carboxyl and carbamoyl transferases


Summary: A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.

Top Publications

  1. Carey P, SONNICHSEN F, Yee V. Transcarboxylase: one of nature's early nanomachines. IUBMB Life. 2004;56:575-83 pubmed
  2. Blanchard C, Waldrop G. Overexpression and kinetic characterization of the carboxyltransferase component of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:19140-5 pubmed
    ..3. It is proposed that the thiolate ion of a cysteine acts as a catalytic base to remove the N1' proton of biocytin. ..
  3. Naumoff D, Xu Y, Stalon V, Glansdorff N, Labedan B. The difficulty of annotating genes: the case of putrescine carbamoyltransferase. Microbiology. 2004;150:3908-11 pubmed
  4. Bilder P, Lightle S, Bainbridge G, Ohren J, Finzel B, Sun F, et al. The structure of the carboxyltransferase component of acetyl-coA carboxylase reveals a zinc-binding motif unique to the bacterial enzyme. Biochemistry. 2006;45:1712-22 pubmed
    ..0 and 3.0 A, respectively. Both structures reveal a small, independent zinc-binding domain that lacks a complement in the primary sequence or structure of the eukaryotic homologue. ..
  5. Naumoff D, Xu Y, Glansdorff N, Labedan B. Retrieving sequences of enzymes experimentally characterized but erroneously annotated : the case of the putrescine carbamoyltransferase. BMC Genomics. 2004;5:52 pubmed publisher
    ..The strategy we used in this paper to bridge such gaps in knowledge could work whenever it is possible to collect a body of facts about experimental data, homology, unnoticed sequence data, and accurate informations about gene context...
  6. Taylor W. Protein knots and fold complexity: some new twists. Comput Biol Chem. 2007;31:151-62 pubmed
    ..These measures are related to the complexity of the protein fold and may provide useful filters for selecting predicted model structures. ..
  7. Llácer J, Polo L, Tavárez S, Alarcón B, Hilario R, Rubio V. The gene cluster for agmatine catabolism of Enterococcus faecalis: study of recombinant putrescine transcarbamylase and agmatine deiminase and a snapshot of agmatine deiminase catalyzing its reaction. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:1254-65 pubmed
    ..A three-tongued agmatine-triggered gating opens or blocks access to the active center. ..
  8. Shi D, Yu X, Roth L, Morizono H, Tuchman M, Allewell N. Structures of N-acetylornithine transcarbamoylase from Xanthomonas campestris complexed with substrates and substrate analogs imply mechanisms for substrate binding and catalysis. Proteins. 2006;64:532-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures of the complexes provide insight into the mode of substrate binding and the mechanism of the transcarbamoylation reaction...
  9. Polo L, Gil Ortiz F, Cantín A, Rubio V. New insight into the transcarbamylase family: the structure of putrescine transcarbamylase, a key catalyst for fermentative utilization of agmatine. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31528 pubmed publisher
    ..Guided by the structural data we identify signature traits that permit easy and unambiguous annotation of PTC sequences...

More Information


  1. Shi D, Yu X, Zhao G, Ho J, Lu S, Allewell N, et al. Crystal structure and biochemical properties of putrescine carbamoyltransferase from Enterococcus faecalis: Assembly, active site, and allosteric regulation. Proteins. 2012;80:1436-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence comparisons indicate that the C-terminal helix identified in this PTCase structure will be found in all other PTCases identified, suggesting that it is the signature feature of the PTCase family of enzymes...
  2. Benson B, Meades G, Grove A, Waldrop G. DNA inhibits catalysis by the carboxyltransferase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase: implications for active site communication. Protein Sci. 2008;17:34-42 pubmed
    ..An important mechanistic implication of these observations is that the dual active sites of ACC are functionally connected. ..
  3. Chen J, Cheng C, Xia Y, Zhao H, Fang C, Shan Y, et al. Lmo0036, an ornithine and putrescine carbamoyltransferase in Listeria monocytogenes, participates in arginine deiminase and agmatine deiminase pathways and mediates acid tolerance. Microbiology. 2011;157:3150-61 pubmed publisher
    ..5), and corresponded to a loss in ammonia production, indicating that Lmo0036 was responsible for acid tolerance at both sublethal and lethal pH levels. Furthermore, Lmo0036 played a possible role in Listeria virulence...
  4. Landete J, Arena M, Pardo I, Manca de Nadra M, Ferrer S. The role of two families of bacterial enzymes in putrescine synthesis from agmatine via agmatine deiminase. Int Microbiol. 2010;13:169-77 pubmed
    ..This paper also discusses the role of the agmatine deiminase system (AgDS) in acid stress resistance. ..
  5. Cohen R, Shannon B, McNeal J, Shannon T, Garrett K. Propionibacterium acnes associated with inflammation in radical prostatectomy specimens: a possible link to cancer evolution?. J Urol. 2005;173:1969-74 pubmed
    ..acnes isolates, suggesting that specific subtypes may be involved in development of prostatic inflammation. ..
  6. Bucciantini M, Rigacci S, Berti A, Pieri L, Cecchi C, Nosi D, et al. Patterns of cell death triggered in two different cell lines by HypF-N prefibrillar aggregates. FASEB J. 2005;19:437-9 pubmed
  7. Meades G, Cai X, Thalji N, Waldrop G, de Queiroz M. Mathematical modelling of negative feedback regulation by carboxyltransferase. IET Syst Biol. 2011;5:220-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The modelling of the autoregulatory function of carboxyltransferase confirms that it is more than isolated interactions, but functions as a single dynamic system. ..
  8. Zagnitko O, Jelenska J, Tevzadze G, Haselkorn R, Gornicki P. An isoleucine/leucine residue in the carboxyltransferase domain of acetyl-CoA carboxylase is critical for interaction with aryloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6617-22 pubmed
    ..The critical amino acid residue is located close to a highly conserved motif of the carboxyltransferase domain, which is probably a part of the enzyme active site, providing the basis for the activity of fop and dim herbicides. ..
  9. Meades G, Benson B, Grove A, Waldrop G. A tale of two functions: enzymatic activity and translational repression by carboxyltransferase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:1217-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose an unusual regulatory mechanism by which carboxyltransferase acts as a 'dimmer switch' to regulate protein production and catalytic activity, while sensing the metabolic state of the cell through acetyl-CoA concentration. ..
  10. Kalaitzakis E, Panousis N, Roubies N, Giadinis N, Kaldrymidou E, Georgiadis M, et al. Clinicopathological evaluation of downer dairy cows with fatty liver. Can Vet J. 2010;51:615-22 pubmed
    ..Cows with severe fatty liver had the lowest mean K values. The prognosis is guarded for downer cows with moderate and severe fatty liver and when total bilirubin concentration is high. ..
  11. Kellmann R, Mihali T, Michali T, Neilan B, Neilan B. Identification of a saxitoxin biosynthesis gene with a history of frequent horizontal gene transfers. J Mol Evol. 2008;67:526-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The phylogeny of sxt1 suggested that the entire set of genes required for saxitoxin biosynthesis may spread by horizontal gene transfer. ..
  12. Gómez García I, Freel Meyers C, Walsh C, Lawson D. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the O-carbamoyltransferase NovN from the novobiocin-biosynthetic cluster of Streptomyces spheroides. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2008;64:1000-2 pubmed publisher
    ..3 A at a synchrotron. NovN catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of the aminocoumarin antibiotic novobiocin that targets the essential bacterial enzyme DNA gyrase. ..
  13. Winkelmann J, Calloni G, Campioni S, Mannini B, Taddei N, Chiti F. Low-level expression of a folding-incompetent protein in Escherichia coli: search for the molecular determinants of protein aggregation in vivo. J Mol Biol. 2010;398:600-13 pubmed publisher
  14. Adeneye A. Protective activity of the stem bark aqueous extract of Musanga cecropioides in carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2009;6:131-8 pubmed
    ..These results, thus, support the folkloric use of MCW for treatment of hepatic injuries resulting from acute gastric poisonings, infective hepatitis or other liver diseases. ..
  15. Campioni S, Mannini B, Zampagni M, Pensalfini A, Parrini C, Evangelisti E, et al. A causative link between the structure of aberrant protein oligomers and their toxicity. Nat Chem Biol. 2010;6:140-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that structural flexibility and hydrophobic exposure are primary determinants of the ability of oligomeric assemblies to cause cellular dysfunction and its consequences, such as neurodegeneration. ..
  16. Geelen D, Mergaert P, Geremia R, Goormachtig S, Van Montagu M, Holsters M. Identification of nodSUIJ genes in Nod locus 1 of Azorhizobium caulinodans: evidence that nodS encodes a methyltransferase involved in Nod factor modification. Mol Microbiol. 1993;9:145-54 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose that NodS is a SAM-utilizing methyltransferase involved in Nod factor synthesis. ..
  17. Parrott M, Barry M. Metabolic biotinylation of secreted and cell surface proteins from mammalian cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;281:993-1000 pubmed
    ..coli. This technique can be used to biotinylate secreted proteins for purification or targeting and also for biotinylating the surfaces of mammalian cells to facilitate their labeling and purification from other nontagged cells. ..
  18. Lihs F, Caudle M. Kinetics and mechanism for CO(2) scrambling in a N-carboxyimidazolidone analogue for N(1)-carboxybiotin. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:11334-41 pubmed
    ..In the context of biotin-dependent enzymes, this suggests a means by which the kinetically stable N(1)-carboxybiotin cofactor intermediate might be triggered for dissociation of CO(2). ..
  19. Choi D, Park Y, Okabe M. Effects of rapessed oil on activity of methylmalonyl-CoA carboxyltransferase in culture of Streptomyces fradiae. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1998;62:902-6 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that in glucose medium, intracellular propionic acid is a limiting factor because of the low activity of methylmalonyl-CoA carboxyltransferase of the tylosin biosynthesis pathway. ..
  20. Skrbic T, Micheletti C, Faccioli P. The role of non-native interactions in the folding of knotted proteins. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002504 pubmed publisher
  21. Kumar Bhat R, Berger S. New and easy strategy for cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of the 5S subunit of transcarboxylase from Propionibacterium f. shermanii. Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2007;37:13-26 pubmed
    ..The expressed 5S subunit was purified to apparent homogeneity by a single step process by using Intein mediated protein ligation (IPL) method. The cloned 5S gene encodes a protein of 505 amino acids and of M(r) 55,700. ..
  22. Hall P, Wang Y, Rivera Hainaj R, Zheng X, Pustai Carey M, Carey P, et al. Transcarboxylase 12S crystal structure: hexamer assembly and substrate binding to a multienzyme core. EMBO J. 2003;22:2334-47 pubmed
  23. Tatini F, Pugliese A, Traini C, Niccoli S, Maraula G, Ed Dami T, et al. Amyloid-? oligomer synaptotoxicity is mimicked by oligomers of the model protein HypF-N. Neurobiol Aging. 2013;34:2100-9 pubmed publisher
  24. Xu H, Heide L, Li S. New aminocoumarin antibiotics formed by a combined mutational and chemoenzymatic approach utilizing the carbamoyltransferase NovN. Chem Biol. 2004;11:655-62 pubmed
    ..The results give further insight into the structure-activity relationships of aminocoumarin antibiotics. ..
  25. Hong Y, Lee D, Kim W, Jeong J, Kim C, Sohng J, et al. Inactivation of the carbamoyltransferase gene refines post-polyketide synthase modification steps in the biosynthesis of the antitumor agent geldanamycin. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:11142-3 pubmed
  26. Li Y, Zhao P, Kang Q, Ma J, Bai L, Deng Z. Dual carbamoylations on the polyketide and glycosyl moiety by asm21 result in extended ansamitocin biosynthesis. Chem Biol. 2011;18:1571-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This work represents the first biochemical characterization of an O-carbamoyltransferase performing dual actions on both a polyketide backbone and a glycosyl moiety during ansamitocin biosynthesis. ..
  27. Yong Biao J, Islam M, Sueda S, Kondo H. Identification of the catalytic residues involved in the carboxyl transfer of pyruvate carboxylase. Biochemistry. 2004;43:5912-20 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these data, a mechanism is proposed where Lys712 and Asp543 serve as the key acid and base catalyst, respectively. ..
  28. Petkun S, Shi R, Li Y, Asinas A, Munger C, Zhang L, et al. Structure of hydrogenase maturation protein HypF with reaction intermediates shows two active sites. Structure. 2011;19:1773-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations within either nucleotide-binding site compromise hydrogenase maturation but do not affect the carbamoylphosphate phosphatase activity. ..
  29. Jelenska J, Sirikhachornkit A, Haselkorn R, Gornicki P. The carboxyltransferase activity of the apicoplast acetyl-CoA carboxylase of Toxoplasma gondii is the target of aryloxyphenoxypropionate inhibitors. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:23208-15 pubmed
    ..The cytosolic T. gondii ACC is resistant to aryloxyphenoxypropionates. Both T. gondii isozymes are resistant to cyclohexanediones, another class of inhibitors targeting the ACC of grass plastids. ..
  30. McCormick C, Maucourant S, Griffin S, Rowlands D, Harris M. Tagging of NS5A expressed from a functional hepatitis C virus replicon. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:635-40 pubmed
    ..Both replicons represent useful tools that offer different but complementary ways of examining replication-complex formation in cells. ..
  31. Lietzan A, St Maurice M. A substrate-induced biotin binding pocket in the carboxyltransferase domain of pyruvate carboxylase. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:19915-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the conservation with carboxyltransferase domains in oxaloacetate decarboxylase and transcarboxylase, the structure-based mechanism described for PC may be applicable to the larger family of biotin-dependent enzymes. ..
  32. Sutariya N, Prasad S, Athavale D, Bhavsar R, Roy I. Correlation between Al(3+) -induced thermal stability and inhibition of fibrillation of N-terminal domain of the hydrogenase maturation factor. Biofactors. 2013;39:597-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, it forms an ordered ?-sheet-rich structure. ..
  33. Rodr guez E, Gramajo H. Genetic and biochemical characterization of the alpha and beta components of a propionyl-CoA carboxylase complex of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 11):3109-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that accA2 mutants appear to be inviable suggests that this gene encodes a biotinylated protein that might be shared with other carboxyl transferases essential for the growth of S. coelicolor...
  34. Iwatani S, Iwane A, Higuchi H, Ishii Y, Yanagida T. Mechanical and chemical properties of cysteine-modified kinesin molecules. Biochemistry. 1999;38:10318-23 pubmed
    ..This step size was close to a unitary step size of 8 nm. Thus, the mechanical events of kinesin are tightly coupled with the chemical events. ..
  35. Senger M, Stripp S, Soboh B. Proteolytic cleavage orchestrates cofactor insertion and protein assembly in [NiFe]-hydrogenase biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:11670-11681 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, cleavage temporally orchestrates cofactor insertion and protein assembly and ensures that only cofactor-containing protein can continue along the assembly line toward functional [NiFe]-hydrogenase. ..
  36. Soboh B, Krüger S, Kuhns M, Pinske C, Lehmann A, Sawers R. Development of a cell-free system reveals an oxygen-labile step in the maturation of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 2 of Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:4109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies reveal that minimally one step early on the hydrogenase maturation pathway is oxygen-labile. ..
  37. Zampagni M, Cascella R, Casamenti F, Grossi C, Evangelisti E, Wright D, et al. A comparison of the biochemical modifications caused by toxic and non-toxic protein oligomers in cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2011;15:2106-16 pubmed publisher
  38. Luka S, Sanjuan J, Carlson R, Stacey G. nolMNO genes of Bradyrhizobium japonicum are co-transcribed with nodYABCSUIJ, and nolO is involved in the synthesis of the lipo-oligosaccharide nodulation signals. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:27053-9 pubmed
    ..These alterations in the profiles of nodulation signals produced by strains SL67 and SL65 were accompanied by reduced nodulation efficiency on all hosts tested. ..
  39. Studer R, Dahinden P, Wang W, Auchli Y, Li X, Dimroth P. Crystal structure of the carboxyltransferase domain of the oxaloacetate decarboxylase Na+ pump from Vibrio cholerae. J Mol Biol. 2007;367:547-57 pubmed
    ..In the present structure this lysine residue is hydrogen-bonded to Cys148. A potential role of Lys178 as initial acceptor of the carboxyl group from oxaloacetate is discussed. ..
  40. Shi D, Morizono H, Yu X, Roth L, Caldovic L, Allewell N, et al. Crystal structure of N-acetylornithine transcarbamylase from Xanthomonas campestris: a novel enzyme in a new arginine biosynthetic pathway found in several eubacteria. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:14366-9 pubmed publisher
  41. Zeczycki T, St Maurice M, Jitrapakdee S, Wallace J, Attwood P, Cleland W. Insight into the carboxyl transferase domain mechanism of pyruvate carboxylase from Rhizobium etli. Biochemistry. 2009;48:4305-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting enolpyruvate then reacts with CO(2) to form oxaloacetate and complete the reaction...
  42. Glansdorff N, Xu Y, Labedan B. The conflict between horizontal gene transfer and the safeguard of identity: origin of meiotic sexuality. J Mol Evol. 2009;69:470-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that meiotic sexuality (a hallmark of eukaryotes) emerged in the genetically redundant and protoeukaryotic LUCA as a molecular identity check providing a defence mechanism against the deleterious effects of HGT. ..
  43. Hervé C, Fondrevez M, Chéron A, Barloy Hubler F, Jan G. Transcarboxylase mRNA: a marker which evidences P. freudenreichii survival and metabolic activity during its transit in the human gut. Int J Food Microbiol. 2007;113:303-14 pubmed
    ..freudenreichii species. It strongly suggests that this bacterium not only survives but remains metabolically active in the human gut. ..
  44. Carey P. Raman crystallography and other biochemical applications of Raman microscopy. Annu Rev Phys Chem. 2006;57:527-54 pubmed
  45. Jitrapakdee S, Wallace J. The biotin enzyme family: conserved structural motifs and domain rearrangements. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2003;4:217-29 pubmed
    ..These structural homologies are so extensive as to be highly suggestive of evolutionary relationships between biotin carboxylases and these other enzymes. ..
  46. Rodríguez Pombo P, Perez Cerda C, Perez B, Desviat L, Sanchez Pulido L, Ugarte M. Towards a model to explain the intragenic complementation in the heteromultimeric protein propionyl-CoA carboxylase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1740:489-98 pubmed
  47. Jabbouri S, Fellay R, Talmont F, Kamalaprija P, Burger U, Reli B, et al. Involvement of nodS in N-methylation and nodU in 6-O-carbamoylation of Rhizobium sp. NGR234 nod factors. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:22968-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, Nod factor levels, their degree of oligomerization, and N-methylation are linked to the activity encoded by nodS...
  48. Kimura Y, Miyake R, Tokumasu Y, Sato M. Molecular cloning and characterization of two genes for the biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase subunits of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase in Myxococcus xanthus. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:5462-9 pubmed
    ..xanthus acetyl-CoA carboxylase consists of two subunits, which are encoded by the accB and accA genes, and occupies a position between prokaryotic and eukaryotic acetyl-CoA carboxylases in terms of evolution...
  49. Qin G, Gu H, Zhao Y, Ma Z, Shi G, Yang Y, et al. An indole-3-acetic acid carboxyl methyltransferase regulates Arabidopsis leaf development. Plant Cell. 2005;17:2693-704 pubmed
    ..The identification of IAMT1 and the elucidation of its role in Arabidopsis leaf development have broad implications for auxin-regulated developmental process. ..
  50. Morizono H, Cabrera Luque J, Shi D, Gallegos R, Yamaguchi S, Yu X, et al. Acetylornithine transcarbamylase: a novel enzyme in arginine biosynthesis. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2974-82 pubmed
  51. Santoro N, Brtva T, Roest S, Siegel K, Waldrop G. A high-throughput screening assay for the carboxyltransferase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Anal Biochem. 2006;354:70-7 pubmed
    ..The spectrophotometric readout in the visible absorbance range used in this assay does not generate the number of false negatives associated with frequently used NAD/NADH assay systems that rely on detection of NADH using UV absorbance. ..
  52. He W, Liu Y, Sun G, Wang Y. [Roles of geldanamycin biosynthetic genes in Streptomyces hygroscopicus 17997]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2008;24:1133-9 pubmed
    ..Gene complementation experiments excluded the possible polar effect of gene disruption on other genes. These results confirmed that pks, gdmM and gdmN genes were essential for Geldanamycin biosynthesis. ..
  53. Rangarajan E, Asinas A, Proteau A, Munger C, Baardsnes J, Iannuzzi P, et al. Structure of [NiFe] hydrogenase maturation protein HypE from Escherichia coli and its interaction with HypF. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:1447-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The surface plasmon resonance results indicate that a conformational change occurs upon heterodimerization which facilitates formation of a productive complex as part of the carbamate transfer reaction...