Summary: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.

Top Publications

  1. de Thonel A, Ferraris S, Pallari H, Imanishi S, Kochin V, Hosokawa T, et al. Protein kinase Czeta regulates Cdk5/p25 signaling during myogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:1423-34 pubmed publisher
  2. Pattanayek R, Mori T, Xu Y, Pattanayek S, Johnson C, Egli M. Structures of KaiC circadian clock mutant proteins: a new phosphorylation site at T426 and mechanisms of kinase, ATPase and phosphatase. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7529 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures combined with functional data for a host of KaiC mutant proteins help rationalize why S431 trails T432 in the loss of its phosphate and shed light on the mechanisms of the KaiC kinase, ATPase and phosphatase activities. ..
  3. Lee T, Bretaña N, Lu C. PlantPhos: using maximal dependence decomposition to identify plant phosphorylation sites with substrate site specificity. BMC Bioinformatics. 2011;12:261 pubmed publisher Additionally, two case studies have been demonstrated to further evaluate the effectiveness of PlantPhos. ..
  4. Kanaan N, Morfini G, LaPointe N, Pigino G, Patterson K, Song Y, et al. Pathogenic forms of tau inhibit kinesin-dependent axonal transport through a mechanism involving activation of axonal phosphotransferases. J Neurosci. 2011;31:9858-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from these studies reveal a novel role for tau in modulating axonal phosphotransferases and provide a molecular basis for a toxic gain-of-function associated with pathogenic forms of tau.
  5. Shi X, Rashotte A. Advances in upstream players of cytokinin phosphorelay: receptors and histidine phosphotransfer proteins. Plant Cell Rep. 2012;31:789-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the recent advances on the cytokinin receptors and HPt proteins in Arabidopsis. ..
  6. Couteau F, Zetka M. DNA damage during meiosis induces chromatin remodeling and synaptonemal complex disassembly. Dev Cell. 2011;20:353-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the meiotic DDR involves early chromatin remodeling at chromosome axes to dismantle structures promoting interhomolog recombination and facilitate efficient nonhomolog-based repair before pachytene exit. ..
  7. Hwang I, Sheen J, Muller B. Cytokinin signaling networks. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2012;63:353-80 pubmed publisher
  8. Biondi E, Maxwell A, Burke D. A small ribozyme with dual-site kinase activity. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:7528-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our evidence supports a single, compact structure with local dynamics, rather than global rearrangement, as being responsible for dual-site phosphorylation. ..
  9. Zeng L, Burne R. Comprehensive mutational analysis of sucrose-metabolizing pathways in Streptococcus mutans reveals novel roles for the sucrose phosphotransferase system permease. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:833-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Sucrose-dependent catabolite repression was also evident in strains containing an intact sucrose PTS. Collectively, these results reveal a novel regulatory circuitry for the control of sucrose catabolism, with a central role for ScrA...

More Information


  1. Posy S, Hermsmeier M, Vaccaro W, Ott K, Todderud G, Lippy J, et al. Trends in kinase selectivity: insights for target class-focused library screening. J Med Chem. 2011;54:54-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a scaffold-oriented approach for building compound collections to screen kinase targets. ..
  2. Utreras E, Terse A, Keller J, Iadarola M, Kulkarni A. Resveratrol inhibits Cdk5 activity through regulation of p35 expression. Mol Pain. 2011;7:49 pubmed publisher
    ..This new molecular mechanism adds to the known analgesic effects of resveratrol and confirms the need for identifying new analgesics based on their ability to inhibit Cdk5 activity for effective treatment of pain. ..
  3. Dushek O, van der Merwe P, Shahrezaei V. Ultrasensitivity in multisite phosphorylation of membrane-anchored proteins. Biophys J. 2011;100:1189-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a new role, to our knowledge, for multisite membrane-anchored proteins, discuss experiments that can be used to probe the model, and relate our findings to previous theoretical work. ..
  4. Moore J, Hendrickson W. An asymmetry-to-symmetry switch in signal transmission by the histidine kinase receptor for TMAO. Structure. 2012;20:729-41 pubmed publisher
    ..TorS-TorT(apo) is an asymmetric 2:2 complex that binds TMAO with negative cooperativity to form a symmetric active kinase. ..
  5. Bodenmiller B, Wanka S, Kraft C, Urban J, Campbell D, Pedrioli P, et al. Phosphoproteomic analysis reveals interconnected system-wide responses to perturbations of kinases and phosphatases in yeast. Sci Signal. 2010;3:rs4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results serve to constrain future models of cellular signaling and reinforce the idea that simple linear representations of signaling pathways might be insufficient for drug development and for describing organismal homeostasis. ..
  6. Scheeff E, Eswaran J, Bunkoczi G, Knapp S, Manning G. Structure of the pseudokinase VRK3 reveals a degraded catalytic site, a highly conserved kinase fold, and a putative regulatory binding site. Structure. 2009;17:128-38 pubmed publisher
  7. Biondi E, Nickens D, Warren S, Saran D, Burke D. Convergent donor and acceptor substrate utilization among kinase ribozymes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:6785-95 pubmed publisher
    ..All but one of the mapped (thio)phosphorylation sites are on unpaired guanosines within internal bulges. Comparative structural analysis identified three loosely-defined consensus structural motifs for kinase ribozyme active sites. ..
  8. Brooijmans N, Chang Y, Mobilio D, Denny R, Humblet C. An enriched structural kinase database to enable kinome-wide structure-based analyses and drug discovery. Protein Sci. 2010;19:763-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, 90% of kinases are found to have at least one stabilizing interaction for the hinge region, which has not been described before. ..
  9. Fischer J, Graebner Baessler O, Dalhoff C, Michaelis S, Schrey A, Ungewiss J, et al. Comprehensive identification of staurosporine-binding kinases in the hepatocyte cell line HepG2 using Capture Compound Mass Spectrometry (CCMS). J Proteome Res. 2010;9:806-17 pubmed publisher
    ..CCMS experiments in membrane fractions of human placenta are given as example for the applicability to human tissue. ..
  10. Shim M, Kim J, Jung H, Lee K, Xu X, Carlson B, et al. Elevation of glutamine level by selenophosphate synthetase 1 knockdown induces megamitochondrial formation in Drosophila cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32881-94 pubmed publisher
  11. Lassak J, Henche A, Binnenkade L, Thormann K. ArcS, the cognate sensor kinase in an atypical Arc system of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:3263-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we speculate that ArcS might have adopted the role of ArcB after a loss of the original sensor kinase, perhaps as a consequence of regulatory adaptation to a redox-stratified environment. ..
  12. Folkvord S, Flatmark K, Dueland S, de Wijn R, Grøholt K, Hole K, et al. Prediction of response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer by multiplex kinase activity profiling. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;78:555-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiplex kinase activity profiling may identify functional biomarkers predictive of tumor response to preoperative CRT in LARC. ..
  13. Liu X, Bardwell L, Nie Q. A combination of multisite phosphorylation and substrate sequestration produces switchlike responses. Biophys J. 2010;98:1396-407 pubmed publisher
    ..In some strategies, such as when phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are segregated, a near-optimal switch is possible, where the effective Hill number equals the number of phosphorylation sites. ..
  14. Kim J, Lee K, Shim M, Shin H, Xu X, Carlson B, et al. Human selenophosphate synthetase 1 has five splice variants with unique interactions, subcellular localizations and expression patterns. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;397:53-8 pubmed publisher
    ..DeltaE2 expression peaked at mid-S phase and then gradually decreased. However, +E9/+E9a expression decreased gradually after cell cycle arrest. The possible involvement of SPS1 splice variants in cell cycle regulation is discussed. ..
  15. Piersma S, Labots M, Verheul H, Jimenez C. Strategies for kinome profiling in cancer and potential clinical applications: chemical proteomics and array-based methods. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010;397:3163-71 pubmed publisher
  16. Biswas K, Shenoy A, Dutta A, Visweswariah S. The evolution of guanylyl cyclases as multidomain proteins: conserved features of kinase-cyclase domain fusions. J Mol Evol. 2009;68:587-602 pubmed publisher
  17. Rosell R, Moran T, Carcereny E, Quiroga V, Molina M, Costa C, et al. Non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring mutations in the EGFR kinase domain. Clin Transl Oncol. 2010;12:75-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The sensitivity to EGFR TKIs could be greatly influenced by the expression of genes involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining. ..
  18. Utreras E, Futatsugi A, Rudrabhatla P, Keller J, Iadarola M, Pant H, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulates cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity during pain signaling through transcriptional activation of p35. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:2275-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that TNF-alpha-mediated regulation of Cdk5 activity plays an important role in inflammation-induced pain signaling. ..
  19. Zegzouti H, Zdanovskaia M, Hsiao K, Goueli S. ADP-Glo: A Bioluminescent and homogeneous ADP monitoring assay for kinases. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2009;7:560-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to its high signal to background and luminescent readout, this assay is less susceptible to generation of false hits and thus it is applicable to not only primary and secondary screening but also kinase profiling. ..
  20. Koike T, Izumikawa T, Tamura J, Kitagawa H. FAM20B is a kinase that phosphorylates xylose in the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region. Biochem J. 2009;421:157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that FAM20B regulates the number of glycosaminoglycan chains by phosphorylating the xylose residue in the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region of proteoglycans. ..
  21. Shymanets A, Ahmadian M, Nurnberg B. Gbetagamma-copurified lipid kinase impurity from Sf9 cells. Protein Pept Lett. 2009;16:1053-6 pubmed
    ..Here we describe an improved procedure of Gbeta(1)gamma(2) purification from cell membranes that separates the contaminating phospholipid kinase. ..
  22. Chavez R, Alvarez A, Romeo T, Georgellis D. The physiological stimulus for the BarA sensor kinase. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:2009-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the metabolic end products formate and acetate provide a physiological stimulus for this TCS and thus link posttranscriptional regulation by the Csr system to the metabolic state of the cell. ..
  23. Punwani J, Hutchison C, Schaller G, Kieber J. The subcellular distribution of the Arabidopsis histidine phosphotransfer proteins is independent of cytokinin signaling. Plant J. 2010;62:473-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, AHPs actively maintain a consistent nuclear/cytosolic distribution regardless of the status of the cytokinin response pathway. ..
  24. Burke D, Rhee S. Assembly and activation of a kinase ribozyme. RNA. 2010;16:2349-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These results refine the structural view of this kinase ribozyme and highlight the importance of nonspecific ensemble effects in conformational regulation by peripheral elements. ..
  25. Srivastava M, Simakov O, Chapman J, Fahey B, Gauthier M, Mitros T, et al. The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity. Nature. 2010;466:720-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, many of the genes associated with the emergence of animals are also implicated in cancer, which arises from defects in basic processes associated with metazoan multicellularity. ..
  26. Fu D, Uauy C, Distelfeld A, Blechl A, Epstein L, Chen X, et al. A kinase-START gene confers temperature-dependent resistance to wheat stripe rust. Science. 2009;323:1357-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Yr36 is present in wild wheat but is absent in modern pasta and bread wheat varieties, and therefore it can now be used to improve resistance to stripe rust in a broad set of varieties. ..
  27. Böcker A, Bonneau P, Edwards P. HTS promiscuity analyses for accelerating decision making. J Biomol Screen. 2011;16:765-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors believe this analysis and its concrete applications are valuable tools for streamlining and accelerating decision-making processes during the course of hit discovery. ..
  28. Qian H, Roy S. An information theoretical analysis of kinase activated phosphorylation dephosphorylation cycle. IEEE Trans Nanobioscience. 2012;11:289-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis shows that while a static code can be molecular structure based, a biochemical communication channel has to have energy expenditure. ..
  29. Liao H, Myung S, Zhang Y. One-step purification and immobilization of thermophilic polyphosphate glucokinase from Thermobifida fusca YX: glucose-6-phosphate generation without ATP. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;93:1109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Free PPGK and immobilized CBM-PPGK had total turnover number values of 126,000 and 961,000 mol product per mol enzyme, respectively, suggesting their great potential in glucose-6-phosphate generation based on low-cost polyphosphate. ..
  30. Ipata P, Camici M, Micheli V, Tozz M. Metabolic network of nucleosides in the brain. Curr Top Med Chem. 2011;11:909-22 pubmed
  31. Angiolini M. Targeting the DFG-in kinase conformation: a new trend emerging from a patent analysis. Future Med Chem. 2011;3:309-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Preclinical and clinical data are also highlighted for the most promising new molecular entities. ..
  32. Patel K, Ciepichal E, Swiezewska E, Valvano M. The C-terminal domain of the Salmonella enterica WbaP (UDP-galactose:Und-P galactose-1-phosphate transferase) is sufficient for catalytic activity and specificity for undecaprenyl monophosphate. Glycobiology. 2012;22:116-22 pubmed publisher
  33. Siedler S, Bringer S, Blank L, Bott M. Engineering yield and rate of reductive biotransformation in Escherichia coli by partial cyclization of the pentose phosphate pathway and PTS-independent glucose transport. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;93:1459-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, metabolic engineering strategies are presented for improving yield and rate of reductive redox biocatalysis by partial cyclization of the PPP and by increasing glucose uptake, respectively...
  34. Zan J, Heindl J, Liu Y, Fuqua C, Hill R. The CckA-ChpT-CtrA phosphorelay system is regulated by quorum sensing and controls flagellar motility in the marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66346 pubmed publisher
    ..SsaR and long chain AHLs are required for cckA, chpT and ctrA gene expression, providing a regulatory link between flagellar locomotion and population density in KLH11. ..
  35. Sessel S, Fernandez A. Selectivity filters to edit out deleterious side effects in kinase inhibitors. Curr Top Med Chem. 2011;11:788-99 pubmed
  36. Asakawa C, Ogawa M, Fujinaga M, Kumata K, Xie L, Yamasaki T, et al. Utilization of [11C]phosgene for radiosynthesis of N-(2-{3-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)]phenyl[11C]ureido}ethyl)glycyrrhetinamide, an inhibitory agent for proteasome and kinase in tumors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:3594-7 pubmed publisher
  37. Foucher A, Rachidi N, Gharbi S, Blisnick T, Bastin P, Pemberton I, et al. Apoptotic marker expression in the absence of cell death in staurosporine-treated Leishmania donovani. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:1252-61 pubmed publisher
  38. Dong M, Ye M, Cheng K, Song C, Pan Y, Wang C, et al. Depletion of acidic phosphopeptides by SAX to improve the coverage for the detection of basophilic kinase substrates. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:4673-81 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that motifs associated with basophilic kinases prevail for these identified phosphorylated sites. ..
  39. Boucher J, Macotela Y, Bezy O, Mori M, Kriauciunas K, Kahn C. A kinase-independent role for unoccupied insulin and IGF-1 receptors in the control of apoptosis. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra87 pubmed publisher
    ..Insulin and IGF-1 binding stimulates receptor tyrosine kinase activity and blocks apoptosis, whereas unliganded IR and IGF1R, acting through a mechanism independent of their catalytic activity, exert a permissive effect on cell death. ..
  40. Quitterer F, List A, Beck P, Bacher A, Groll M. Biosynthesis of the 22nd genetically encoded amino acid pyrrolysine: structure and reaction mechanism of PylC at 1.5Å resolution. J Mol Biol. 2012;424:270-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas one ATP molecule is involved in catalysis, the second adenine nucleotide functions as a selective anchor for the C- and N-terminus of the Lys substrate and is responsible for protein stability as shown by mutagenesis. ..
  41. Zhang L, Holmes I, Hochgräfe F, Walker S, Ali N, Humphrey E, et al. Characterization of the novel broad-spectrum kinase inhibitor CTx-0294885 as an affinity reagent for mass spectrometry-based kinome profiling. J Proteome Res. 2013;12:3104-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium ( ) via the PRIDE partner repository with the data set identifier PXD000239. ..
  42. Rosenblum J, Nomanbhoy T, Kozarich J. Functional interrogation of kinases and other nucleotide-binding proteins. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:1870-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, these innovative platforms have paved the way for a new generation of drugs whose properties have been guided by functional profiling. ..
  43. Krishnan S, Zhou X, Paredes J, Kuiper R, Curbo S, Karlsson A. Transgene expression of Drosophila melanogaster nucleoside kinase reverses mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:5072-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented open new possibilities to treat the severe symptoms of TK2 deficiency. ..
  44. Dehne N, Fuhrmann D, Brüne B. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in hormone signaling during health and disease. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2013;11:125-35 pubmed
    ..We define how these signaling circuits promote or delay the progression of diseases and describe potential outcomes for patients. ..
  45. Su S, Seo J, Pan J, Samuels B, Rudenko A, Ericsson M, et al. Regulation of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels and presynaptic function by cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Neuron. 2012;75:675-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results highlight a molecular mechanism by which N-type calcium channels are regulated by Cdk5 to affect presynaptic function. ..
  46. Horiuchi Hirose M, Kashihara T, Nakada T, Kurebayashi N, Shimojo H, Shibazaki T, et al. Decrease in the density of t-tubular L-type Ca2+ channel currents in failing ventricular myocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;300:H978-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenomenon might underlie the decreased CICR gain in heart failure. ..
  47. Kim K, Kim J, Kim J, Choi J, Lee Y, Neamati N, et al. VprBP has intrinsic kinase activity targeting histone H2A and represses gene transcription. Mol Cell. 2013;52:459-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish VprBP as a major kinase responsible for H2AT120p in cancer cells and suggest that VprBP inhibition could be a new strategy for the development of anticancer therapeutics. ..
  48. Draney C, Hobson A, Grover S, Jack B, Tessem J. Cdk5r1 Overexpression Induces Primary β-Cell Proliferation. J Diabetes Res. 2016;2016:6375804 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that activation of the Cdk5 kinase complex is sufficient to induce β-cell proliferation while maintaining glucose stimulated insulin secretion. ..
  49. Volz F, Bock H, Gierthmuehlen M, Zentner J, Haas C, Freiman T. Stereologic estimation of hippocampal GluR2/3- and calretinin-immunoreactive hilar neurons (presumptive mossy cells) in two mouse models of temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2011;52:1579-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a probable lack of causality between mossy cell death and mossy fiber sprouting...
  50. Shangguan Y, Jiang H, Pan Z, Xiao H, Tan Y, Tie K, et al. Glucocorticoid mediates prenatal caffeine exposure-induced endochondral ossification retardation and its molecular mechanism in female fetal rats. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e3157 pubmed publisher
  51. Yang X, Zhao W, Hua C, Zheng X, Jing M, Li D, et al. Chemotaxis and oospore formation in Phytophthora sojae are controlled by G-protein-coupled receptors with a phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase domain. Mol Microbiol. 2013;88:382-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results point to involvement of GKs in zoospore behaviour, chemotaxis and oospore development, and suggest that PsGK4 and PsGK5 each head independent signalling pathways. ..
  52. Raberg M, Peplinski K, Heiss S, Ehrenreich A, Voigt B, Döring C, et al. Proteomic and transcriptomic elucidation of the mutant ralstonia eutropha G+1 with regard to glucose utilization. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:2058-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study successfully combined transcriptomic and proteomic investigations to unravel the phenotype of this hitherto-undefined glucose-utilizing mutant. ..
  53. Szyniarowski P, Corcelle Termeau E, Farkas T, Høyer Hansen M, Nylandsted J, Kallunki T, et al. A comprehensive siRNA screen for kinases that suppress macroautophagy in optimal growth conditions. Autophagy. 2011;7:892-903 pubmed
    ..The kinases identified here shed light to the complex regulation of macroautophagy and open new possibilities for its pharmacological manipulation. ..
  54. Chand N, Lee J, Clatworthy A, Golas A, Smith R, Hung D. The sensor kinase KinB regulates virulence in acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:2989-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Its regulation of these phenotypes is independent of its kinase activity and its known response regulator AlgB, suggesting that it does not fit the canonical two-component sensor-response regulator model. ..