myosin type iii


Summary: A subclass of myosins originally found in the photoreceptor of DROSOPHILA. The heavy chains can occur as two alternatively spliced isoforms of 132 and 174 KDa. The amino terminal of myosin type III is highly unusual in that it contains a protein kinase domain which may be an important component of the visual process.

Top Publications

  1. Schneider M, Dose A, Salles F, Chang W, Erickson F, Burnside B, et al. A new compartment at stereocilia tips defined by spatial and temporal patterns of myosin IIIa expression. J Neurosci. 2006;26:10243-52 pubmed
  2. Dose A, Ananthanarayanan S, Moore J, Corsa A, Burnside B, Yengo C. The kinase domain alters the kinetic properties of the myosin IIIA motor. Biochemistry. 2008;47:2485-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a model in which the activity and concentration of myosin IIIA localized to the tips of actin bundles mediates the morphology of the tips in sensory cells. ..
  3. Mieskes K, Distl O. Evaluation of ESPN, MYO3A, SLC26A5 and USH1C as candidates for hereditary non-syndromic deafness (congenital sensorineural deafness) in Dalmatian dogs. Anim Genet. 2007;38:533-4 pubmed
  4. Dose A, Ananthanarayanan S, Moore J, Burnside B, Yengo C. Kinetic mechanism of human myosin IIIA. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:216-31 pubmed
    ..The long lived actomyosin-ADP state may be important for the ability of myosin III to function as a cellular transporter and actin cross-linker in the actin bundles of sensory cells. ..
  5. Walsh T, Walsh V, Vreugde S, Hertzano R, Shahin H, Haika S, et al. From flies' eyes to our ears: mutations in a human class III myosin cause progressive nonsyndromic hearing loss DFNB30. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:7518-23 pubmed
    ..The involvement of homologous class III myosins in both Drosophila vision and human hearing is an evolutionary link between these sensory systems. ..
  6. Kempler K, Toth J, Yamashita R, Mapel G, Robinson K, Cardasis H, et al. Loop 2 of limulus myosin III is phosphorylated by protein kinase A and autophosphorylation. Biochemistry. 2007;46:4280-93 pubmed
  7. Dosé A, Burnside B. Cloning and chromosomal localization of a human class III myosin. Genomics. 2000;67:333-42 pubmed
    ..1 on the human cytogenetic map. Since mutations in NINAC have been shown to alter the photoresponse and compromise photoreceptor survival, the human homologue MYO3A may also play a role in photoreceptor function and/or maintenance. ..
  8. Hardie R, Satoh A, Liu C. Regulation of arrestin translocation by Ca2+ and myosin III in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 2012;32:9205-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that rapid Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent release of Arr2 from NINAC upon Ca(2+) influx accounts for the acceleration of translocation by phototransduction. ..
  9. Dose A, Burnside B. A class III myosin expressed in the retina is a potential candidate for Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Genomics. 2002;79:621-4 pubmed
    ..MYO3B maps to 2q31.1-q31.2, a region that overlaps the locus for a Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS5) linked to markers at 2q31 [3]. ..

More Information


  1. Brownstein Z, Avraham K. Deafness genes in Israel: implications for diagnostics in the clinic. Pediatr Res. 2009;66:128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In the future, the identification of specific mutations may be relevant for specific types of treatment. ..
  2. Quintero O, Unrath W, Stevens S, Manor U, Kachar B, Yengo C. Myosin 3A kinase activity is regulated by phosphorylation of the kinase domain activation loop. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:37126-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The differential regulation of the kinase and motor activities allows for MYO3A to precisely self-regulate its concentration in the actin bundle-based structures of cells. ..
  3. Komaba S, Inoue A, Maruta S, Hosoya H, Ikebe M. Determination of human myosin III as a motor protein having a protein kinase activity. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:21352-60 pubmed
    ..The present study is the first report that clearly demonstrates that the class III myosin is an actin-based motor protein having a protein kinase activity. ..
  4. Dose A, Hillman D, Wong C, Sohlberg L, Lin Jones J, Burnside B. Myo3A, one of two class III myosin genes expressed in vertebrate retina, is localized to the calycal processes of rod and cone photoreceptors and is expressed in the sacculus. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:1058-73 pubmed
    ..The numerous IQ motifs may play a structural or signaling role in the Myo3A, and its localization to calycal processes indicates that this myosin mediates a local function at this site in vertebrate photoreceptors. ..
  5. Kambara T, Komaba S, Ikebe M. Human myosin III is a motor having an extremely high affinity for actin. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:37291-301 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that myosin IIIA can spend a majority of its ATP hydrolysis cycling time on actin. ..
  6. Cardasis H, Stevens S, McClung S, Kempler K, Powell D, Eyler J, et al. The actin-binding interface of a myosin III is phosphorylated in vivo in response to signals from a circadian clock. Biochemistry. 2007;46:13907-19 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate in vivo changes in myosin III phosphorylation in response to a natural stimulus. This phosphorylation may modulate myosin III-actin interactions. ..
  7. Kai F, Tanner K, King C, Duncan R. Myopodin isoforms alter the chemokinetic response of PC3 cells in response to different migration stimuli via differential effects on Rho-ROCK signaling pathways. Carcinogenesis. 2012;33:2100-7 pubmed publisher
  8. Walsh V, Raviv D, Dror A, Shahin H, Walsh T, Kanaan M, et al. A mouse model for human hearing loss DFNB30 due to loss of function of myosin IIIA. Mamm Genome. 2011;22:170-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Vestibular function is normal. Outer hair cells of Myo3a(KI/KI) mice degenerate with age in a pattern consistent with their progressive hearing loss. ..
  9. Qu R, Sang Q, Xu Y, Feng R, Jin L, He L, et al. Identification of a novel homozygous mutation in MYO3A in a Chinese family with DFNB30 non-syndromic hearing impairment. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;84:43-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the second report on MYO3A mutations in deafness and the first report in China. The finding help facilitate establishing a better relationship between MYO3A mutation and hearing phenotypes. ..
  10. Lin Jones J, Sohlberg L, Dosé A, BRECKLER J, Hillman D, Burnside B. Identification and localization of myosin superfamily members in fish retina and retinal pigmented epithelium. J Comp Neurol. 2009;513:209-23 pubmed publisher
  11. Lee S, Montell C. Light-dependent translocation of visual arrestin regulated by the NINAC myosin III. Neuron. 2004;43:95-103 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that the light-dependent translocation of Arr2 into the rhabdomeres requires PI-mediated interactions between Arr2 and the NINAC myosin III. ..
  12. Merritt R, Manor U, Salles F, Grati M, Dose A, Unrath W, et al. Myosin IIIB uses an actin-binding motif in its espin-1 cargo to reach the tips of actin protrusions. Curr Biol. 2012;22:320-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also provides a framework to better understand the late-onset hearing loss phenotype in patients with MYO3A mutations. ..
  13. Les Erickson F, Corsa A, Dose A, Burnside B. Localization of a class III myosin to filopodia tips in transfected HeLa cells requires an actin-binding site in its tail domain. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:4173-80 pubmed
  14. Liu H, Li J, Raval M, Yao N, Deng X, Lu Q, et al. Myosin III-mediated cross-linking and stimulation of actin bundling activity of Espin. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..We also provide evidence that Myo3-mediated cross-linking can further promote actin fiber bundling activity of Espin1. ..
  15. Strissel K, Arshavsky V. Myosin III illuminates the mechanism of arrestin translocation. Neuron. 2004;43:2-4 pubmed
    ..They show that arrestin is carried into the light-sensitive microvilli by phosphoinositide-enriched vesicles driven by a myosin motor. ..
  16. Unschuld P, Ising M, Specht M, Erhardt A, Ripke S, Heck A, et al. Polymorphisms in the GAD2 gene-region are associated with susceptibility for unipolar depression and with a risk factor for anxiety disorders. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009;150B:1100-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, data from expression studies imply that these polymorphisms could tag functional effects on the neighboring gene MYO3A, which is also expressed in the brain, including the cingulate cortex and the amygdala. ..
  17. Katti C, Dalal J, Dose A, Burnside B, Battelle B. Cloning and distribution of myosin 3B in the mouse retina: differential distribution in cone outer segments. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:224-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Myo3B may have diverse roles in retinal neurons. In photoreceptor inner segments Myo3B is positioned appropriately to prevent photoreceptor loss of function caused by Myo3A defects. ..
  18. Komaba S, Watanabe S, Umeki N, Sato O, Ikebe M. Effect of phosphorylation in the motor domain of human myosin IIIA on its ATP hydrolysis cycle. Biochemistry. 2010;49:3695-702 pubmed publisher
  19. Venkitasubramanian P, Daniels L, Rosazza J. Reduction of carboxylic acids by Nocardia aldehyde oxidoreductase requires a phosphopantetheinylated enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:478-85 pubmed
    ..Doubly recombinant resting E. coli cells efficiently reduce vanillic acid to vanillin...
  20. Lin Jones J, Parker E, Wu M, Dosé A, Burnside B. Myosin 3A transgene expression produces abnormal actin filament bundles in transgenic Xenopus laevis rod photoreceptors. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5825-34 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that Myo3A plays a role in the morphogenesis and maintenance of calycal processes of vertebrate photoreceptors. ..
  21. Harzsch S, Vilpoux K, Blackburn D, Platchetzki D, Brown N, Melzer R, et al. Evolution of arthropod visual systems: development of the eyes and central visual pathways in the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus Linnaeus, 1758 (Chelicerata, Xiphosura). Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2641-55 pubmed
    ..These data are compared with eye development in Drosophila melanogaster and are discussed with regard to new ideas on eye evolution in the Euarthropoda. ..
  22. Kuzman M, Medved V, Terzic J, Krainc D. Genome-wide expression analysis of peripheral blood identifies candidate biomarkers for schizophrenia. J Psychiatr Res. 2009;43:1073-7 pubmed publisher
  23. Blackburn D, Conley K, Plachetzki D, Kempler K, Battelle B, Brown N. Isolation and expression of Pax6 and atonal homologues in the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:2209-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, neither gene is expressed in the developing eye types examined, although both genes are present in the lateral sense organ, a structure of unknown function...
  24. Dalal J, Stevens S, Alvarez S, Munoz N, Kempler K, Dose A, et al. Mouse class III myosins: kinase activity and phosphorylation sites. J Neurochem. 2011;119:772-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are a major step toward understanding how the functions of class III myosins are regulated by phosphorylation. ..
  25. Grati M, Yan D, Raval M, Walsh T, Ma Q, Chakchouk I, et al. MYO3A Causes Human Dominant Deafness and Interacts with Protocadherin 15-CD2 Isoform. Hum Mutat. 2016;37:481-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, we uncovered a novel interaction between MYO3A and PCDH15 shedding new light on the function of myosin IIIA at stereocilia tips. ..
  26. Daugherty M, Luo Q, Sokoloff A. Myosin heavy chain composition of the human genioglossus muscle. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2012;55:609-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite activation of GG during kinematically diverse behaviors and complex patterns of GG motor unit activity, the human GG is composed of conventional MHC isoforms and 3 primary MHC phenotypes. ..
  27. Quintero O, Moore J, Unrath W, Manor U, Salles F, Grati M, et al. Intermolecular autophosphorylation regulates myosin IIIa activity and localization in parallel actin bundles. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35770-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that this regulatory mechanism plays an essential role in mediating the transport and actin bundle formation/stability functions of Myo3A. ..