betaine homocysteine s methyltransferase


Summary: A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.

Top Publications

  1. Liu H, Lu P, Guo Y, Farrell E, Zhang X, Zheng M, et al. An integrative genomic analysis identifies Bhmt2 as a diet-dependent genetic factor protecting against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. Genome Res. 2010;20:28-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of Bhmt2 and the affected biosynthetic pathway demonstrates how a novel method of integrative genomic analysis in mice can provide a unique and clinically applicable approach to a major public health problem. ..
  2. Strakova J, Williams K, Gupta S, Schalinske K, Kruger W, Rozen R, et al. Dietary intake of S-(alpha-carboxybutyl)-DL-homocysteine induces hyperhomocysteinemia in rats. Nutr Res. 2010;30:492-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, metabolic changes caused by BHMT inhibition affect cystathionine beta-synthase and glycine N-methyltransferase activities, which further deteriorate plasma Hcy levels...
  3. Mostowska A, Hozyasz K, Biedziak B, Misiak J, Jagodzinski P. Polymorphisms located in the region containing BHMT and BHMT2 genes as maternal protective factors for orofacial clefts. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118:325-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our study identified a novel gene, the nucleotide variants of which were be associated with a decreased risk of having a baby with NCL/P. ..
  4. Lu X, Chen J, Huang Z, Shi Y, Wang F. Proteomic analysis on the alteration of protein expression in gills of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) associated with salinity change. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2010;5:185-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It was suggested that cell volume-regulatory response, especially the protection by the BHMT/betaine system might play an important role in ayu acclimation to salinity change. ..
  5. Xu Y, Guan D, Yang M, Wang H, Shen Z. All-trans-retinoic acid intensifies endoplasmic reticulum stress in N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V repressed human hepatocarcinoma cells by perturbing homocysteine metabolism. J Cell Biochem. 2010;109:468-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide support for the hypothesis that ATRA is an anticancer agent. ..
  6. Mitchell L, Long J, Garbarini J, Paluru P, Goldmuntz E. Variants of folate metabolism genes and risk of left-sided cardiac defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:48-53 pubmed publisher
    ..However, even larger studies and more comprehensive evaluations of the folate pathway genes are required to fully explore the relationship between folate and left-sided cardiac defects. ..
  7. Vanek V, Budesinsky M, Kabeleová P, Sanda M, Kozísek M, Hanclová I, et al. Structure-activity study of new inhibitors of human betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase. J Med Chem. 2009;52:3652-65 pubmed publisher
  8. Ohuchi S, Morita T, Mori M, Sugiyama K. Hepatic cystathionine beta-synthase activity does not increase in response to methionine supplementation in rats fed a low casein diet: association with plasma homocysteine concentrations. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2009;55:178-85 pubmed
  9. Benkhalifa M, Montjean D, Cohen Bacrie P, Menezo Y. Imprinting: RNA expression for homocysteine recycling in the human oocyte. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1585-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This may regulate, at least in part, the risk of imprinting problems during IVF procedures. ..

More Information


  1. Kawakami Y, Ohuchi S, Morita T, Sugiyama K. Hypohomocysteinemic effect of cysteine is associated with increased plasma cysteine concentration in rats fed diets low in protein and methionine levels. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2009;55:66-74 pubmed
  2. Ohuchi S, Matsumoto Y, Morita T, Sugiyama K. High casein diet decreases plasma homocysteine concentration in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2009;55:22-30 pubmed
  3. Xu X, Gammon M, Wetmur J, Bradshaw P, Teitelbaum S, Neugut A, et al. B-vitamin intake, one-carbon metabolism, and survival in a population-based study of women with breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:2109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that one-carbon metabolism may be an important pathway that could be targeted to improve breast cancer survival. ..
  4. Brosnan J, Wijekoon E, Warford Woolgar L, Trottier N, Brosnan M, Brunton J, et al. Creatine synthesis is a major metabolic process in neonatal piglets and has important implications for amino acid metabolism and methyl balance. J Nutr. 2009;139:1292-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Creatine synthesis is a quantitatively major metabolic process in piglets. ..
  5. Xu X, Gammon M, Zeisel S, Bradshaw P, Wetmur J, Teitelbaum S, et al. High intakes of choline and betaine reduce breast cancer mortality in a population-based study. FASEB J. 2009;23:4022-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study supports the important roles of choline and betaine in breast carcinogenesis. It suggests that high intake of these nutrients may be a promising strategy to prevent the development of breast cancer and to reduce its mortality. ..
  6. Kharbanda K. Alcoholic liver disease and methionine metabolism. Semin Liver Dis. 2009;29:155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, betaine is a promising therapeutic agent in relieving the methylation and other defects associated with alcoholic abuse. ..
  7. Li F, Feng Q, Lee C, Wang S, Pelleymounter L, Moon I, et al. Human betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and BHMT2: common gene sequence variation and functional characterization. Mol Genet Metab. 2008;94:326-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies have defined common genetic variation in BHMT and BHMT2 and functionally characterized BHMT SNPs. They may also help to explain why BHMT2 has not previously been defined functionally. ..
  8. DiBello P, Dayal S, Kaveti S, Zhang D, Kinter M, Lentz S, et al. The nutrigenetics of hyperhomocysteinemia: quantitative proteomics reveals differences in the methionine cycle enzymes of gene-induced versus diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010;9:471-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that hyperhomocysteinemia, whether caused by a genetic mutation or diet, alters the abundance of several liver proteins involved in homocysteine/methionine metabolism, the urea cycle, and antioxidant defense. ..
  9. Vinci C, Clarke S. Yeast, plants, worms, and flies use a methyltransferase to metabolize age-damaged (R,S)-AdoMet, but what do mammals do?. Rejuvenation Res. 2010;13:362-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We find no evidence for the enzymatic breakdown of (R,S)-AdoMet in these extracts. Thus, mammals may metabolize (R,S)-AdoMet using a different strategy than other organisms. ..
  10. Marchand J, Evrard E, Guinand B, Cachot J, Quiniou L, laRoche J. Genetic polymorphism and its potential relation to environmental stress in five populations of the European flounder Platichthys flesus, along the French Atlantic coast. Mar Environ Res. 2010;70:201-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the Vilaine estuary, PGDS polymorphism could be related to pesticide stress. ..
  11. Hobbs C, Cleves M, Karim M, Zhao W, MacLeod S. Maternal folate-related gene environment interactions and congenital heart defects. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116:316-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicate that functional polymorphisms in folate-related genes increase the risk of having a fetus with CHD when maternal lifestyle factors that alter folate metabolism are present. II. ..
  12. Christensen K, Wu Q, Wang X, Deng L, Caudill M, Rozen R. Steatosis in mice is associated with gender, folate intake, and expression of genes of one-carbon metabolism. J Nutr. 2010;140:1736-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased utilization of betaine for Hcy remethylation in males and in both genders during folate deficiency may lead to steatosis by disrupting choline metabolism. ..
  13. Shinohara M, Ji C, Kaplowitz N. Differences in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase expression, endoplasmic reticulum stress response, and liver injury between alcohol-fed mice and rats. Hepatology. 2010;51:796-805 pubmed publisher