability during Streptococcus thermophilus LY03 fermentations. Int J Food Microbiol. 2002;79:161-74 pubmed..These results contribute to a better understanding of the physiological and chemical factors influencing EPS production and degradation. ..
- Boels I, Ramos A, Kleerebezem M, de Vos W. Functional analysis of the Lactococcus lactis galU and galE genes and their impact on sugar nucleotide and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:3033-40 pubmed publisher..Addition of galactose restored wild-type growth in the galE disruption mutant, while the level of EPS production was approximately one-half the wild-type level...
- Woo M, Ham T, Ji H, Choi M, Jiang W, Chu S, et al. Inactivation of the UGPase1 gene causes genic male sterility and endosperm chalkiness in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant J. 2008;54:190-204 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that UGPase1 plays a key role in pollen development as well as seed carbohydrate metabolism. ..
- Festuccia W, Laplante M, Brûlé S, Houde V, Achouba A, Lachance D, et al. Rosiglitazone-induced heart remodelling is associated with enhanced turnover of myofibrillar protein and mTOR activation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;47:85-95 pubmed publisher..The study demonstrates that both arms of protein balance are involved in rosiglitazone-induced cardiac hypertrophy, and establishes the mTOR pathway as a novel important mediator therein. ..
- Hossain S, Tanizawa K, Kazuta Y, Fukui T. Overproduction and characterization of recombinant UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Escherichia coli K-12. J Biochem. 1994;115:965-72 pubmed..Thus, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases participating in diverse metabolic pathways can be classified structurally into the prokaryotic and eukaryotic groups, even though they have almost identical catalytic properties. ..
- Christmass M, Mitoulas L, Hartmann P, Arthur P. A semiautomated enzymatic method for determination of nonesterified fatty acid concentration in milk and plasma. Lipids. 1998;33:1043-9 pubmed..Plasma NEFA concentrations determined by gas chromatography were 28% higher compared to both the Wako NEFA-C kit and the current method. ..
- Mehlgarten C, Zink S, Rutter J, Schaffrath R. Dosage suppression of the Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ISR1 and UGP1. FEMS Yeast Res. 2007;7:722-30 pubmed..In sum, high-copy ISR1 and UGP1 cells affect early steps of the zymocin response and potentially prevent the lethal K. lactis killer complex from establishing cell surface recognition and/or contact. ..
- Escalante A, Villegas J, Wacher C, García Garibay M, Farres A. Activity of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of exopolysaccharide precursors in an overproducing mutant ropy strain of Streptococcus thermophilus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;209:289-93 pubmed..The observed variations among strains in the enzyme activities that were analysed in relation to EPS production suggest their involvement in the synthesis of sugar-nucleotide EPS precursors. ..
- Bishop J, Moon B, Harrow F, Ratner D, Gomer R, Dottin R, et al. A second UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is required for differentiation and development in Dictyostelium discoideum. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:32430-7 pubmed..Sequence analysis of the two UDPGP genes shows that UgpB has higher homology to other eukaryotic UDPGPs than does UDPGP1. This includes the presence of 5 conserved lysine residues. Udpgp1 only has 1 of these lysines. ..
- Marolda C, Valvano M. The GalF protein of Escherichia coli is not a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase but interacts with the GalU protein possibly to regulate cellular levels of UDP-glucose. Mol Microbiol. 1996;22:827-40 pubmed
- Meng M, Geisler M, Johansson H, Mellerowicz E, Karpinski S, Kleczkowski L. Differential tissue/organ-dependent expression of two sucrose- and cold-responsive genes for UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in Populus. Gene. 2007;389:186-95 pubmed
- Prasad S, Jayaraman G, Ramachandran K. Hyaluronic acid production is enhanced by the additional co-expression of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in Lactococcus lactis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;86:273-83 pubmed publisher..The HA yield was further enhanced in batch bioreactor experiments with controlled pH and aeration, and a maximum of 1.8 g/l HA was produced by the SJR3 culture. ..
- Buckley D, Klaassen C. Tissue- and gender-specific mRNA expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) in mice. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007;35:121-7 pubmed..In conclusion, marked differences in tissue- and gender-specific expression patterns of UGTs exist in mice, potentially influencing drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. ..
- Padilla L, Agosin E. Heterologous expression of Escherichia coli ppsA (phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase) and galU (UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum, and its impact on trehalose synthesis. Metab Eng. 2005;7:260-8 pubmed..The impact of GalU and PpsA expression on polysaccharide content, side product excretion and metabolic fluxes is discussed, as well as alternative ways to decouple glucose uptake and catabolism, in order to increase trehalose yield. ..
- Heinz E, Schmidt H, Hoch M, Jung K, Binder H, Schmidt R. Synthesis of different nucleoside 5'-diphospho-sulfoquinovoses and their use for studies on sulfolipid biosynthesis in chloroplasts. Eur J Biochem. 1989;184:445-53 pubmed..This chloroplast enzyme cannot use exogenously supplied sulfosugar nucleotides, which as membrane-impermeable compounds are expected to be formed in vivo within chloroplasts. ..
- Deng W, Lin Y, Lin R, Wei C, Huang Y, Peng H, et al. Effects of galU mutation on Pseudomonas syringae-plant interactions. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2010;23:1184-96 pubmed publisher..Our results demonstrated that the complete LPS protected plant-pathogenic bacteria from host innate immunity, similar to what was found in animal pathogens, prior to the translocation of T3S effectors and bacterial multiplication. ..
- Lee H, Lee S, Sohng J, Liou K. One-pot enzymatic synthesis of UDP-D-glucose from UMP and glucose-1-phosphate using an ATP regeneration system. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;37:503-6 pubmed
- Grass S, Lichti C, Townsend R, Gross J, St Geme J. The Haemophilus influenzae HMW1C protein is a glycosyltransferase that transfers hexose residues to asparagine sites in the HMW1 adhesin. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000919 pubmed publisher..In addition, we demonstrate that HMW1C is capable of transferring glucose and galactose to HMW1 and is also able to generate hexose-hexose bonds. Our results define a new family of bacterial glycosyltransferases. ..
- Kim H, Choi J, Kim T, Lokanath N, Ha S, Suh S, et al. Structural basis for the reaction mechanism of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Mol Cells. 2010;29:397-405 pubmed publisher..The current structural study combined with functional analyses provides essential information for understanding the reaction mechanism of bacterial UGPases, as well as a platform for the development of novel antibacterial agents. ..
- Thoden J, Holden H. Active site geometry of glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. Protein Sci. 2007;16:1379-88 pubmed..The structure presented here provides further support for the role of the conserved magnesium ion in the catalytic mechanisms of the sugar-1-phosphate nucleotidylyltransferases. ..
- Glucksmann M, Reuber T, Walker G. Genes needed for the modification, polymerization, export, and processing of succinoglycan by Rhizobium meliloti: a model for succinoglycan biosynthesis. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:7045-55 pubmed..We propose a model for succinoglycan biosynthesis and processing which assigns roles to the products of nineteen exo genes...
- Hedegaard J, Horn P, Lametsch R, Søndergaard Møller H, Roepstorff P, Bendixen C, et al. UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is upregulated in carriers of the porcine RN- mutation in the AMP-activated protein kinase. Proteomics. 2004;4:2448-54 pubmed..Our data suggests that hyperaccumulation of glycogen mediated by the RN(-) mutation is due to an increased synthesis of glycogen. ..
- Daran J, Bell W, Francois J. Physiological and morphological effects of genetic alterations leading to a reduced synthesis of UDP-glucose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1997;153:89-96 pubmed
- Bosco M, Machtey M, Iglesias A, Aleanzi M. UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase from Xanthomonas spp. Characterization of the enzyme kinetics, structure and inactivation related to oligomeric dissociation. Biochimie. 2009;91:204-13 pubmed publisher..The in silico approach pointed out two main critical regions in the enzyme involved in subunit-subunit interaction: the region surrounding the catalytic-substrate binding site and the C-term...
- Duggleby R, Peng H, Chang H. An improved assay for UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase and other enzymes that have nucleotide products. Experientia. 1996;52:568-72 pubmed..It is also shown that the improved assay is suitable for enzymes with other nucleotide triphosphate products. ..
- Coleman H, Ellis D, Gilbert M, Mansfield S. Up-regulation of sucrose synthase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase impacts plant growth and metabolism. Plant Biotechnol J. 2006;4:87-101 pubmed..The up-regulation of these two genes, although not increasing the percentage cellulose content, was effective in increasing the total biomass, and thus the overall cellulose yield, from a given plant. ..
- Silva E, Marques A, Fialho A, Granja A, Sá Correia I. Proteins encoded by Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461 rmlA and ugpG genes, involved in gellan gum biosynthesis, exhibit both dTDP- and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activities. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:4703-12 pubmed
- Ciereszko I, Johansson H, Kleczkowski L. Interactive effects of phosphate deficiency, sucrose and light/dark conditions on gene expression of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in Arabidopsis. J Plant Physiol. 2005;162:343-53 pubmed
- Peng H, Chang H. Cloning of a human liver UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase cDNA by complementation of the bacterial galU mutation. FEBS Lett. 1993;329:153-8 pubmed..No homology was found between the eukaryotic and the prokaryotic enzymes. Northern blotting analysis revealed that the gene was expressed at the highest level in skeletal muscle, followed by liver, heart and kidney. ..
- Park J, Ishimizu T, Suwabe K, Sudo K, Masuko H, Hakozaki H, et al. UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is rate limiting in vegetative and reproductive phases in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2010;51:981-96 pubmed publisher..thaliana. ..
- Aiello D, Fu L, Miseta A, Bedwell D. Intracellular glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate levels modulate Ca2+ homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45751-8 pubmed..These results provide strong evidence that cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis is coupled to the relative levels of Glc-6-P and Glc-1-P in yeast. ..
- Padilla L, Morbach S, Kramer R, Agosin E. Impact of heterologous expression of Escherichia coli UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase on trehalose and glycogen synthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:3845-54 pubmed..This increase in trehalose synthesis was abolished upon deletion of the TreYZ pathway. These results proved that UDP-glucose has an important role not only in the OtsBA pathway but also in the TreYZ pathway. ..
- Lazarowski E, Harden T. Quantitation of extracellular UTP using a sensitive enzymatic assay. Br J Pharmacol. 1999;127:1272-8 pubmed..Detection of UTP in nanomolar concentrations in the medium bathing resting cultures suggests that constitutive release of UTP may provide a mechanism of regulation of the basal activity of uridine nucleotide sensitive receptors. ..
- Tresse E, Kosta A, Giusti C, Luciani M, Golstein P. A UDP-glucose derivative is required for vacuolar autophagic cell death. Autophagy. 2008;4:680-91 pubmed..We conclude that a UDP-glucose derivative (such as glycogen or maltose) plays an essential energy-independent role in autophagic cell death. ..
- Wong S, Akerley B. Environmental and genetic regulation of the phosphorylcholine epitope of Haemophilus influenzae lipooligosaccharide. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:724-38 pubmed..The results are consistent with a multifactorial mechanism of control of LOS-PC epitope display involving csrA and environmental signals that coordinately regulate biosynthetic and metabolic genes controlling the LOS structure. ..
- Molinaro A, Silipo A, Castro C, Sturiale L, Nigro G, Garozzo D, et al. Full structural characterization of Shigella flexneri M90T serotype 5 wild-type R-LPS and its delta galU mutant: glycine residue location in the inner core of the lipopolysaccharide. Glycobiology. 2008;18:260-9 pubmed publisher..flexneri M90T delta galU mutant and studied its LOS. In this way it was possible to establish that glycine is sitting at O-6 of the second heptose in the inner core. ..
- Meng J, Yin Y, Zhang X, Huang Y, Lan K, Cui F, et al. Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae genes specifically induced in mouse lung tissues. Can J Microbiol. 2008;54:58-65 pubmed publisher..There are some hypothetical proteins whose functions are not clear. This novel IVET is a useful tool for identifying ivi genes in S. pneumoniae. ..
- Muffler A, Fischer D, Altuvia S, Storz G, Hengge Aronis R. The response regulator RssB controls stability of the sigma(S) subunit of RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 1996;15:1333-9 pubmed..RssB contains a unique C-terminal output domain and is the first known response regulator involved in the control of protein turnover. ..
- Steiner T, Lamerz A, Hess P, Breithaupt C, Krapp S, Bourenkov G, et al. Open and closed structures of the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Leishmania major. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:13003-10 pubmed..The presented structures together with mutagenesis analyses provide a basis for a detailed analysis of the catalytic mechanism and for the design of species-specific UGPase inhibitors. ..
- Guranowski A, de Diego A, Sillero A, Günther Sillero M. Uridine 5'-polyphosphates (p4U and p5U) and uridine(5')polyphospho(5')nucleosides (Up(n)Ns) can be synthesized by UTP:glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2004;561:83-8 pubmed..Occurrence of such dinucleotides in S. cerevisiae and Escherichia coli has been previously reported (Coste et al., J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 12096-12103). ..
- Watanabe T, Kuribara H, Mishima T, Kikuchi H, Kodama T, Futo S, et al. New qualitative detection methods of genetically modified potatoes. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004;27:1333-9 pubmed..The detection limits of all the GM potatoes should be approximately 0.1%. Furthermore, the specificity and reproducibility of the methods were confirmed in a six-laboratory collaborative study. ..
- Chassaing D, Auvray F. The lmo1078 gene encoding a putative UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is involved in growth of Listeria monocytogenes at low temperature. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;275:31-7 pubmed..These results are thus consistent with previous studies showing the importance of the cell envelope in L. monocytogenes adaptation to stressful conditions. ..
- Genevaux P, Bauda P, DuBow M, Oudega B. Identification of Tn10 insertions in the rfaG, rfaP, and galU genes involved in lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis that affect Escherichia coli adhesion. Arch Microbiol. 1999;172:1-8 pubmed..Apart from the pleiotropic effect of the mutations affecting LPS on type 1 fimbriae and flagella biosynthesis, no evidence for an involvement of the LPS itself in adhesion to polystyrene surface could be observed. ..
- Smith T, Rutter J. Regulation of glucose partitioning by PAS kinase and Ugp1 phosphorylation. Mol Cell. 2007;26:491-9 pubmed..We propose that regulation of glucose partitioning by altered enzyme and substrate localization is a rapid and potent response to metabolic deficiency. ..
- Endo T, Koizumi S, Tabata K, Kakita S, Ozaki A. Large-scale production of N-acetyllactosamine through bacterial coupling. Carbohydr Res. 1999;316:179-83 pubmed..N-Acetyllactosamine was accumulated at 279 mM (107 g L-1) after a 38 h reaction (2.5 L in volume) starting from orotic acid, D-galactose, and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose. ..
- Marques A, Ferreira P, Sá Correia I, Fialho A. Characterization of the ugpG gene encoding a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from the gellan gum producer Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461. Mol Genet Genomics. 2003;268:816-24 pubmed..Kinetic analysis of UgpG in the reverse reaction (pyrophosphorolysis) showed a typical Michaelis-Menten substrate saturation pattern. The apparent K(m) and V(max) values estimated for UDP-glucose were 7.5 microM and 1275 micromol/min/g. ..
- Fitzgerald L, Graves M, Li X, Feldblyum T, Hartigan J, Van Etten J. Sequence and annotation of the 314-kb MT325 and the 321-kb FR483 viruses that infect Chlorella Pbi. Virology. 2007;358:459-71 pubmed..Comparison of MT325 and FR483 protein-encoding genes with the prototype chlorella virus PBCV-1 indicates that approximately 82% of the genes are present in all three viruses...
- Gupta S, Sowokinos J, Hahn I. Regulation of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase isozyme UGP5 associated with cold-sweetening resistance in potatoes. J Plant Physiol. 2008;165:679-90 pubmed..Additionally, the two closely associated isozymes UGP5 and UGP6 in the cv. Snowden are likely the result of allelic differences of UGPase at a single locus. ..
- Wei C, Lin N, Weng S, Tseng Y. The gene encoding UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is required for the synthesis of xanthan gum in Xanthomonas campestris. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;226:607-12 pubmed..0-kb KpnI-EcoRI fragment. In vitro expression of the gene in the S30 transcription/translation system produced a protein of ca. 35 kDa. ..
- Coleman H, Beamish L, Reid A, Park J, Mansfield S. Altered sucrose metabolism impacts plant biomass production and flower development. Transgenic Res. 2010;19:269-83 pubmed publisher..Upregulation of these sucrose metabolism genes appears to directly impact primary growth and therefore biomass production in tobacco. ..