tyrosine transaminase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-TYROSINE and 2-oxoglutarate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein. L-PHENYLALANINE is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASES (EC Deficiency of this enzyme may cause type II Tyrosinemia (see TYROSINEMIAS). EC

Top Publications

  1. Bodwell J, Kingsley L, Hamilton J. Arsenic at very low concentrations alters glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated gene activation but not GR-mediated gene repression: complex dose-response effects are closely correlated with levels of activated GR and require a functional GR DNA bind. Chem Res Toxicol. 2004;17:1064-76 pubmed
  2. Smith C, Wilson N, Louw A, Myburgh K. Illuminating the interrelated immune and endocrine adaptations after multiple exposures to short immobilization stress by in vivo blocking of IL-6. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R1439-47 pubmed
  3. Yeoh G, Porter I, Arcus M, Douglas A. Transformation of cultured fetal rat liver cells by MDAB and phenobarbital. Morphological, biochemical and immunocytochemical characterization of cell lines. Carcinogenesis. 1989;10:1015-27 pubmed
    ..It can be concluded from these studies that it is possible to transform cells derived from fetal rat liver in culture using a hepatocarcinogen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)..
  4. Onuffer J, Kirsch J. Redesign of the substrate specificity of Escherichia coli aspartate aminotransferase to that of Escherichia coli tyrosine aminotransferase by homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. Protein Sci. 1995;4:1750-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, the reactivity of eAATase with phenylalanine was increased by over three orders of magnitude without sacrificing the high transamination activity with aspartate observed for both enzymes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  5. Killary A, Fournier R. A genetic analysis of extinction: trans-dominant loci regulate expression of liver-specific traits in hepatoma hybrid cells. Cell. 1984;38:523-34 pubmed
    ..We also provide evidence that human Tse-1 resides on the homologous chromosome (human chromosome 17), and that hybrids retaining active Tse-1 loci lack TAT-specific mRNA. ..
  6. Miller J, Cuatrecasas P, Thompson E. Partial purification by affinity chromatography of tyrosine aminotransferase-synthesizing ribosomes from hepatoma tissue culture cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971;68:1014-8 pubmed
    ..The enhancement was achieved by using affinity chromatography to select a specific fraction of ribosomes in which the proportion of tyrosine aminotransferase synthesis is higher than it is in unfractionated ribosomes. ..
  7. Gelehrter T. Enzyme induction (third of three parts). N Engl J Med. 1976;294:646-51 pubmed
  8. Eschbach E, Chatterjee S, Nöldner M, Gottwald E, Dertinger H, Weibezahn K, et al. Microstructured scaffolds for liver tissue cultures of high cell density: morphological and biochemical characterization of tissue aggregates. J Cell Biochem. 2005;95:243-55 pubmed
    ..Moreover, after design variations, the microstructure can be applied for functional analysis of metabolically active hepatocytes as well as for toxicological and pharmacological validation. ..
  9. Venhorst J, ter Laak A, Meijer M, van de Wetering I, Commandeur J, Rooseboom M, et al. Modeling and molecular dynamics of glutamine transaminase K/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase. J Mol Graph Model. 2003;22:55-70 pubmed
    ..Ultimately, insight in the binding of ligands to GTK/beta-lyase may result in the rational design of new ligands and selective inhibitors. ..

More Information


  1. Christensen J, Cotmore S, Tattersall P. Two new members of the emerging KDWK family of combinatorial transcription modulators bind as a heterodimer to flexibly spaced PuCGPy half-sites. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:7741-50 pubmed
  2. Andrade H, Murta S, Chapeaurouge A, Perales J, Nirdé P, Romanha A. Proteomic analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi resistance to Benznidazole. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:2357-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the present study provides large-scale, protein-related information for investigation of the mechanism of T. cruzi resistance to Benznidazole. ..
  3. Marciano D, Maugeri D, Cazzulo J, Nowicki C. Functional characterization of stage-specific aminotransferases from trypanosomatids. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2009;166:172-82 pubmed publisher
    ..ALATs are expressed in the clinically important stages of TriTryps, probably fulfilling an essential role, which deserves further studies...
  4. Scherer G, Bausch E, Gaa A, von Deimling O. Gene mapping on mouse chromosome 8 by interspecific crosses: new data on a linkage group conserved on human chromosome 16q. Genomics. 1989;5:275-82 pubmed
    ..While map distances between HP-TAT,HP-CTRB, and TAT-CTRB of respectively 7, 11, and 9 cM have previously been measured in man, no crossovers between Hp, Tat, and Ctrb were observed in over 100 meioses in the mouse. ..
  5. Hunt D, Johnson D. Aromatic amino acid metabolism in brindled (Mobr) and viable-brindled (Movbr), two alleles at the mottled locus in the mouse. Biochem Genet. 1972;6:31-40 pubmed
  6. Miura Y, Akimoto T, Yoshikawa N, Yagi K. Characterization of immobilized hepatocytes as liver support. Biomater Artif Cells Artif Organs. 1990;18:549-54 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is suggested that immobilized hepatocytes could be applied to a hybrid artificial liver support. ..
  7. Ouyang G, Li Q, Peng X, Liu Q, Hong S. Effects of tachyplesin on proliferation and differentiation of human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2002;8:1053-8 pubmed
  8. Liu L, Dong J, Zhang J, Dang X, Xing B, Yang X. [Effects of calcium on synthesis of rosmarinic acid and related enzymes in suspension cultures of Salvia miltiorrhiza]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2012;28:1359-69 pubmed
  9. Fujimoto Sakata S, Fujino M, Matsuda K, Maeda M, Ohira H, Kawasaki K, et al. Mechanism of liver tyrosine aminotransferase increase in ethanol-treated mice and its effect on serum tyrosine level. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2007;53:489-95 pubmed
    ..Since TAT activity is increased by cAMP, and ethanol increases cAMP production via an adenosine receptor-dependent mechanism, this increase in ethanol-induced TAT activity may occur via an adenosine receptor-dependent mechanism. ..
  10. Diel P, Friedel A, Geyer H, Kamber M, Laudenbach Leschowsky U, Schanzer W, et al. Characterisation of the pharmacological profile of desoxymethyltestosterone (Madol), a steroid misused for doping. Toxicol Lett. 2007;169:64-71 pubmed
    ..Therefore, there is a need for a strict control of a possible misuse. ..
  11. Liu Z, Liu G, Zhang S. Reversing effect of dimethyl-4,4'-dimethoxy-5,6,5', 6'-dimethylenedioxybiphenyl-2,2'-dicarboxylate (DDB) on the phenotypes of human hepatocarcinoma cells line. Cancer Lett. 1996;108:67-72 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that DDB has reversing effects on the phenotypes of the human Bel-7402 hepatocarcinoma cell line. ..
  12. Natt E, Kida K, Odievre M, Di Rocco M, Scherer G. Point mutations in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene in tyrosinemia type II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:9297-301 pubmed
    ..A new splice acceptor site in intron 2 of the fifth RHS allele leads to a shift in reading frame. ..
  13. Oshima H, Szapary D, Simons S. The factor binding to the glucocorticoid modulatory element of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene is a novel and ubiquitous heteromeric complex. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:21893-901 pubmed
    ..Thus, these novel GMEBs may participate in a similar modulation of other glucocorticoid-inducible genes in a variety of cells. ..
  14. Pittner R. Lack of effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide and amylin on major markers of glucose metabolism in hepatocytes. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997;325:189-97 pubmed
    ..However, we do not rule out that amylin may affect hepatic glucose output indirectly through Cori cycling of lactate derived from skeletal muscle or from interactions through non-parenchymal cells. ..
  15. Culic V, Betz R, Refke M, Fumic K, Pavelic J. Tyrosinemia type II (Richner-Hanhart syndrome): a new mutation in the TAT gene. Eur J Med Genet. 2011;54:205-8 pubmed publisher
    ..All symptoms disappeared within 2-4 weeks. Since that time, we have been following the girl until today for more than ten years. She is in a good condition, and attends the normal high school program. ..
  16. Bryzgalov L, Ershov N, Ilnitskaya S. FOXA transcription factors determine the amplitude of glucocorticoid induction of tyrosine aminotransferase in mice. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2007;144:722-4 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that FOXA proteins determine glucocorticoid induction of tyrosine aminotransferase in mice (similarly to rats)...
  17. Choi S, Choi H, Kim K, Lee D, Lee J, Park J, et al. Isolation of canine mesenchymal stem cells from amniotic fluid and differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2013;49:42-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of our work suggest that cAFS cells have the potential to be a resource for cell-based therapies in a canine model of hepatic disease...
  18. Begum K, Rajini P. Augmentation of hepatic and renal oxidative stress and disrupted glucose homeostasis by monocrotophos in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Chem Biol Interact. 2011;193:240-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively our data provides evidence that MCP has the propensity to augment the oxidative stress and further disrupt glucose homeostasis in diabetic rats. ..
  19. Vicent G, Burton G, Ghini A, Lantos C, Galigniana M. Influence of calf serum on glucocorticoid-responses of certain progesterone derivatives. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1998;66:211-6 pubmed
    ..in this steroid series, BCS, but not CBG, inhibits GC responses of P and deltaP. 11-Beta hydroxylation frees those molecules from the inhibitory effects of BCS. ..
  20. Al Mohaisen M, Cardounel A, Kalimi M. Repeated immobilization stress increases total cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor in rat liver. Steroids. 2000;65:8-15 pubmed
    ..These novel results suggest that repeated stress influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in rats by elevating both the level of plasma corticosterone and total hepatic cytosolic GR. ..
  21. Okamoto K, Isohashi F. Macromolecular translocation inhibitor II (Zn(2+)-binding protein, parathymosin) interacts with the glucocorticoid receptor and enhances transcription in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:36986-93 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that MTI-II enhances GR-dependent transcription via a direct interaction with GR in vivo. Thus, MTI-II is a new member of the GR-coactivator complex. ..
  22. Johansson M, Johansson N, Lund B. Xenobiotics and the glucocorticoid receptor: additive antagonistic effects on tyrosine aminotransferase activity in rat hepatoma cells. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005;96:309-15 pubmed
    ..Thus, co-exposure to such different chemicals as persistent organic pollutants and pesticides may affect cells additively. Chemical interference with the glucocorticoid hormone system therefore deserves further attention in vivo. ..
  23. Szajnert M, Schapira F. Properties of purified tyrosine aminotransferase from adult and senescent rat liver. Gerontology. 1983;29:311-9 pubmed
    ..Tyrosine aminotransferase provides another argument against the 'error theory' of cellular aging. ..
  24. Chinzei R, Tanaka Y, Shimizu Saito K, Hara Y, Kakinuma S, Watanabe M, et al. Embryoid-body cells derived from a mouse embryonic stem cell line show differentiation into functional hepatocytes. Hepatology. 2002;36:22-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that cultured EBs contain functional hepatocytes or hepatocyte-like cells...
  25. Lem J, Chin A, Thayer M, Leach R, Fournier R. Coordinate regulation of two genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes by the trans-dominant locus Tse-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:7302-6 pubmed
    ..Extinction of both genes was apparently mediated by a single genetic locus that resides on human chromosome 17. ..
  26. Mattern I, Pittard J. Regulation of tyrosine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12: isolation and characterization of operator mutants. J Bacteriol. 1971;107:8-15 pubmed
    ..The mutant allele aroK is not recessive to aroK(+) and aroK/aroK(+) strains exhibit the aroK phenotype of resistance to 4-aminophenylalanine. It is proposed that aroK is an operator locus for an aroF tyrA operon. ..
  27. Bertarelli D, Balbo A, Carletti M, Cannizzo T, Girolami F, Nebbia C. Hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase and glucocorticoid abuse in meat cattle. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35:596-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Although further research is needed to characterize the GC-mediated response in cattle liver, TAT does not appear to be a specific and sensitive biomarker of GC abuse in the bovine species. ..
  28. Peragón J, de la Higuera M, Lupiáñez J. Dietary protein differentially regulates the kinetic behaviour of serine dehydratase and tyrosine aminotransferase of liver and white muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;157:213-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that, in trout, SerDH and TyrAT are two enzymes regulated by the partial replacement of dietary protein by fat. ..
  29. Chien C, Yen B, Lee F, Lai T, Chen Y, Chan S, et al. In vitro differentiation of human placenta-derived multipotent cells into hepatocyte-like cells. Stem Cells. 2006;24:1759-68 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, placenta might be an easily accessible source for progenitor cells that are capable of differentiating toward hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. ..
  30. Grossmann K, Hutzler J, Tresch S, Christiansen N, Looser R, Ehrhardt T. On the mode of action of the herbicides cinmethylin and 5-benzyloxymethyl-1, 2-isoxazolines: putative inhibitors of plant tyrosine aminotransferase. Pest Manag Sci. 2012;68:482-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the herbicides were able to inhibit TAT7 activity in vitro for the recombinant enzyme of A. thaliana. The results suggest that TAT7 or another TAT isoenzyme is the putative target of the herbicides. ..
  31. Zhang S, Yan Y, Wang B, Liang Z, Liu Y, Liu F, et al. Selective responses of enzymes in the two parallel pathways of rosmarinic acid biosynthetic pathway to elicitors in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures. J Biosci Bioeng. 2014;117:645-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study implied that compared with enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway, enzymes in the tyrosine-derived pathway are more correlated to rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. ..
  32. Jager J, Solmajer T, Jansonius J. Computational approach towards the three-dimensional structure of E. coli tyrosine aminotransferase. FEBS Lett. 1992;306:234-8 pubmed
    ..coli aspartate aminotransferase and computer simulation studies. Active site characteristics of the model are correlated with experimental observations on the specificity of these enzymes towards aromatic/dicarboxylic acid substrates. ..
  33. Reinbothe S, Quigley F, Gray J, Schemenewitz A, Reinbothe C. Identification of plastid envelope proteins required for import of protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A into the chloroplast of barley. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2197-202 pubmed
    ..Two other constituents were found to be orthologs of the GTP-binding proteins Toc33/34 and of the outer plastid envelope protein Oep16. ..
  34. Morozov I, Smagulova F, Mertvetsov N. [Localization of putative elements of 5'-region of human tyrosine aminotransferase gene mediating its expression by glucocorticoids]. Bioorg Khim. 1998;24:433-6 pubmed
    ..Computer analysis revealed putative binding sites for the glucocorticoid-receptor complex which mediates regulation of expression of the gene. ..
  35. Kaestner K, Hiemisch H, Schutz G. Targeted disruption of the gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor 3gamma results in reduced transcription of hepatocyte-specific genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:4245-51 pubmed
  36. Heiman A, Ko D, Chen M, Lee H. New steroidal anti-inflammatory antedrugs: methyl 3,20-dioxo-9 alpha-fluoro-11 beta,17 alpha,21-trihydroxy-1,4-pregnadiene-16 alpha-carboxylate and methyl 21-acetyloxy-3,20-dioxo-11 beta, 17 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha-fluoro-1,4-pregnadiene-16 alpha-car. Steroids. 1997;62:491-9 pubmed
    ..These new antedrugs may be useful as anti-inflammatory steroids for local applications. ..
  37. Inayoshi Y, Kaneoka H, Machida Y, Terajima M, Dohda T, Miyake K, et al. Repression of GR-mediated expression of the tryptophan oxygenase gene by the SWI/SNF complex during liver development. J Biochem. 2005;138:457-65 pubmed
    ..These results support a model in which SWI/SNF containing BRG1 represses late stage-specific TO gene expression at an early stage of liver development. ..
  38. Natt E, Kao F, Rettenmeier R, Scherer G. Assignment of the human tyrosine aminotransferase gene to chromosome 16. Hum Genet. 1986;72:225-8 pubmed
    ..The results assign the TAT gene to human chromosome 16. ..
  39. Hashimoto S, Schmid W, Schutz G. Transcriptional activation of the rat liver tyrosine aminotransferase gene by cAMP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:6637-41 pubmed
    ..Combined dexamethasone and cAMP treatment leads to higher TyrATase mRNA concentrations than each inducer alone, which implies that dexamethasone and cAMP act by distinct mechanisms. ..
  40. Deu E, Kirsch J. Engineering homooligomeric proteins to detect weak intersite allosteric communication: aminotransferases, a case study. Protein Sci. 2011;20:1991-2003 pubmed publisher
    ..The procedure may be applicable to other homologous sets of enzymes. ..
  41. Seralini G, Luu The V, Labrie F. Cloning and expression of human tyrosine aminotransferase cDNA. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1260:97-101 pubmed
    ..The availability of a functional TAT cDNA provides a useful tool for detailed study of the structure-function relationship of the enzyme and its mutated derivatives. ..
  42. Fu L, Dong S, Xie Y, Tai L, Chen L, Kong K, et al. Down-regulation of tyrosine aminotransferase at a frequently deleted region 16q22 contributes to the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2010;51:1624-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that TAT plays an important suppressive role in the development and progression of HCC. ..
  43. Lock E, Gaskin P, Ellis M, Provan W, Smith L. Tyrosinemia produced by 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC) in experimental animals and its relationship to corneal injury. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;215:9-16 pubmed
  44. Dong J, Wan G, Liang Z. Accumulation of salicylic acid-induced phenolic compounds and raised activities of secondary metabolic and antioxidative enzymes in Salvia miltiorrhiza cell culture. J Biotechnol. 2010;148:99-104 pubmed publisher
    ..This could be of particular significance by using plant cell culture systems for biotechnological production of plant secondary metabolites such as salvianolic acid B and caffeic acid...
  45. Niimi S, Yamaguchi T, Hayakawa T. Regulation of glucocorticoid receptor by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A in the cytosolic fraction of primary cultured rat hepatocytes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1997;61:65-71 pubmed
    ..Our results also suggested that the increase of GR protein stability is the most probable explanation for the maintenance of its level. ..
  46. Ikeda T, Sawada N, Satoh M, Mori M. Induction of tyrosine aminotransferase of primary cultured rat hepatocytes depends on the organization of microtubules. J Cell Physiol. 1998;175:41-9 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that the organization of cytoplasmic microtubules may participate in the shape-related regulation of cell function. ..
  47. He Y, Zhang W, Gong M, Huang J, Tang N, Feng T, et al. Low serum concentration facilitates the differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells. Saudi Med J. 2011;32:128-34 pubmed
    ..Two percent low serum concentration conditions, especially 2% HS, improve the hepatic differentiation of HPCs, and PAS staining may not be used in induction testing of low serum concentrations. ..
  48. Malashkevich V, Onuffer J, Kirsch J, Jansonius J. Alternating arginine-modulated substrate specificity in an engineered tyrosine aminotransferase. Nat Struct Biol. 1995;2:548-53 pubmed
    ..An active-site arginine residue either shifts its position to electrostatically interact with charged substrates or moves aside to allow access of aromatic ligands. ..
  49. Sorensen B, Link J, Von Geldern T, Emery M, Wang J, Hickman B, et al. An evaluation of a C-glucuronide as a liver targeting group: conjugate of a glucocorticoid antagonist. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003;13:2307-10 pubmed
    ..Pharmacokinetic studies suggest that the conjugate is recognized by the liver like O-glucuronides and may undergo a portion of the enterohepatic recirculation loop. ..
  50. Schmid E, Schmid W, Jantzen M, Mayer D, Jastorff B, Schutz G. Transcription activation of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene by glucocorticoids and cAMP in primary hepatocytes. Eur J Biochem. 1987;165:499-506 pubmed
    ..We thus conclude that the two inducers affect transcription by independent mechanisms. ..
  51. Niimi S, Hyuga M, Harashima M, Seki T, Ariga T, Kawanishi T, et al. Isolated small rat hepatocytes express both annexin III and terminal differentiated hepatocyte markers, tyrosine aminotransferase and tryptophan oxygenase, at the mRNA level. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004;27:1864-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we examined the mRNA level of tyrosine aminotransferase and tryptophan oxygenase, two terminally differentiated hepatocyte markers. mRNA for these markers was detected in both parenchymal hepatocytes and small hepatocytes. ..
  52. Sakuma T, Kitajima K, Nishiyama M, Endo Y, Miyauchi K, Jarukamjorn K, et al. Collaborated regulation of female-specific murine Cyp3a41 gene expression by growth and glucocorticoid hormones. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;314:495-500 pubmed
  53. Peterson T, Killary A, Fournier R. Chromosomal assignment and trans regulation of the tyrosine aminotransferase structural gene in hepatoma hybrid cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1985;5:2491-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, the TAT structural genes of both parental cell types were coordinately regulated in the intertypic hybrids, and the TAT phenotype of the cells was determined by the presence or absence of fibroblast Tse-1. ..