sialyltransferases

Summary

Summary: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.

Top Publications

  1. Picco G, Julien S, Brockhausen I, Beatson R, Antonopoulos A, Haslam S, et al. Over-expression of ST3Gal-I promotes mammary tumorigenesis. Glycobiology. 2010;20:1241-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This, we believe, is the first demonstration that over-expression of a glycosyltransferase involved in mucin-type O-linked glycosylation can promote tumorigenesis. ..
  2. Chen X, Varki A. Advances in the biology and chemistry of sialic acids. ACS Chem Biol. 2010;5:163-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Research efforts not only will lead to a better understanding of the biological and pathological importance of sialic acids and their diversity but also could lead to the development of therapeutics. ..
  3. Hildebrandt H, Muhlenhoff M, Oltmann Norden I, Röckle I, Burkhardt H, Weinhold B, et al. Imbalance of neural cell adhesion molecule and polysialyltransferase alleles causes defective brain connectivity. Brain. 2009;132:2831-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Lee M, Park J, Lee Y. Adhesion of ST6Gal I-mediated human colon cancer cells to fibronectin contributes to cell survival by integrin beta1-mediated paxillin and AKT activation. Oncol Rep. 2010;23:757-61 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that integrin beta1 sialylation may play a critical role in promoting adhesion of cancer cells by integrin beta1-mediated paxillin and AKT activation. ..
  5. Willis L, Gilbert M, Karwaski M, Blanchard M, Wakarchuk W. Characterization of the alpha-2,8-polysialyltransferase from Neisseria meningitidis with synthetic acceptors, and the development of a self-priming polysialyltransferase fusion enzyme. Glycobiology. 2008;18:177-86 pubmed
    ..These bifunctional sialyltransferases utilized various synthetic disaccharide acceptors with a terminal galactose, and we demonstrate here that ..
  6. Oltmann Norden I, Galuska S, Hildebrandt H, Geyer R, Gerardy Schahn R, Geyer H, et al. Impact of the polysialyltransferases ST8SiaII and ST8SiaIV on polysialic acid synthesis during postnatal mouse brain development. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:1463-71 pubmed
  7. Audry M, Jeanneau C, Imberty A, Harduin Lepers A, Delannoy P, Breton C. Current trends in the structure-activity relationships of sialyltransferases. Glycobiology. 2011;21:716-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Sialyltransferases (STs) represent an important group of enzymes that transfer N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) from cytidine monophosphate-Neu5Ac to various acceptor substrates...
  8. Dae H, Kwon H, Kang N, Song N, Kim K, Kim C, et al. Isolation and functional analysis of the human glioblastoma-specific promoter region of the human GD3 synthase (hST8Sia I) gene. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2009;41:237-45 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that both AREB6 and Elk-1 might play an essential role in the transcriptional activity of hST8Sia I gene essential for GD3 synthesis in human glioblastoma cells. ..
  9. Dhanushkodi A, McDonald M. Intracranial V. cholerae sialidase protects against excitotoxic neurodegeneration. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29285 pubmed publisher
    ..VCS did not protect against seizures. These results demonstrate that strategic degradation of complex gangliosides and GD3 can be used to achieve neuroprotection without adversely affecting behavior. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Tsukamoto H, Takakura Y, Yamamoto T. Purification, cloning, and expression of an alpha/beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase from a luminous marine bacterium, Photobacterium phosphoreum. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29794-802 pubmed
    ..Thus, this sialyltransferase is unique and should be very useful for achieving high productivity in E. coli with a wide substrate range. ..
  2. Mondal S, Chandra S, Mandal C. Elevated mRNA level of hST6Gal I and hST3Gal V positively correlates with the high risk of pediatric acute leukemia. Leuk Res. 2010;34:463-70 pubmed publisher
    ..0032 and 0.0016). This differential ST level can be used as biomarker with the molecular method of quantitative PCR and may be useful to discriminate normal and cancer patients. ..
  3. Muhlenhoff M, Oltmann Norden I, Weinhold B, Hildebrandt H, Gerardy Schahn R. Brain development needs sugar: the role of polysialic acid in controlling NCAM functions. Biol Chem. 2009;390:567-74 pubmed publisher
  4. Kwon H, Dae H, Song N, Kim K, Kim C, Lee Y. Valproic acid induces transcriptional activation of human GD3 synthase (hST8Sia I) in SK-N-BE(2)-C human neuroblastoma cells. Mol Cells. 2009;27:113-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that VPA markedly modulated transcriptional regulation of hST8Sia I gene expression through PKC/JNK signal pathways in SK-N-BE(2)-C cells. ..
  5. Li Y, Wu G, Zeng L, Dawe G, Sun L, Loers G, et al. Cell surface sialylation and fucosylation are regulated by the cell recognition molecule L1 via PLCgamma and cooperate to modulate embryonic stem cell survival and proliferation. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:703-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, embryonic stem cell surface sialylation and fucosylation are regulated via PLCgamma by L1, with which they cooperate to modulate cell survival and proliferation...
  6. Keys T, Freiberger F, Ehrit J, Krueger J, Eggers K, Buettner F, et al. A universal fluorescent acceptor for high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of pro- and eukaryotic polysialyltransferases. Anal Biochem. 2012;427:107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..With DMB-DP3, we introduce a universal acceptor that provides an easy, fast, and reliable system for the comprehensive mechanistic and comparative analysis of polySTs. ..
  7. Hedlund M, Ng E, Varki A, Varki N. alpha 2-6-Linked sialic acids on N-glycans modulate carcinoma differentiation in vivo. Cancer Res. 2008;68:388-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate a role for ST6Gal-I as a mediator of tumor progression, with its expression causing a less differentiated phenotype, via enhanced beta1-integrin function. ..
  8. Park J, Yi J, Jin Y, Lee Y, Lee J, Lee Y, et al. Sialylation of epidermal growth factor receptor regulates receptor activity and chemosensitivity to gefitinib in colon cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;83:849-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, overexpression of ST6Gal I decreased the cytotoxic effect of gefitinib. These results suggest that sialylation of the EGFR affects EGF-mediated cell growth and induces chemoresistance to gefitinib in colon cancer cells...
  9. Valentiner U, Muhlenhoff M, Lehmann U, Hildebrandt H, Schumacher U. Expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule and polysialic acid in human neuroblastoma cell lines. Int J Oncol. 2011;39:417-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this indicates that the presence of polySia reduces the adhesiveness of tumour cells and promotes dissemination. ..
  10. Peterson D, Arakere G, Vionnet J, McCarthy P, Vann W. Characterization and acceptor preference of a soluble meningococcal group C polysialyltransferase. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:1576-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This acceptor is an amphipathic molecule and can be elongated to produce polysialic acid that is reactive with group C-specific antibody. ..
  11. Mine T, Katayama S, Kajiwara H, Tsunashima M, Tsukamoto H, Takakura Y, et al. An alpha2,6-sialyltransferase cloned from Photobacterium leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-119 shows both sialyltransferase and neuraminidase activity. Glycobiology. 2010;20:158-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein showed 56-96% identity to the marine bacterial alpha2,6-sialyltransferases classified into glycosyltransferase family 80...
  12. Yamamoto T, Ichikawa M, Takakura Y. Conserved amino acid sequences in the bacterial sialyltransferases belonging to Glycosyltransferase family 80. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;365:340-3 pubmed
    b>Sialyltransferases are key enzymes for the biosynthesis of sialyl-glycoproteins and sialyl-lipids and the genes encoding sialyltransferases have been cloned from mammalian and bacterial source...
  13. Huang S, Day T, Choi M, Safa A. Human beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase (ST3Gal III) attenuated Taxol-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells by downregulating caspase-8 activity. Mol Cell Biochem. 2009;331:81-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, ST3Gal III overexpression inhibited Taxol-triggered caspase-8 activation, indicating that ST3Gal III upregulation produces cellular resistance to Taxol and hence reduces the efficacy of Taxol therapy. ..
  14. Datta A. Comparative sequence analysis in the sialyltransferase protein family: analysis of motifs. Curr Drug Targets. 2009;10:483-98 pubmed
    ..To date, 20 cloned enzymes with distinct substrate specificity have been obtained for mammalian sialyltransferases. These account for four subfamilies according to the carbohydrate linkages synthesized, namely, ST3Gal, ..
  15. Miyazaki T, Angata K, Seeberger P, Hindsgaul O, Fukuda M. CMP substitutions preferentially inhibit polysialic acid synthesis. Glycobiology. 2008;18:187-94 pubmed
    ..2'-O-methyl CMP and 5-methyl CMP and then asked if these CMP derivatives are recognized by alpha2,3-sialyltransferases (ST3Gal-III and ST3Gal-IV), alpha2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal-I), and alpha2,8-sialyltransferase (ST8Sia-II,..
  16. Cazet A, Julien S, Bobowski M, Krzewinski Recchi M, Harduin Lepers A, Groux Degroote S, et al. Consequences of the expression of sialylated antigens in breast cancer. Carbohydr Res. 2010;345:1377-83 pubmed publisher
  17. Galuska S, Rollenhagen M, Kaup M, Eggers K, Oltmann Norden I, Schiff M, et al. Synaptic cell adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 is a target for polysialylation in postnatal mouse brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10250-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings sug-gest that polySia may act as a dynamic modulator of SynCAM 1 functions during integration of NG2 cells into neural networks. ..
  18. Bernardo A, Harrison F, McCord M, Zhao J, Bruchey A, Davies S, et al. Elimination of GD3 synthase improves memory and reduces amyloid-beta plaque load in transgenic mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2009;30:1777-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that GD3 synthase may be a novel therapeutic target to combat the cognitive deficits, amyloid plaque formation, and neurodegeneration that afflict Alzheimer's patients. ..
  19. Shaikh F, Seales E, Clem W, Hennessy K, Zhuo Y, Bellis S. Tumor cell migration and invasion are regulated by expression of variant integrin glycoforms. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:2941-50 pubmed publisher
  20. Cazet A, Bobowski M, Rombouts Y, Lefebvre J, Steenackers A, Popa I, et al. The ganglioside G(D2) induces the constitutive activation of c-Met in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells expressing the G(D3) synthase. Glycobiology. 2012;22:806-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The accumulation of G(D2) in c-Met expressing cells could therefore reinforce the tumorigenicity and aggressiveness of breast cancer tumors. ..
  21. Foley D, Swartzentruber K, Colley K. Identification of sequences in the polysialyltransferases ST8Sia II and ST8Sia IV that are required for the protein-specific polysialylation of the neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:15505-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, we have identified selected amino acids in this conserved polysialyltransferase polybasic region that are critical for the protein-specific polysialylation of NCAM. ..
  22. Lee M, Lee H, Bae S, Lee Y. Protein sialylation by sialyltransferase involves radiation resistance. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:1316-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, radiation exposure was found to increase the sialylation of glycoproteins such as integrin beta1 by inducing the expression of ST6Gal I, and increased protein sialylation contributed to cellular radiation resistance. ..
  23. Jun L, Yuanshu W, Yanying X, Zhongfa X, Jian Y, Fengling W, et al. Altered mRNA expressions of sialyltransferases in human gastric cancer tissues. Med Oncol. 2012;29:84-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The high expression of ST3Gal IV may contribute to the expression of ? 2,3-linked sialic acid residues, which is associated with the malignant behavior of gastric cancer cells. ..
  24. Petit D, Mir A, Petit J, Thisse C, Delannoy P, Oriol R, et al. Molecular phylogeny and functional genomics of beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferases that explain ubiquitous expression of st6gal1 gene in amniotes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:38399-414 pubmed publisher
    b>Sialyltransferases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of sialoglycoconjugates that catalyze the transfer of sialic residue from its activated form to an oligosaccharidic acceptor...
  25. Yang W, Nussbaum C, Grewal P, Marth J, Sperandio M. Coordinated roles of ST3Gal-VI and ST3Gal-IV sialyltransferases in the synthesis of selectin ligands. Blood. 2012;120:1015-26 pubmed publisher
    ..through the secretory pathway, selectin ligands are constructed with the participation of one or more sialyltransferases of the ST3Gal subfamily...
  26. Tsukamoto H, Takakura Y, Mine T, Yamamoto T. Photobacterium sp. JT-ISH-224 produces two sialyltransferases, alpha-/beta-galactoside alpha2,3-sialyltransferase and beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase. J Biochem. 2008;143:187-97 pubmed
  27. Chiang C, Wang C, Chang H, More S, Li W, Hung W. A novel sialyltransferase inhibitor AL10 suppresses invasion and metastasis of lung cancer cells by inhibiting integrin-mediated signaling. J Cell Physiol. 2010;223:492-9 pubmed publisher
    Aberrant sialylation catalyzed by sialyltransferases (STs) is frequently found in cancer cells and is associated with increased cancer metastasis...
  28. Swindall A, Londoño Joshi A, Schultz M, Fineberg N, Buchsbaum D, Bellis S. ST6Gal-I protein expression is upregulated in human epithelial tumors and correlates with stem cell markers in normal tissues and colon cancer cell lines. Cancer Res. 2013;73:2368-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that ST6Gal-I promotes tumorigenesis and may serve as a regulator of the stem cell phenotype in both normal and cancer cell populations. ..
  29. Drouillard S, Mine T, Kajiwara H, Yamamoto T, Samain E. Efficient synthesis of 6'-sialyllactose, 6,6'-disialyllactose, and 6'-KDO-lactose by metabolically engineered E. coli expressing a multifunctional sialyltransferase from the Photobacterium sp. JT-ISH-224. Carbohydr Res. 2010;345:1394-9 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, when the culture was continuously fed with an excess of lactose, 6'-sialyllactose was almost the only product detected and its final concentration was higher than 30g/L of culture medium. ..
  30. Battula V, Shi Y, Evans K, Wang R, Spaeth E, Jacamo R, et al. Ganglioside GD2 identifies breast cancer stem cells and promotes tumorigenesis. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:2066-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we identified GD2 as a new CSC-specific cell surface marker and GD3S as a potential therapeutic target for CSCs, with the possibility of improving survival and cure rates in patients with breast cancer. ..
  31. Wu Z, Ethen C, Prather B, Machacek M, Jiang W. Universal phosphatase-coupled glycosyltransferase assay. Glycobiology. 2011;21:727-33 pubmed publisher
    ..N-acetylgalactosyltransferases, galactosyltransferases, fucosyltransferases and sialyltransferases. As examples, we first assayed Clostridium difficile toxin B, a protein O-glucosyltransferase that ..
  32. Futakawa S, Kitazume S, Oka R, Ogawa K, Hagiwara Y, Kinoshita A, et al. Development of sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems for plasma beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase, a possible hepatic disease biomarker. Anal Chim Acta. 2009;631:116-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that these ELISA systems are very useful tools for measuring plasma ST6Gal I, which represents a potential biomarker for diagnosing hepatic diseases. ..
  33. Swindall A, Bellis S. Sialylation of the Fas death receptor by ST6Gal-I provides protection against Fas-mediated apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:22982-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding establishes a new paradigm by which death receptor function is impaired for the self-protection of tumors against apoptosis. ..
  34. Suzuki H, Moldoveanu Z, Hall S, Brown R, Vu H, Novak L, et al. IgA1-secreting cell lines from patients with IgA nephropathy produce aberrantly glycosylated IgA1. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:629-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data suggest that premature sialylation likely contributes to the aberrant IgA1 glycosylation in IgA nephropathy and may represent a new therapeutic target. ..
  35. Harduin Lepers A, Krzewinski Recchi M, Colomb F, Foulquier F, Groux Degroote S, Delannoy P. Sialyltransferases functions in cancers. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2012;4:499-515 pubmed
    ..It is now well established that this over-expression may result from deregulation in sialyltransferases enzymatic activity involved in their biosynthesis, but the precise molecular mechanisms remain unknown...
  36. Buschiazzo A, Alzari P. Structural insights into sialic acid enzymology. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2008;12:565-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, X-ray structures of sialyltransferases uncover significant variations of formerly known glycosyltransferase foldings...
  37. Son Y, Jeong Y, Park S, Kim J. Enhanced sialylation of recombinant human erythropoietin in Chinese hamster ovary cells by combinatorial engineering of selected genes. Glycobiology. 2011;21:1019-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The newly constructed host CHO cell lines produced more highly sialylated therapeutic glycoproteins through overexpression of sialuria-mutated GNE/MNK, CMP-SAT and ?2,3-ST. ..
  38. Yu S, Zhang L, Li N, Fan J, Liu L, Zhang J, et al. Caveolin-1 up-regulates ST6Gal-I to promote the adhesive capability of mouse hepatocarcinoma cells to fibronectin via FAK-mediated adhesion signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;427:506-12 pubmed publisher
  39. Chen J, Tang Y, Huang S, Juan H, Wu L, Sun Y, et al. A novel sialyltransferase inhibitor suppresses FAK/paxillin signaling and cancer angiogenesis and metastasis pathways. Cancer Res. 2011;71:473-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Lith-O-Asp is worthy for further testing as a novel antimetastasis drug for cancer treatment. ..
  40. El Maarouf A, Moyo Lee Yaw D, Lindhout T, Pearse D, Wakarchuk W, Rutishauser U. Enzymatic engineering of polysialic acid on cells in vitro and in vivo using a purified bacterial polysialyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32770-9 pubmed
    ..5 h, persisted in tissues, and then decreased within a few weeks. Together these characteristics suggest that a PST(Nm)-based approach may provide a valuable alternative to PST gene therapy. ..
  41. Cazet A, Groux Degroote S, Teylaert B, Kwon K, Lehoux S, Slomianny C, et al. GD3 synthase overexpression enhances proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Biol Chem. 2009;390:601-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that G(D3) synthase overexpression may contribute to increasing the malignant properties of breast cancer cells. ..
  42. Thompson M, Foley D, Colley K. The polysialyltransferases interact with sequences in two domains of the neural cell adhesion molecule to allow its polysialylation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:7282-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that the polySTs not only recognize an acidic patch in the FN1 domain of NCAM but also must contact sequences in the Ig5 domain for polysialylation of Ig5 N-glycans to occur. ..
  43. Videira P, Amado I, Crespo H, Algueró M, Dall Olio F, Cabral M, et al. Surface alpha 2-3- and alpha 2-6-sialylation of human monocytes and derived dendritic cells and its influence on endocytosis. Glycoconj J. 2008;25:259-68 pubmed
    ..This was monitored by lectin binding and analysis of sialyltransferases (ST) at the mRNA level and by specific enzymatic assays...
  44. Hatano K, Miyamoto Y, Mori M, Nimura K, Nakai Y, Nonomura N, et al. Androgen-regulated transcriptional control of sialyltransferases in prostate cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31234 pubmed publisher
    The expression of gangliosides is often associated with cancer progression. Sialyltransferases have received much attention in terms of their relationship with cancer because they modulate the expression of gangliosides...
  45. Kushi Y, Kamimiya H, Hiratsuka H, Nozaki H, Fukui H, Yanagida M, et al. Sialyltransferases of marine bacteria efficiently utilize glycosphingolipid substrates. Glycobiology. 2010;20:187-98 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial sialyltransferases (STs) from marine sources were characterized using glycosphingolipids (GSLs). Bacterial STs were found to be beta-galacotoside STs...
  46. Sun M, Li Y, Chokhawala H, Henning R, Chen X. N-Terminal 112 amino acid residues are not required for the sialyltransferase activity of Photobacterium damsela alpha2,6-sialyltransferase. Biotechnol Lett. 2008;30:671-6 pubmed
    ..5-10.0. A divalent metal ion was not required for the sialyltransferase activity, and the addition of EDTA and dithiothreitol did not affect the activity significantly...
  47. Ono S, Hane M, Kitajima K, Sato C. Novel regulation of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)-mediated cell growth by polysialic acid. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:3710-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that polySia-NCAM might be involved in the regulation of FGF2-FGF receptor signaling through the direct binding of FGF2 in a manner distinct from heparan sulfate. ..
  48. Hildebrandt H, Muhlenhoff M, Weinhold B, Gerardy Schahn R. Dissecting polysialic acid and NCAM functions in brain development. J Neurochem. 2007;103 Suppl 1:56-64 pubmed
    ..Analysis of shared and individual phenotypes allows a clear distinction between NCAM and polySia functions and revealed that polySia plays a vital role as a specific control element of NCAM-mediated interactions. ..
  49. Colomb F, Krzewinski Recchi M, El Machhour F, Mensier E, Jaillard S, Steenackers A, et al. TNF regulates sialyl-Lewisx and 6-sulfo-sialyl-Lewisx expression in human lung through up-regulation of ST3GAL4 transcript isoform BX. Biochimie. 2012;94:2045-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support further work aiming at the development of anti-inflammatory strategy to reduce chronic airway infection in diseases such as cystic fibrosis. ..
  50. Lee M, Chen C, Lee C, Chen C, Chong M, Ouyang W, et al. Genome-wide association study of bipolar I disorder in the Han Chinese population. Mol Psychiatry. 2011;16:548-56 pubmed publisher
    ..55 × 10(-5) and P=1.48 × 10(-5), respectively). This may suggest that there are common and population-specific susceptibility genes for bipolar I disorder. ..
  51. Kitazume S, Oka R, Ogawa K, Futakawa S, Hagiwara Y, Takikawa H, et al. Molecular insights into beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase secretion in vivo. Glycobiology. 2009;19:479-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that the serum level of ST6Gal I in hepatitis C patients was correlated with the activity of hepatic inflammation. ..
  52. López Morales D, Velázquez Márquez N, Valenzuela O, Santos López G, Reyes Leyva J, Vallejo Ruiz V. Enhanced sialyltransferases transcription in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Invest Clin. 2009;50:45-53 pubmed
    ..observed during oncogenic transformation, tumor metastases and invasion, has been associated with enhanced sialyltransferases (STs) transcription...
  53. Mine T, Miyazaki T, Kajiwara H, Naito K, Ajisaka K, Yamamoto T. Enzymatic synthesis of unique sialyloligosaccharides using marine bacterial alpha-(2-->3)- and alpha-(2-->6)-sialyltransferases. Carbohydr Res. 2010;345:1417-21 pubmed publisher