glycine n methyltransferase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the METHYLATION of GLYCINE using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to form SARCOSINE with the concomitant production of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE.

Top Publications

  1. Luka Z, Loukachevitch L, Wagner C. Acetylation of N-terminal valine of glycine N-methyltransferase affects enzyme inhibition by folate. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1784:1342-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the binding of folate results in cooperativity of the substrate S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), with a Hill coefficient of 1.5 for 5-methyltetrahydrofolate pentaglutamate. ..
  2. Luka Z, Capdevila A, Mato J, Wagner C. A glycine N-methyltransferase knockout mouse model for humans with deficiency of this enzyme. Transgenic Res. 2006;15:393-7 pubmed
    ..The ratio of SAM/SAH increased from 3 in WT to 300 in livers of homozygous transgenic mice. This suggests a possible significant change in methylation in the liver and other organs where GNMT is expressed. ..
  3. Vazquez Chantada M, Fernandez Ramos D, Embade N, Martínez López N, Varela Rey M, Woodhoo A, et al. HuR/methyl-HuR and AUF1 regulate the MAT expressed during liver proliferation, differentiation, and carcinogenesis. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:1943-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data strongly support a role for AUF1 and HuR/methyl-HuR in liver de-differentiation, development, and human HCC progression through the posttranslational regulation of MAT1A and MAT2A mRNAs. ..
  4. Baric I. Inherited disorders in the conversion of methionine to homocysteine. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2009;32:459-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes current knowledge of three inherited disorders in this metabolic pathway and draws attention to their much broader significance for human health and understanding of important biological processes. ..
  5. Chen S, Lai M, Lai S, Lee Y. Characterization of osmolyte betaine synthesizing sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase from Methanohalophilus portucalensis. Arch Microbiol. 2009;191:735-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared this novel archaeal SDMT enzyme to other similar bacterial transferases as well as to the glycine sarcosine dimethylglycine methyltransferase found also in M. portucalensis...
  6. Kimura Y, Kawasaki S, Yoshimoto H, Takegawa K. Glycine betaine biosynthesized from glycine provides an osmolyte for cell growth and spore germination during osmotic stress in Myxococcus xanthus. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:1467-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of the M. xanthus gsmA (MXAN 7068) or sdmA (MXAN 3190) gene, encoding Gsm or Sdm homologue proteins, respectively, generated mutants that exhibited a longer lag period of growth and delayed spore germination under osmostress. ..
  7. DiBello P, Dayal S, Kaveti S, Zhang D, Kinter M, Lentz S, et al. The nutrigenetics of hyperhomocysteinemia: quantitative proteomics reveals differences in the methionine cycle enzymes of gene-induced versus diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010;9:471-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that hyperhomocysteinemia, whether caused by a genetic mutation or diet, alters the abundance of several liver proteins involved in homocysteine/methionine metabolism, the urea cycle, and antioxidant defense. ..
  8. Strakova J, Williams K, Gupta S, Schalinske K, Kruger W, Rozen R, et al. Dietary intake of S-(alpha-carboxybutyl)-DL-homocysteine induces hyperhomocysteinemia in rats. Nutr Res. 2010;30:492-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, metabolic changes caused by BHMT inhibition affect cystathionine beta-synthase and glycine N-methyltransferase activities, which further deteriorate plasma Hcy levels...
  9. Tsai M, Chen Y, Weng C, Liou D, Yang H, Chen C, et al. Enhanced expression of glycine N-methyltransferase by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in CNS culture is neuroprotective. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1199:194-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, enhanced GNMT expression in mixed neuronal-glial cultures is neuroprotective, most likely mediated through non-neuronal cells. ..

More Information


  1. Varela Rey M, Martínez López N, Fernandez Ramos D, Embade N, Calvisi D, Woodhoo A, et al. Fatty liver and fibrosis in glycine N-methyltransferase knockout mice is prevented by nicotinamide. Hepatology. 2010;52:105-14 pubmed publisher
  2. Martinez Chantar M, Lu S, Mato J, Luka Z, Wagner C, French B, et al. The role of stem cells/progenitor cells in liver carcinogenesis in glycine N-methyltransferase deficient mice. Exp Mol Pathol. 2010;88:234-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Fat 10, a marker for progenitor liver cells, was uniformly expressed by all tumors that developed at 8 and 18 months in GNMT-/- mice. ..
  3. Martinov M, Vitvitsky V, Banerjee R, Ataullakhanov F. The logic of the hepatic methionine metabolic cycle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1804:89-96 pubmed publisher
  4. Georgieva P, Wu Q, McLeish M, Himo F. The reaction mechanism of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase: a density functional theory study. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1794:1831-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the mechanism of hPNMT is more similar to those of catechol O-methyltransferase and glycine N-methyltransferase than to that of guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase in which methyl transfer is coupled to proton transfer. ..
  5. Varela Rey M, Fernandez Ramos D, Martínez López N, Embade N, Gomez Santos L, Beraza N, et al. Impaired liver regeneration in mice lacking glycine N-methyltransferase. Hepatology. 2009;50:443-52 pubmed publisher
  6. Luka Z, Mudd S, Wagner C. Glycine N-methyltransferase and regulation of S-adenosylmethionine levels. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:22507-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This minireview will focus on the latest discoveries in the elucidation of the mechanism of that regulation. ..
  7. Lee C, Shih Y, Wu C, Chen Y. Characterization of the 5' regulatory region of the human Glycine N-methyltransferase gene. Gene. 2009;443:151-7 pubmed publisher
    ..One functional xenobiotic response element (XRE) located at the -104/-82 region is inducable by benzo[a]pyrene treatment. We believe our results have value for the study of GNMT transcriptional regulation. ..
  8. Kharbanda K, Vigneswara V, McVicker B, Newlaczyl A, Bailey K, Tuma D, et al. Proteomics reveal a concerted upregulation of methionine metabolic pathway enzymes, and downregulation of carbonic anhydrase-III, in betaine supplemented ethanol-fed rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;381:523-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Carbonic anhydrase-III can function to resist oxidative stress, and we therefore hypothesise that carbonic anhydrase-III protein levels compromised by ethanol consumption, contribute to ethanol-induced redox stress. ..
  9. Yen C, Hung J, Ueng Y, Liu S, Chen S, Liu H, et al. Glycine N-methyltransferase affects the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and blocks its carcinogenic effect. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;235:296-304 pubmed publisher
    ..9 microM. Therefore, GNMT is a tumor suppressor for HCC and it exerts protective effects in hepatocytes via direct interaction with AFB(1), resulting in reduced AFB(1)-DNA adducts formation and cell death. ..