Summary: Enzymes that recombine DNA segments by a process which involves the formation of a synapse between two DNA helices, the cleavage of single strands from each DNA helix and the ligation of a DNA strand from one DNA helix to the other. The resulting DNA structure is called a Holliday junction which can be resolved by DNA REPLICATION or by HOLLIDAY JUNCTION RESOLVASES.

Top Publications

  1. Mitra R, Fain Thornton J, Craig N. piggyBac can bypass DNA synthesis during cut and paste transposition. EMBO J. 2008;27:1097-109 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the same strategy for target joining used by the members of DDE superfamily of transposases and retroviral integrases...
  2. Bire S, Gosset D, Jégot G, Midoux P, Pichon C, Rouleux Bonnin F. Exogenous mRNA delivery and bioavailability in gene transfer mediated by piggyBac transposition. BMC Biotechnol. 2013;13:75 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach provides a new way for limiting the transgene copy in the genome and their remobilization by mRNA engineering and trafficking. ..
  3. Claeys Bouuaert C, Chalmers R. Transposition of the human Hsmar1 transposon: rate-limiting steps and the importance of the flanking TA dinucleotide in second strand cleavage. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:190-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this conformational change requires specific contacts between transposase and the flanking TA dinucleotide. ..
  4. Kettlun C, Galvan D, George A, Kaja A, Wilson M. Manipulating piggyBac transposon chromosomal integration site selection in human cells. Mol Ther. 2011;19:1636-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results offer insight into the requirements for using a chimeric zinc finger-piggyBac transposase to direct integration into a user-defined chromosomal location. ..
  5. Gradman R, Ptacin J, Bhasin A, Reznikoff W, Goryshin I. A bifunctional DNA binding region in Tn5 transposase. Mol Microbiol. 2008;67:528-40 pubmed
    ..In this communication, we describe the isolation and analysis of mutant transposases that have, for the first time, provided genetic and biochemical evidence for the stage-specific positioning of ..
  6. de Silva S, Bowers W. Targeting the central nervous system with herpes simplex virus / Sleeping Beauty hybrid amplicon vectors. Curr Gene Ther. 2011;11:332-40 pubmed
    ..In this review we provide a comprehensive breakdown of the characteristics of the HSV/SB vector system and how it can be efficiently employed in the derivation of CNS-targeted gene therapeutic strategies. ..
  7. Jin Z, Maiti S, Huls H, Singh H, Olivares S, Mátés L, et al. The hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase SB100X improves the genetic modification of T cells to express a chimeric antigen receptor. Gene Ther. 2011;18:849-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In aggregate, SB100X improves SB transposition in primary human T cells and can be titrated with an SB transposon plasmid to improve the generation of CD19-specific CAR+ T cells. ..
  8. Bickhart D, Gogarten J, Lapierre P, Tisa L, Normand P, Benson D. Insertion sequence content reflects genome plasticity in strains of the root nodule actinobacterium Frankia. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:468 pubmed publisher
    ..out of the 20 major families of bacterial Insertion Sequence (IS) elements are represented in the 148 annotated transposases of Frankia strain HFPCcI3 (CcI3) comprising 3% of its total coding sequences (CDS)...
  9. Yuan Y, Wessler S. The catalytic domain of all eukaryotic cut-and-paste transposase superfamilies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:7884-9 pubmed publisher
    ..g., hAT, P) based on sequence similarity of the element-encoded transposase. The transposases from several superfamilies possess a protein domain containing an acidic amino acid triad (DDE or DDD) that ..

More Information


  1. Garrels W, Mátés L, Holler S, Dalda A, Taylor U, Petersen B, et al. Germline transgenic pigs by Sleeping Beauty transposition in porcine zygotes and targeted integration in the pig genome. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23573 pubmed publisher
    ..Transposase-catalyzed transgenesis in a large mammalian species expands the arsenal of transgenic technologies for use in domestic animals and will facilitate the development of large animal models for human diseases. ..
  2. Maiti S, Huls H, Singh H, Dawson M, Figliola M, Olivares S, et al. Sleeping beauty system to redirect T-cell specificity for human applications. J Immunother. 2013;36:112-23 pubmed publisher
    ..01%. These findings lay the groundwork as the basis of our first-in-human clinical trials of the nonviral SB system for the investigational treatment of CD19 B-cell malignancies (currently under 3 INDs: 14193, 14577, and 14739). ..
  3. Clark K, Carlson D, Leaver M, Foster L, Fahrenkrug S. Passport, a native Tc1 transposon from flatfish, is functionally active in vertebrate cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:1239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The Passport transposon system thus complements the available genetic tools for the manipulation of vertebrate genomes, and may provide a unique system for studying the infiltration of vertebrate genomes by Tc1 elements. ..
  4. Nowotny M. Retroviral integrase superfamily: the structural perspective. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:144-51 pubmed publisher
    ..retroviral integrase superfamily (RISF) comprises numerous important nucleic acid-processing enzymes, including transposases, integrases and various nucleases...
  5. Chen Y, Furushima K, Hou P, Ku A, Deng J, Jang C, et al. PiggyBac transposon-mediated, reversible gene transfer in human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2010;19:763-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate that the integrated piggyBac transposon can be removed and an undisrupted insertion site can be restored, which implies potential applications for its use in gene therapy and genetics studies. ..
  6. Hackett P, Largaespada D, Cooper L. A transposon and transposase system for human application. Mol Ther. 2010;18:674-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This review examines the rationale and safety implications of application of the SB system to genetically modify T cells to be manufactured in compliance with current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) for phase I/II trials. ..
  7. Lee C, Li J, Liou J, Charng Y, Huang Y, Lee H. A gene delivery system for human cells mediated by both a cell-penetrating peptide and a piggyBac transposase. Biomaterials. 2011;32:6264-76 pubmed publisher
  8. Belur L, McIvor R, Wilber A. Liver-directed gene therapy using the sleeping beauty transposon system. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;434:267-76 pubmed publisher
  9. Hromas R, Wray J, Lee S, Martinez L, Farrington J, Corwin L, et al. The human set and transposase domain protein Metnase interacts with DNA Ligase IV and enhances the efficiency and accuracy of non-homologous end-joining. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:1927-37 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Metnase has little effect on homologous recombination repair of a single DSB. Altogether, these results fit a model where Metnase plays a role in the fate of free DNA ends during NHEJ repair of DSBs. ..
  10. Feng X, Bednarz A, Colloms S. Precise targeted integration by a chimaeric transposase zinc-finger fusion protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:1204-16 pubmed publisher
    ..A TA dinucleotide flanked by two Zif268 binding sites was efficiently targeted by our transposase-Zif268 fusion, suggesting the possibility of designer 'Z-transposases' that could deliver transgenic cargoes to chosen genomic locations.
  11. O Donnell K, Keng V, York B, Reineke E, Seo D, Fan D, et al. A Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis screen reveals a tumor suppressor role for Ncoa2/Src-2 in liver cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E1377-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal genes and pathways that functionally restrain MYC-mediated liver tumorigenesis and therefore may provide targets for cancer therapy. ..
  12. Bischerour J, Chalmers R. Base flipping in tn10 transposition: an active flip and capture mechanism. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6201 pubmed publisher
    The bacterial Tn5 and Tn10 transposases have a single active site that cuts both strands of DNA at their respective transposon ends...
  13. Cheng C, Vogt A, Mochizuki K, Yao M. A domesticated piggyBac transposase plays key roles in heterochromatin dynamics and DNA cleavage during programmed DNA deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:1753-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that Tpb2p plays a key role in the assembly of specialized DNA elimination chromatin architectures and is likely responsible for the DNA cleavage step of programmed DNA deletion. ..
  14. Aziz R, Breitbart M, Edwards R. Transposases are the most abundant, most ubiquitous genes in nature. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:4207-17 pubmed publisher
    ..archaeal, eukaryotic and viral genomes and metagenomes, and our analysis demonstrates that genes encoding transposases are the most prevalent genes in nature...
  15. Staunstrup N, Moldt B, Mátés L, Villesen P, Jakobsen M, Ivics Z, et al. Hybrid lentivirus-transposon vectors with a random integration profile in human cells. Mol Ther. 2009;17:1205-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel hybrid vector system combines the attractive features of efficient gene delivery by viral transduction and a safer genomic integration profile by DNA transposition. ..
  16. Hausl M, Zhang W, Müther N, Rauschhuber C, Franck H, Merricks E, et al. Hyperactive sleeping beauty transposase enables persistent phenotypic correction in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. Mol Ther. 2010;18:1896-906 pubmed publisher
    ..Demonstrating that a viral vector system can deliver clinically relevant levels of a therapeutic protein in a large animal model of human disease paves a new path toward the possible cure of genetic diseases. ..
  17. B hne A, Zhou Q, Darras A, Schmidt C, Schartl M, Galiana Arnoux D, et al. Zisupton--a novel superfamily of DNA transposable elements recently active in fish. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:631-45 pubmed publisher
    ..To conclude, our analysis has uncovered a new superfamily of DNA transposons with potential roles in genome diversity and evolutionary innovation in fish and other organisms...
  18. Mitchell H, Dashper S, Catmull D, Paolini R, Cleal S, Slakeski N, et al. Treponema denticola biofilm-induced expression of a bacteriophage, toxin-antitoxin systems and transposases. Microbiology. 2010;156:774-88 pubmed publisher upregulation of genes encoding several virulence factors, toxin-antitoxin systems and a family of putative transposases. Together, these data indicate that there is a higher potential for genetic mobility in T...
  19. Woodard L, Li X, Malani N, Kaja A, Hice R, Atkinson P, et al. Comparative analysis of the recently discovered hAT transposon TcBuster in human cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42666 pubmed publisher
    ..TcBuster was found to be highly active in mammalian HEK-293 cells and represents a promising tool for mammalian genome engineering. ..
  20. Vink C, Gaspar H, Gabriel R, Schmidt M, McIvor R, Thrasher A, et al. Sleeping beauty transposition from nonintegrating lentivirus. Mol Ther. 2009;17:1197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, integration site analysis revealed redirection toward a profile mimicking SB-plasmid integration and away from integration within transcriptionally active genes favored by integrase-proficient lentiviral vectors (ILVs). ..
  21. Delaurière L, Chénais B, Pradier E, Hardivillier Y, Renault S, Casse N. DNA binding specificity and cleavage activity of Pacmmar transposase. Biochemistry. 2009;48:7279-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Using an in vitro transposition assay, we show that Pacmmar transposases are unable to perform by themselves the transposition reaction...
  22. Sabogal A, Rio D. A green fluorescent protein solubility screen in E. coli reveals domain boundaries of the GTP-binding domain in the P element transposase. Protein Sci. 2010;19:2210-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the use of a GFP-based solubility screen on a large multidomain protein to identify highly expressed, soluble truncated domain subregions. ..
  23. Marh J, Stoytcheva Z, Urschitz J, Sugawara A, Yamashiro H, Owens J, et al. Hyperactive self-inactivating piggyBac for transposase-enhanced pronuclear microinjection transgenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:19184-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This transposase-mediated approach is also very efficient for single-cell embryo cytoplasmic injections, offering an easy-to-implement transgenesis method to the scientific community. ..
  24. Abdelhakim A, Oakes E, Sauer R, Baker T. Unique contacts direct high-priority recognition of the tetrameric Mu transposase-DNA complex by the AAA+ unfoldase ClpX. Mol Cell. 2008;30:39-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that an extended set of potential enzyme contacts are exposed upon assembly of the tetramer and function as internal guides to recruit ClpX, thereby ensuring that the tetrameric complex is a high-priority substrate. ..
  25. Belur L, Podetz Pedersen K, Sorenson B, Hsu A, Parker J, Carlson C, et al. Inhibition of angiogenesis and suppression of colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver using the Sleeping Beauty Transposon System. Mol Cancer. 2011;10:14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that hepatic colorectal metastases can be reduced using antiangiogenic transposons, and provide evidence for the importance of the transposition process in mediating suppression of these tumors. ..
  26. Chalker D, Yao M. DNA elimination in ciliates: transposon domestication and genome surveillance. Annu Rev Genet. 2011;45:227-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This DNA elimination pathway in ciliates shares extensive similarity with piRNA-mediated silencing of metazoans and highlights the remarkable ability of homologous RNAs to shape developing genomes. ..
  27. Barabas O, Ronning D, Guynet C, Hickman A, Ton Hoang B, Chandler M, et al. Mechanism of IS200/IS605 family DNA transposases: activation and transposon-directed target site selection. Cell. 2008;132:208-20 pubmed publisher
    The smallest known DNA transposases are those from the IS200/IS605 family. Here we show how the interplay of protein and DNA activates TnpA, the Helicobacter pylori IS608 transposase, for catalysis...
  28. Bell J, Aronovich E, Schreifels J, Beadnell T, Hackett P. Duration of expression and activity of Sleeping Beauty transposase in mouse liver following hydrodynamic DNA delivery. Mol Ther. 2010;18:1796-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, within the limits of current technology, we show that SB transposons appear to be as stably integrated as their viral counterparts. ..
  29. Choi W, Harshey R. DNA repair by the cryptic endonuclease activity of Mu transposase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10014-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that ClpX constitutes part of a highly regulated mechanism that unmasks the cryptic nuclease activity of MuA specifically in the repair pathway...
  30. Izsvák Z, Hackett P, Cooper L, Ivics Z. Translating Sleeping Beauty transposition into cellular therapies: victories and challenges. Bioessays. 2010;32:756-67 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; The first clinical application of the SB system will help to validate the safety of this approach. ..
  31. Shaheen M, Williamson E, Nickoloff J, Lee S, Hromas R. Metnase/SETMAR: a domesticated primate transposase that enhances DNA repair, replication, and decatenation. Genetica. 2010;138:559-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Metnase may have been selected for in primates because of its DNA repair and translocation suppression activities. Thus, its transposase activities may have been subverted to prevent deleterious DNA movement. ..
  32. Wilson M, George A. Designing and testing chimeric zinc finger transposases. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;649:353-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In this chapter, we describe methodology for creating and characterizing functional chimeric ZF transposases and experimental approaches for testing their transpositional activity in human cells.
  33. Casola C, Hucks D, FESCHOTTE C. Convergent domestication of pogo-like transposases into centromere-binding proteins in fission yeast and mammals. Mol Biol Evol. 2008;25:29-41 pubmed
    ..Each of these proteins displays extensive sequence similarity with pogo-like transposases, which have been previously identified in the genomes of various insects and vertebrates, in the protozoan ..
  34. Kim Y, Morrison S. N-terminal domain-deleted mu transposase exhibits increased transposition activity with low target site preference in modified buffers. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;17:30-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the optimized buffer decreased the target site preference of N-terminally deleted MuA resulting in a more even distribution of integration events throughout the target gene. ..
  35. Keng V, Villanueva A, Chiang D, Dupuy A, Ryan B, Matise I, et al. A conditional transposon-based insertional mutagenesis screen for genes associated with mouse hepatocellular carcinoma. Nat Biotechnol. 2009;27:264-74 pubmed publisher
  36. Guynet C, Hickman A, Barabas O, Dyda F, Chandler M, Ton Hoang B. In vitro reconstitution of a single-stranded transposition mechanism of IS608. Mol Cell. 2008;29:302-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This single-strand transposition mode has important implications not only for dispersion of IS608 but also for the other members of this very large IS family. ..
  37. Howell V. Sleeping beauty--a mouse model for all cancers?. Cancer Lett. 2012;317:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This review follows the refinement of SB for different cancers and assesses its potential as a model for all cancers and a tool for cancer gene discovery. ..
  38. Jakobsen J, Li J, Kragh P, Moldt B, Lin L, Liu Y, et al. Pig transgenesis by Sleeping Beauty DNA transposition. Transgenic Res. 2011;20:533-45 pubmed publisher
  39. Mátés L, Chuah M, Belay E, Jerchow B, Manoj N, Acosta Sanchez A, et al. Molecular evolution of a novel hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase enables robust stable gene transfer in vertebrates. Nat Genet. 2009;41:753-61 pubmed publisher
  40. Huang X, Haley K, Wong M, Guo H, Lu C, Wilber A, et al. Unexpectedly high copy number of random integration but low frequency of persistent expression of the Sleeping Beauty transposase after trans delivery in primary human T cells. Hum Gene Ther. 2010;21:1577-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that SB delivery via plasmid in T cells should be carried out with caution because of unexpectedly high copy numbers of randomly integrated SB transposase. ..
  41. Singh H, Manuri P, Olivares S, Dara N, Dawson M, Huls H, et al. Redirecting specificity of T-cell populations for CD19 using the Sleeping Beauty system. Cancer Res. 2008;68:2961-71 pubmed publisher
    ..When coupled with numerical expansion on CD19(+) artificial antigen-presenting cells, this gene transfer method results in rapid outgrowth of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing CAR to redirect specificity for CD19(+) tumor cells. ..
  42. Ton Hoang B, Siguier P, Quentin Y, Onillon S, Marty B, Fichant G, et al. Structuring the bacterial genome: Y1-transposases associated with REP-BIME sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:3596-609 pubmed publisher
    ..also resemble the sub-terminal hairpins of the atypical IS200/605 family of insertion sequences which encode Y1 transposases (TnpA(IS200/IS605))...
  43. Atkinson H, Chalmers R. Delivering the goods: viral and non-viral gene therapy systems and the inherent limits on cargo DNA and internal sequences. Genetica. 2010;138:485-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Length-dependence is a complex phenomenon driven not simply by the distance between the transposon ends, but by host proteins, the transposase and the properties of the DNA sequences encoded within the transposon. ..
  44. Lin R, Ding L, Casola C, Ripoll D, FESCHOTTE C, Wang H. Transposase-derived transcription factors regulate light signaling in Arabidopsis. Science. 2007;318:1302-5 pubmed
    ..We show that Arabidopsis FHY3 and FAR1, which encode two proteins related to Mutator-like transposases, act together to modulate phyA signaling by directly activating the transcription of FHY1 and FHL, whose ..
  45. Hickman A, Chandler M, Dyda F. Integrating prokaryotes and eukaryotes: DNA transposases in light of structure. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;45:50-69 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA transposases comprise one class of such enzymes...
  46. Garrison B, Yant S, Mikkelsen J, Kay M. Postintegrative gene silencing within the Sleeping Beauty transposition system. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8824-33 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data reveal the existence of a multicomponent postintegrative gene silencing network that efficiently targets invading transposon sequences for transcriptional silencing in mammalian cells. ..
  47. Li X, Ewis H, Hice R, Malani N, Parker N, Zhou L, et al. A resurrected mammalian hAT transposable element and a closely related insect element are highly active in human cell culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E478-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we describe a Saccharomyces cerevisiae assay for TcBuster that will provide a means for isolation of hyperactive and other interesting classes of transposase mutants. ..
  48. Abdelhakim A, Sauer R, Baker T. The AAA+ ClpX machine unfolds a keystone subunit to remodel the Mu transpososome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2437-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The specific targeting of a stabilizing "keystone subunit" within a complex for unfolding is an attractive general mechanism for remodeling by AAA+ enzymes. ..
  49. Gersbach C, Gaj T, Gordley R, Mercer A, Barbas C. Targeted plasmid integration into the human genome by an engineered zinc-finger recombinase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:7868-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrates the potential for broad applicability of the ZFR technology in genome engineering, synthetic biology and gene therapy. ..
  50. Guynet C, Achard A, Hoang B, Barabas O, Hickman A, DYDA F, et al. Resetting the site: redirecting integration of an insertion sequence in a predictable way. Mol Cell. 2009;34:612-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggested a way to redirect IS608 transposition to novel target sites. As we demonstrate here, we can now direct insertions in a predictable way into a variety of different chosen target sequences, both in vitro and in vivo. ..
  51. Doherty J, Huye L, Yusa K, Zhou L, Craig N, Wilson M. Hyperactive piggyBac gene transfer in human cells and in vivo. Hum Gene Ther. 2012;23:311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that hyperactive piggyBac elements can increase gene transfer in human cells and in vivo and should enable improved gene delivery using the piggyBac transposon system in a variety of cell and gene-therapy applications. ..
  52. Thomas X, Hedhili S, Beuf L, Demattéi M, Laparra H, Khong G, et al. The mariner Mos1 transposase produced in tobacco is active in vitro. Genetica. 2010;138:519-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Several hypotheses are proposed that could explain the inhibition of HMNtMOS1 activity in planta. ..
  53. He S, Hickman A, Dyda F, Johnson N, Chandler M, Ton Hoang B. Reconstitution of a functional IS608 single-strand transpososome: role of non-canonical base pairing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:8503-12 pubmed publisher
  54. Casteret S, Chbab N, Cambefort J, Augé Gouillou C, Bigot Y, Rouleux Bonnin F. Physical properties of DNA components affecting the transposition efficiency of the mariner Mos1 element. Mol Genet Genomics. 2009;282:531-46 pubmed publisher
    ..terminal repeat (ITR) of the Mos1 mariner elements are suboptimal for transposition; and that hyperactive transposases and transposon with more efficient ITR configurations can be obtained by rational molecular engineering...
  55. Arensburger P, Hice R, Zhou L, Smith R, Tom A, Wright J, et al. Phylogenetic and functional characterization of the hAT transposon superfamily. Genetics. 2011;188:45-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that the recently discovered SPIN transposons of mammals are located within the family of Buster elements. ..
  56. Dalsgaard T, Moldt B, Sharma N, Wolf G, Schmitz A, Pedersen F, et al. Shielding of sleeping beauty DNA transposon-delivered transgene cassettes by heterologous insulators in early embryonal cells. Mol Ther. 2009;17:121-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that insulated SB-derived vectors will become useful tools in transposon-based transgenesis and therapeutic gene transfer. ..
  57. Baudry C, Malinsky S, Restituito M, Kapusta A, Rosa S, Meyer E, et al. PiggyMac, a domesticated piggyBac transposase involved in programmed genome rearrangements in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2478-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first in vivo evidence suggesting an essential endonucleolytic function of a domesticated piggyBac transposase...
  58. Keith J, Fraser T, Fraser M. Analysis of the piggyBac transposase reveals a functional nuclear targeting signal in the 94 c-terminal residues. BMC Mol Biol. 2008;9:72 pubmed publisher
  59. Subramanian R, Cathcart L, Krafsur E, Atkinson P, O Brochta D. Hermes transposon distribution and structure in Musca domestica. J Hered. 2009;100:473-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The simple sequence repeat found in hobo elements is a feature of this transposon that evolved since the divergence of hobo and Hermes. ..
  60. Wang W, Lin C, Lu D, Ning Z, Cox T, Melvin D, et al. Chromosomal transposition of PiggyBac in mouse embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:9290-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The comprehensive information from this study should facilitate further exploration of the potential of PB and SB DNA transposons in mammalian genetics. ..
  61. Damasceno J, Beverley S, Tosi L. A transposon toolkit for gene transfer and mutagenesis in protozoan parasites. Genetica. 2010;138:301-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The piggyBac and Tn5 transposons have also been shown to mobilize across Plasmodium spp. genomes circumventing the current limitations in the genetic manipulation of these organisms. ..
  62. Barsoum E, Martinez P, Aström S. Alpha3, a transposable element that promotes host sexual reproduction. Genes Dev. 2010;24:33-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that a protein homologous to transposases, called alpha3, was essential for mating type switch in Kluyveromyces lactis...
  63. Renault S, Demattéi M, Lahouassa H, Bigot Y, Augé Gouillou C. In vitro recombination and inverted terminal repeat binding activities of the Mcmar1 transposase. Biochemistry. 2010;49:3534-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the assembly of the transposition complex is more complex than that of those involved in the mobility of the Mos1 and Himar1 mariner elements. ..
  64. Grabundzija I, Wang J, Sebe A, Erdei Z, Kajdi R, Devaraj A, et al. Sleeping Beauty transposon-based system for cellular reprogramming and targeted gene insertion in induced pluripotent stem cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:1829-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy would allow correction of a genetic defect by site-specific insertion of a therapeutic gene construct into 'safe harbor' sites in the genomes of autologous, patient-derived iPS cells. ..
  65. Zhu J, Park C, Sjeklocha L, Kren B, Steer C. High-level genomic integration, epigenetic changes, and expression of sleeping beauty transgene. Biochemistry. 2010;49:1507-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, long-range activation of host genes must now be recognized as a potential consequence of an inserted transgene cassette containing enhancer elements. ..
  66. Claeys Bouuaert C, Liu D, Chalmers R. A simple topological filter in a eukaryotic transposon as a mechanism to suppress genome instability. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:317-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides constraints on the enzymatic mechanism of the double-strand breaks in mariner transposition, excluding the most prevalent of the current models. ..
  67. Urasaki A, Asakawa K, Kawakami K. Efficient transposition of the Tol2 transposable element from a single-copy donor in zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19827-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present study demonstrates that the in vivo Tol2 transposition system is useful for creating genome-wide insertions from a single-copy donor and should facilitate functional genomics and transposon biology in vertebrates. ..
  68. Trauner J, Schinko J, Lorenzen M, Shippy T, Wimmer E, Beeman R, et al. Large-scale insertional mutagenesis of a coleopteran stored grain pest, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, identifies embryonic lethal mutations and enhancer traps. BMC Biol. 2009;7:73 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the genetic elements used in this screen are species-nonspecific, and because the crossing scheme does not depend on balancer chromosomes, the methods presented herein should be broadly applicable for many insect species. ..
  69. Yusa K, Rad R, Takeda J, Bradley A. Generation of transgene-free induced pluripotent mouse stem cells by the piggyBac transposon. Nat Methods. 2009;6:363-9 pubmed publisher
    ..iPSCs fulfilled all criteria of pluripotency, such as pluripotency gene expression, teratoma formation and contribution to chimeras. piggyBac transposon-based reprogramming may be used to generate therapeutically applicable iPSCs. ..
  70. Nunvar J, Huckova T, Licha I. Identification and characterization of repetitive extragenic palindromes (REP)-associated tyrosine transposases: implications for REP evolution and dynamics in bacterial genomes. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:44 pubmed publisher
    ..Their origins are, at present, unknown. In this report, we describe a novel class of putative transposases related to IS200/IS605 transposase family and we demonstrate that they are obligately associated with bacterial ..
  71. Germon S, Bouchet N, Casteret S, Carpentier G, Adet J, Bigot Y, et al. Mariner Mos1 transposase optimization by rational mutagenesis. Genetica. 2009;137:265-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Even if host factors are not essential for transposition, our data demonstrate that the host machinery is essential in regulating MOS1 activity. ..
  72. Yergeau D, Kelley C, Zhu H, Kuliyev E, Mead P. Transposon transgenesis in Xenopus. Methods. 2010;51:92-100 pubmed publisher
  73. Su Q, Prosser H, Campos L, Ortiz M, Nakamura T, Warren M, et al. A DNA transposon-based approach to validate oncogenic mutations in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19904-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, these mice developed a broad spectrum of tumors at very early postnatal stages. This technology thus complements the large-scale cancer genome projects. ..
  74. Collier L, Adams D, Hackett C, Bendzick L, Akagi K, Davies M, et al. Whole-body sleeping beauty mutagenesis can cause penetrant leukemia/lymphoma and rare high-grade glioma without associated embryonic lethality. Cancer Res. 2009;69:8429-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the SB system could be used to identify new genes involved in lymphomagenesis/leukemogenesis. ..
  75. Sabogal A, Lyubimov A, Corn J, Berger J, Rio D. THAP proteins target specific DNA sites through bipartite recognition of adjacent major and minor grooves. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:117-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal the conserved mechanisms by which THAP-family proteins engage specific chromosomal target elements. ..
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    ..The Harbinger transposon will serve as a useful experimental system for transposon biology and for investigating the enzymatic functions of domesticated, transposon-derived cellular genes. ..
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    ..The classification obtained here from DNA sequences of 935 items matches the phylogenies of the transposase. The rate of error from a posteriori re-assignment is relatively low. ..
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    ..A series of fusion constructs consisting of the N-terminal DNA-binding domain of Rep and the transposases or the N57 domain of SB were generated...
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    ..Thus, Sleeping Beauty transposon targeted to liver sinusoidal endothelial cells provided long-term expression of FVIII, without apparent antibody formation, and improved the phenotype of hemophilia A mice. ..
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    ..These results demonstrate the promise of nonviral ex vivo genetic modification of autologous lymphocytes for the treatment of cancer and immunologic disease. ..
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    ..lineage-specific expansions and a tight linkage with genes encoding a novel and distinct family of predicted transposases, and a member of the Maelstrom-like HMG family...
  82. Robert V. Engineering the Caenorhabditis elegans genome by Mos1-induced transgene-instructed gene conversion. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;859:189-201 pubmed publisher
    ..In this chapter, we present two MosTIC protocols routinely used. ..
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    ..This work provides a powerful approach to enhance the properties of the PB system for applications such as genetic engineering and gene therapy. ..
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    ..Although a new clade of putative transposases (RAYTs or TnpA(REP)) is often associated with an increase in these repeats, it is not clear how these proteins ..
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    DNA transposases facilitate genome rearrangements by moving DNA transposons around and between genomes by a cut-and-paste mechanism...
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    ..We have previously generated hyperactive transposases derived from Sleeping Beauty, using an in vitro molecular evolution and selection paradigm...
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    b>Transposases are proteins that have assumed the mobility of class II transposable elements...
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    ..However, these motifs are not sufficient to constitute an attractive dinucleotide, since four TATA and TA x TA sites are cold spots. ..