thymidylate synthase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and dUMP to dihydrofolate and dTMP in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.1.1.45.

Top Publications

  1. Takezawa K, Okamoto I, Okamoto W, Takeda M, Sakai K, Tsukioka S, et al. Thymidylate synthase as a determinant of pemetrexed sensitivity in non-small cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer. 2011;104:1594-601 pubmed publisher
    Although a high level of thymidylate synthase (TS) expression in malignant tumours has been suggested to be related to a reduced sensitivity to the antifolate drug pemetrexed, no direct evidence for such an association has been ..
  2. Nabeya Y, Suzuki T, Furuya A, Koide N, Ohkoshi M, Takiguchi M, et al. Calpain regulates thymidylate synthase-5-fluoro-dUMP complex levels associated with response to 5-fluorouracil in gastric cancer cells. Cancer Sci. 2011;102:1509-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymidylate synthase (TS) plays a major role in the response to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by binding directly to the 5-FU metabolite, 5-fluoro-dUMP (FdUMP)...
  3. Hu H, Kuang L, Zeng X, Li B, Liu E, Zhong M. Predictive value of thymidylate synthase expression in gastric cancer: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13:261-7 pubmed
    The relationship between thymidylate synthase (TS) expression and outcomes in gastric cancer (GC) patients remains controversial, although most studies reported poor survival and reduced response to fluoropyrimidine were related to high ..
  4. Ho V, Massey T, King W. Influence of thymidylate synthase gene polymorphisms on total plasma homocysteine concentrations. Mol Genet Metab. 2010;101:18-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a key enzyme that regulates the production of nucleotide synthesis by catalyzing the conversion of deoxyuridylate to thymidylate...
  5. Wang Z, Kohen A. Thymidylate synthase catalyzed H-transfers: two chapters in one tale. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:9820-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thymidylate synthase (TSase) catalyzes a complex reaction that involves many chemical transformations including two different C-..
  6. Shen J, Wang H, Wei J, Yu L, Xie L, Qian X, et al. Thymidylate synthase mRNA levels in plasma and tumor as potential predictive biomarkers for raltitrexed sensitivity in gastric cancer. Int J Cancer. 2012;131:E938-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study was to investigate the role of plasma and tumor thymidylate synthase (TS) mRNA levels as predictive biomarkers for raltitrexed in gastric cancer...
  7. Zhang X, Zhou X, Kisliuk R, Piraino J, Cody V, Gangjee A. Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and X-ray crystal structure of novel classical 6,5,6-tricyclic benzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines as dual thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011;19:3585-94 pubmed publisher
    ..scaffold and a flexible and rigid benzoylglutamate were synthesized as dual thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors...
  8. Srivastava V, Gupta S, Siddiqi M, Mishra B. 3D-QSAR studies on quinazoline antifolate thymidylate synthase inhibitors by CoMFA and CoMSIA models. Eur J Med Chem. 2010;45:1560-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a crucial enzyme for DNA biosynthesis and many nonclassical lipophilic antifolates targeting this enzyme are quite efficient and encouraging as antitumor drugs...
  9. Rothbart S, Racanelli A, Moran R. Pemetrexed indirectly activates the metabolic kinase AMPK in human carcinomas. Cancer Res. 2010;70:10299-309 pubmed publisher
    The chemotherapeutic drug pemetrexed, an inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, has an important secondary target in human leukemic cells, aminoimidazolecarboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (AICART), the second folate-dependent enzyme ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kaira K, Ohde Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura T, Murakami H, Takahashi T, et al. Thymidylate synthase expression is closely associated with outcome in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Med Oncol. 2012;29:1663-72 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to elucidate the prognostic significance of thymidylate synthase (TS), orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) in completely resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
  2. Stern A, Mayrose I, Penn O, Shaul S, Gophna U, Pupko T. An evolutionary analysis of lateral gene transfer in thymidylate synthase enzymes. Syst Biol. 2010;59:212-25 pubmed publisher
    ..By reconstructing the ThyA and ThyX gene trees, the most likely donor of each LGT event was inferred. The role of viruses in LGT of Thy is finally discussed. ..
  3. Righi L, Papotti M, Ceppi P, Billè A, Bacillo E, Molinaro L, et al. Thymidylate synthase but not excision repair cross-complementation group 1 tumor expression predicts outcome in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma treated with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:1534-9 pubmed publisher
    The relationship between thymidylate synthase (TS) expression and outcome in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) treated with pemetrexed (P) was retrospectively evaluated...
  4. Kato H, Yui T, Yamamoto N, Okada T, Urano M, Sakurai K, et al. [The clinical significance of thymidylate synthase expression in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho. 2012;115:957-64 pubmed
    ..b>Thymidylate synthase (TS) is one of the initial key enzymes in the 5-fluouracil (5-FU) metabolic pathway...
  5. Kristensen M, Weidinger M, Bzorek M, Pedersen P, Mejer J. Correlation between thymidylate synthase gene variants, RNA and protein levels in primary colorectal adenocarcinomas. J Int Med Res. 2010;38:484-97 pubmed
    This study was designed to compare thymidylate synthase (TS) genotype, mRNA and protein levels in primary colorectal adenocarcinoma, and to examine the correlation between microsatellite instability (MSI) and TS expression...
  6. Garg D, Beribisky A, Ponterini G, Ligabue A, Marverti G, Martello A, et al. Translational repression of thymidylate synthase by targeting its mRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:4159-70 pubmed publisher
    Resistance to drugs targeting human thymidylate synthase (TS) poses a major challenge in the field of anti-cancer therapeutics...
  7. Gibson L, Celeste L, Lovelace L, Lebioda L. Structures of human thymidylate synthase R163K with dUMP, FdUMP and glutathione show asymmetric ligand binding. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2011;67:60-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a well validated target in cancer chemotherapy...
  8. Christoph D, Asuncion B, Hassan B, Tran C, Maltzman J, O Shannessy D, et al. Significance of folate receptor alpha and thymidylate synthase protein expression in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer treated with pemetrexed. J Thorac Oncol. 2013;8:19-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated FRA as a biomarker for pemetrexed-based chemotherapy and compared it with thymidylate synthase (TS), the main target of pemetrexed...
  9. Komori S, Osada S, Mori R, Matsui S, Sanada Y, Tomita H, et al. Contribution of thymidylate synthase to gemcitabine therapy for advanced pancreatic cancer. Pancreas. 2010;39:1284-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitors activate human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1. We evaluated the contribution of TS expression to determine a treatment method providing an effect from gemcitabine (GEM)...
  10. Jarmuła A, Rode W. Computational study of the effects of protein tyrosine nitrations on the catalytic activity of human thymidylate synthase. J Comput Aided Mol Des. 2013;27:45-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS), a homodimer, is a molecular target for anticancer therapy...
  11. Frings V, van der Veldt A, Boellaard R, Herder G, Giovannetti E, Honeywell R, et al. Pemetrexed induced thymidylate synthase inhibition in non-small cell lung cancer patients: a pilot study with 3'-deoxy-3'-[¹?F]fluorothymidine positron emission tomography. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63705 pubmed publisher
    Pemetrexed is a thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor and is effective in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 3'-deoxy-3'-[¹?F]fluorothymidine (¹?F-FLT), a proliferation marker, could potentially identify tumor specific TS-inhibition...
  12. Kline C, Sheikh H, Scicchitano A, Gingrich R, Beachler C, Finnberg N, et al. Preliminary observations indicate variable patterns of plasma 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) levels during dose optimization of infusional 5-FU in colorectal cancer patients. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011;12:557-68 pubmed
  13. Kao S, Lee K, Klebe S, Henderson D, McCaughan B, Vardy J, et al. Excision repair cross complementation group 1 and thymidylate synthase expression in patients with mesothelioma. Clin Lung Cancer. 2013;14:164-71 pubmed publisher
    ..pleural mesothelioma (MPM) undergoing extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), high expression of excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and low expression of thymidylate synthase (TS) are associated with prolonged survival.
  14. Zhang Q, Zhao Y, Liao Q, Hu Y, Xu Q, Zhou L, et al. Associations between gene polymorphisms of thymidylate synthase with its protein expression and chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in pancreatic carcinoma cells. Chin Med J (Engl). 2011;124:262-7 pubmed
    b>Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a key regulatory enzyme for de novo DNA synthesis...
  15. MacFarlane A, Anderson D, Flodby P, Perry C, Allen R, Stabler S, et al. Nuclear localization of de novo thymidylate biosynthesis pathway is required to prevent uracil accumulation in DNA. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:44015-22 pubmed publisher
    ..de novo thymidylate biosynthesis, a pathway composed of the enzymes serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), thymidylate synthase (TYMS), and dihydrofolate reductase...
  16. Tanomsing N, Imwong M, Theppabutr S, Pukrittayakamee S, Day N, White N, et al. Accurate and sensitive detection of Plasmodium species in humans by use of the dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase linker region. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3735-7 pubmed publisher
    A nested-PCR protocol based on the linker region of the Plasmodium dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene (dhfr-ts) was developed...
  17. Uramoto H, Onitsuka T, Shimokawa H, Hanagiri T. TS, DHFR and GARFT expression in non-squamous cell carcinoma of NSCLC and malignant pleural mesothelioma patients treated with pemetrexed. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:4309-15 pubmed
    ..IHC) staining of the primary tumor were used to analyze the mRNA and protein expressions of thymidylate synthase (TS)/dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT), and to ..
  18. Lamas M, Duran G, Gomez A, Balboa E, Anido U, Bernardez B, et al. X-ray cross-complementing group 1 and thymidylate synthase polymorphisms might predict response to chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82:138-44 pubmed publisher
    ..62-10.74, p = .003) Patients with polymorphisms associated with high expression of thymidylate synthase (2R/3G, 3C/3G, and 3G/3G) showed a greater pathologic response rate compared with carriers of low ..
  19. Ceppi P, Rapa I, Lo Iacono M, Righi L, Giorcelli J, Pautasso M, et al. Expression and pharmacological inhibition of thymidylate synthase and Src kinase in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Int J Cancer. 2012;130:1777-86 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thymidylate synthase (TS) is an enzyme essential for DNA synthesis, and its overexpression has been associated with the reduced ..
  20. Lee K, Hur H, Im S, Lee J, Kim H, Yoon Y, et al. RAD001 shows activity against gastric cancer cells and overcomes 5-FU resistance by downregulating thymidylate synthase. Cancer Lett. 2010;299:22-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, RAD001 conferred sensitivity to 5-FU-resistant cell lines by downregulating thymidylate synthase (TS)...
  21. Kögler M, Busson R, De Jonghe S, Rozenski J, Van Belle K, Louat T, et al. Synthesis and evaluation of 6-aza-2'-deoxyuridine monophosphate analogs as inhibitors of thymidylate synthases, and as substrates or inhibitors of thymidine monophosphate kinase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Chem Biodivers. 2012;9:536-56 pubmed publisher
    ..e., a flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase, ThyX, and a classical thymidylate synthase, ThyA)...
  22. Begley D, Zheng S, Varani G. Fragment-based discovery of novel thymidylate synthase leads by NMR screening and group epitope mapping. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2010;76:218-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We applied ligand-based NMR techniques to the study of human thymidylate synthase (hTS) using known nanomolar inhibitors and a library of small molecule fragments...
  23. Kanaan N, Ferrer S, Martí S, Garcia Viloca M, Kohen A, Moliner V. Temperature dependence of the kinetic isotope effects in thymidylate synthase. A theoretical study. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:6692-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the rate-limiting step of the thymidylate synthase-catalyzed reaction has been studied by means of hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) ..
  24. Ruiz Tovar J, Fernández Contreras M, Martín Pérez E, Gamallo C. Association of thymidylate synthase and hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha DNA polymorphisms with pancreatic cancer. Tumori. 2012;98:364-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymidylate synthase and hypoxia inducible factor-1? play a central role in the control of tumor progression...
  25. Somsak V, Uthaipibull C, Prommana P, Srichairatanakool S, Yuthavong Y, Kamchonwongpaisan S. Transgenic Plasmodium parasites stably expressing Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase as in vitro and in vivo models for antifolate screening. Malar J. 2011;10:291 pubmed publisher
    ..vivax target dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) have been generated; however, they can only be used as primary screening models because of ..
  26. Mannava S, Moparthy K, Wheeler L, Leonova K, Wawrzyniak J, Bianchi Smiraglia A, et al. Ribonucleotide reductase and thymidylate synthase or exogenous deoxyribonucleosides reduce DNA damage and senescence caused by C-MYC depletion. Aging (Albany NY). 2012;4:917-22 pubmed
    ..that MYC-depleted melanoma cells undergo extensive DNA damage that is caused by the underexpression of thymidylate synthase (TS) and ribonucleotide reductase (RR) and subsequent depletion of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools...
  27. Grogan B, Parker J, Guminski A, Stivers J. Effect of the thymidylate synthase inhibitors on dUTP and TTP pool levels and the activities of DNA repair glycosylases on uracil and 5-fluorouracil in DNA. Biochemistry. 2011;50:618-27 pubmed publisher
    ..5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (5-dUrd), and raltitrixed (RTX) are anticancer agents that target thymidylate synthase (TS), thereby blocking the conversion of dUMP into dTMP...
  28. Karlberg M, Ohrling K, Edler D, Hallström M, Ullén H, Ragnhammar P. Prognostic and predictive value of thymidylate synthase expression in primary colorectal cancer. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:645-51 pubmed
    To investigate thymidylate synthase (TS) expression in primary colorectal cancer (CRC) as a prognostic and predictive marker of benefit for adjuvant chemotherapy...
  29. Wang J, Wang B, Bi J, Di J. The association between two polymorphisms in the TYMS gene and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;128:203-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymidylate synthase (TYMS), which catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate to deoxythymidine monophosphate, is a central enzyme in the folate metabolic pathway...
  30. Kan S, Liu J, Hu H, Chang C, Lin W, Wang W, et al. Biochemical characterization of two thymidylate synthases in Corynebacterium glutamicum NCHU 87078. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1804:1751-9 pubmed publisher
    The genome of Corynebacterium glutamicum NCHU 87078 contains two putative thymidylate synthase genes, designated CgthyA and CgthyX...
  31. Liu Y, Yin T, Zhou R, Zhou S, Fan L, Zhang R. Expression of thymidylate synthase predicts clinical outcomes of pemetrexed-containing chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013;72:1125-32 pubmed publisher
    Observational and preclinical studies suggested an association between the expression of thymidylate synthase (TS) and clinical effects of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients...
  32. Ligabue A, Marverti G, Liebl U, Myllykallio H. Transcriptional activation and cell cycle block are the keys for 5-fluorouracil induced up-regulation of human thymidylate synthase expression. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47318 pubmed publisher
    5-fluorouracil, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, up-regulates expression of human thymidylate synthase (hTS)...
  33. Akagi Y, Kinugasa T, Mizobe T, Kawahara A, Kage M, Shirouzu K. Expression of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, orotate phosphoribosyl transferase and thymidylate synthase in patients with primary colorectal cancer, and associations with site of first metastasis. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:2277-82 pubmed
    ..enzymes, including dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT), and thymidylate synthase (TS)...
  34. Di Cresce C, Figueredo R, Ferguson P, Vincent M, Koropatnick J. Combining small interfering RNAs targeting thymidylate synthase and thymidine kinase 1 or 2 sensitizes human tumor cells to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine and pemetrexed. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;338:952-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymidylate synthase (TS) is the only de novo source of thymidylate (dTMP) for DNA synthesis and repair. Drugs targeting TS protein are a mainstay in cancer treatment, but off-target effects and toxicity limit their use...
  35. Scartozzi M, Maccaroni E, Giampieri R, Pistelli M, Bittoni A, Del Prete M, et al. 5-Fluorouracil pharmacogenomics: still rocking after all these years?. Pharmacogenomics. 2011;12:251-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, four in particular; thymidylate synthase, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and thymidine phosphorylase are ..
  36. Nicolson M, Fennell D, Ferry D, O Byrne K, Shah R, Potter V, et al. Thymidylate synthase expression and outcome of patients receiving pemetrexed for advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer in a prospective blinded assessment phase II clinical trial. J Thorac Oncol. 2013;8:930-9 pubmed publisher
    ..retrospective analyses of patients with nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer treated with pemetrexed, low thymidylate synthase (TS) expression is associated with better clinical outcomes...
  37. Weekes C, Nallapareddy S, Rudek M, Norris Kirby A, Laheru D, Jimeno A, et al. Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) enhancer region genotype-directed phase II trial of oral capecitabine for 2nd line treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. Invest New Drugs. 2011;29:1057-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also demonstrates the challenges performing a genotype-directed study in the second-line setting for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. ..
  38. Monica V, Familiari U, Chiusa L, Rossi G, Novero D, Busso S, et al. Messenger RNA and protein expression of thymidylate synthase and DNA repair genes in thymic tumors. Lung Cancer. 2013;79:228-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thymic epithelial tumors include several entities with different biologic behavior. Chemotherapy is indicated in advanced disease, but limited data exist on gene expression correlation with the response to chemotherapeutic agents...
  39. Jarmuła A. Antifolate inhibitors of thymidylate synthase as anticancer drugs. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2010;10:1211-22 pubmed
    Inhibitors of thymidylate synthase (TS) play an essential role in the pharmacological management of several tumors...
  40. Kim K, Kwon H, Oh S, Kim S, Lee S, Kwon K, et al. Clinicopathologic significance of ERCC1, thymidylate synthase and glutathione S-transferase P1 expression for advanced gastric cancer patients receiving adjuvant 5-FU and cisplatin chemotherapy. Biomarkers. 2011;16:74-82 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to determine whether the expressions of the excision cross-complementing (ERCC1), thymidylate synthase (TS) and glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) are predictive of clinical outcomes in advanced gastric ..
  41. Ardalan B, Subbarayan P, Ramos Y, Gonzalez M, Fernandez A, Mezentsev D, et al. A phase I study of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin and arsenic trioxide for patients with refractory/relapsed colorectal carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:3019-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the effect of ATO in the downregulation of thymidylate synthase (TS) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in tumor biopsies...
  42. Auliff A, Adams J, O Neil M, Cheng Q. Defining the role of mutations in Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene using an episomal Plasmodium falciparum transfection system. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:3927-32 pubmed publisher
    ..throughout Australasia and is caused by point mutations within the parasite dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-thymidylate synthase. Several unique mutations have been reported in P...
  43. Kadota K, Huang C, Liu D, Yokomise H, Haba R, Wada H. Combined therapy with a thymidylate synthase-inhibiting vector and S-1 has effective antitumor activity against 5-FU-resistant tumors. Int J Oncol. 2011;38:355-63 pubmed publisher
    High levels of intratumoral thymidylate synthase (TS) expression are associated with resistance to 5-fluorourcil (5-FU)...
  44. Unger K, Romney D, Koc M, Moskaluk C, Friel C, Foley E, et al. Preoperative chemoradiation for rectal cancer using capecitabine and celecoxib correlated with posttreatment assessment of thymidylate synthase and thymidine phosphorylase expression. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;80:1377-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymidylate synthase (TS) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) expression have been shown to be predictors of response to therapy...
  45. Kim S, Park C, Park S, Park J, Lee J, Lee S. Genetic polymorphisms associated with 5-Fluorouracil-induced neurotoxicity. Chemotherapy. 2010;56:313-7 pubmed publisher
    ..from fluorouracil therapy is known to be associated with the individual genetic background of the enzymes, thymidylate synthase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase...
  46. Grimminger P, Schneider P, Metzger R, Vallbohmer D, Holscher A, Danenberg P, et al. Low thymidylate synthase, thymidine phosphorylase, and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase mRNA expression correlate with prolonged survival in resected non-small-cell lung cancer. Clin Lung Cancer. 2010;11:328-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymidylate synthase (TS), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) are key enzymes in the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) pathway...
  47. Fivian Hughes A, Houghton J, Davis E. Mycobacterium tuberculosis thymidylate synthase gene thyX is essential and potentially bifunctional, while thyA deletion confers resistance to p-aminosalicylic acid. Microbiology. 2012;158:308-18 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymidylate synthase (TS) enzymes catalyse the biosynthesis of deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP or thymidylate), and so are important for DNA replication and repair...
  48. Takezawa K, Okamoto I, Tsukioka S, Uchida J, Kiniwa M, Fukuoka M, et al. Identification of thymidylate synthase as a potential therapeutic target for lung cancer. Br J Cancer. 2010;103:354-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymidylate synthase (TS), a key enzyme in the de novo synthesis of thymidine, is an important chemotherapeutic target for malignant tumours including lung cancer...
  49. Wang Z, Hu Y, Zhao H, Fu C. [Thymidylate synthase expression and therapeutic effect analysis of pemetrexed in advanced lung adenocarcinoma]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2010;30:978-80 pubmed
    To investigate the expression of thymidylate synthase (TS) in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and its relation with the therapeutic effect of pemetrexed...
  50. Shitara K, Muro K, Ito S, Sawaki A, Tajika M, Kawai H, et al. Folate intake along with genetic polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:1311-9 pubmed publisher
    ..reports that evaluated genetic polymorphisms of MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) or TYMS (thymidylate synthase) and efficacy of FU...
  51. Stravopodis D, Karkoulis P, Konstantakou E, Melachroinou S, Thanasopoulou A, Aravantinos G, et al. Thymidylate synthase inhibition induces p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptotic responses in human urinary bladder cancer cells. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011;137:359-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the differential vulnerability of RT4 and T24 cells to 5-FU administration could also be associated with cell-type-specific transcriptional expression patterns of certain genes critically involved in 5-FU metabolism. ..
  52. Kim J, Jeon Y, Lee B, Kang H, Shin J, Choi D, et al. Association of methionine synthase and thymidylate synthase genetic polymorphisms with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril. 2013;99:1674-80 pubmed publisher
    ..MTR); methionine synthase reductase (MTRR); methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1); and thymidylate synthase (TS). The MTR 2756AA polymorphism was associated with RPL...
  53. Tan B, Thomas F, Myerson R, Zehnbauer B, Trinkaus K, Malyapa R, et al. Thymidylate synthase genotype-directed neoadjuvant chemoradiation for patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:875-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphisms in the thymidylate synthase gene (TYMS) had previously defined two risk groups associated with disparate tumor DS rates (60% v 22%)...