purine nucleoside phosphorylase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between a purine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free purine plus ribose-5-phosphate. EC

Top Publications

  1. Silva R, Pereira J, Canduri F, De Azevedo W, Basso L, Santos D. Kinetics and crystal structure of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase in complex with 7-methyl-6-thio-guanosine. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005;442:49-58 pubmed
    b>Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of nucleosides and deoxynucleosides, generating ribose 1-phosphate and the purine base, which is an important step of purine catabolism pathway...
  2. Bennett E, Anand R, Allan P, Hassan A, Hong J, Levasseur D, et al. Designer gene therapy using an Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase/prodrug system. Chem Biol. 2003;10:1173-81 pubmed
    Activation of prodrugs by Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) provides a method for selectively killing tumor cells expressing a transfected PNP gene...
  3. Gandhi V, Kilpatrick J, Plunkett W, Ayres M, Harman L, Du M, et al. A proof-of-principle pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical study with purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitor immucillin-H (BCX-1777, forodesine). Blood. 2005;106:4253-60 pubmed
    The discovery of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency and T lymphocytopenia suggested that inhibition of this enzyme could serve as a therapeutic target...
  4. Kicska G, Tyler P, Evans G, Furneaux R, Kim K, Schramm V. Transition state analogue inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Plasmodium falciparum. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:3219-25 pubmed
    Immucillins are logically designed transition-state analogue inhibitors of mammalian purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) that induce purine-less death of Plasmodium falciparum in cultured erythrocytes (Kicska, G. A., Tyler, P. C...
  5. Markert M, Finkel B, McLaughlin T, Watson T, Collard H, McMahon C, et al. Mutations in purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. Hum Mutat. 1997;9:118-21 pubmed
    b>Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency is an inherited disease of purine metabolism characterized clinically as combined immunodeficiency. The molecular defects have been published for 4 different alleles in 3 patients...
  6. Canduri F, dos Santos D, Silva R, Mendes M, Basso L, Palma M, et al. Structures of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase complexed with inosine and ddI. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;313:907-14 pubmed
    Human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a ubiquitous enzyme which plays a key role in the purine salvage pathway, and PNP deficiency in humans leads to an impairment of T-cell function, usually with no apparent effect on B-cell ..
  7. Mao C, Cook W, Zhou M, Koszalka G, Krenitsky T, Ealick S. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase: a comparison with the human enzyme reveals a conserved topology. Structure. 1997;5:1373-83 pubmed
    b>Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) from Escherichia coli is a hexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of 6-amino and 6-oxopurine (2'-deoxy)ribonucleosides to the free base and (2'-deoxy)ribose-1-phosphate...
  8. Mundt J, Hah S, Sumbad R, Schramm V, Henderson P. Incorporation of extracellular 8-oxodG into DNA and RNA requires purine nucleoside phosphorylase in MCF-7 cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:228-36 pubmed
    ..Radiocarbon incorporation into DNA and RNA was abrogated by Immucillin H, an inhibitor of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)...
  9. Meza M, Yu L, Rodriguez Y, Guild M, Thompson D, Gandolfi A, et al. Developmentally restricted genetic determinants of human arsenic metabolism: association between urinary methylated arsenic and CYT19 polymorphisms in children. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:775-81 pubmed

More Information


  1. De Chaudhuri S, Ghosh P, Sarma N, Majumdar P, Sau T, Basu S, et al. Genetic variants associated with arsenic susceptibility: study of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, arsenic (+3) methyltransferase, and glutathione S-transferase omega genes. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:501-5 pubmed publisher
    ..through sequential reduction and oxidative methylation being mediated by the following genes: purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1), and omega 2 ..
  2. Ghanem M, Zhadin N, Callender R, Schramm V. Loop-tryptophan human purine nucleoside phosphorylase reveals submillisecond protein dynamics. Biochemistry. 2009;48:3658-68 pubmed publisher
    ..F159W-Leuko-PNP provides a novel protein platform to investigate the protein conformational dynamics occurring prior to transition state formation. ..
  3. Arvidsson Y, Sumantran V, Watt F, Uramoto H, Funa K. Neuroblastoma-specific cytotoxicity mediated by the Mash1-promoter and E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2005;44:77-84 pubmed
    ..coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) under the control of the Mash1 promoter, the murine homolog of HASH1. The E...
  4. Timmers L, Caceres R, Vivan A, Gava L, Dias R, Ducati R, et al. Structural studies of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase: towards a new specific empirical scoring function. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;479:28-38 pubmed publisher
    Human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (HsPNP) is a target for inhibitor development aiming at T-cell immune response modulation...
  5. Rocchietti S, Ubiali D, Terreni M, Albertini A, Fernandez Lafuente R, Guisan J, et al. Immobilization and stabilization of recombinant multimeric uridine and purine nucleoside phosphorylases from Bacillus subtilis. Biomacromolecules. 2004;5:2195-200 pubmed
    ..Then, an extensive study of the UP (uridine phosphorylase) and PNP (purine nucleoside phosphorylase) immobilization and stabilization was carried out: optimal UP preparation was achieved by ..
  6. Parvaneh N, Teimourian S, Jacomelli G, Badalzadeh M, Bertelli M, Zakharova E, et al. Novel mutations of NP in two patients with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. Clin Biochem. 2008;41:350-2 pubmed
  7. Ghanem M, Li L, Wing C, Schramm V. Altered thermodynamics from remote mutations altering human toward bovine purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Biochemistry. 2008;47:2559-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Luo, M., Ghanem, M., Taylor, E. A., and Schramm, V. L. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 2577-2583) report changes in transition-state structure as a consequence of mutations remote from the catalytic sites of both HsPNP and BtPNP. ..
  8. Schuch R, Garibian A, Saxild H, Piggot P, Nygaard P. Nucleosides as a carbon source in Bacillus subtilis: characterization of the drm-pupG operon. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 10):2957-66 pubmed
    ..subtilis. The findings of this study therefore indicate that the B. subtilis system for nucleoside catabolism differs greatly from the well-studied system in E. coli. ..
  9. Castilho M, Postigo M, Pereira H, Oliva G, Andricopulo A. Structural basis for selective inhibition of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Schistosoma mansoni: kinetic and structural studies. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:1421-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Schistosoma mansoni (SmPNP) is an attractive target for the discovery of potential ..
  10. Castilho M, Postigo M, de Paula C, Montanari C, Oliva G, Andricopulo A. Two- and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships for a series of purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006;14:516-27 pubmed
    ..relationship (HQSAR) studies were conducted on a series of 52 training set inhibitors of calf spleen purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP). Significant cross-validated correlation coefficients (CoMFA, q(2)=0.68; CoMSIA, q(2)=0...
  11. Zang Y, Wang W, Wu S, Ealick S, Wang C. Identification of a subversive substrate of Trichomonas vaginalis purine nucleoside phosphorylase and the crystal structure of the enzyme-substrate complex. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22318-25 pubmed
    ..One of the pivotal enzymes in its purine salvage pathway, purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), shows physical properties and substrate specificities similar to those of the high molecular ..
  12. Hou Q, Liu X, Brostromer E, Li L, Su X. Preliminary crystallographic studies of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2009;65:1289-91 pubmed publisher
    The punA gene of the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans encodes purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), which is a pivotal enzyme in the nucleotide-salvage pathway, catalyzing the phosphorolysis of purine nucleosides to generate ..
  13. Deharvengt S, Rejiba S, Wack S, Aprahamian M, Hajri A. Efficient electrogene therapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma treatment using the bacterial purine nucleoside phosphorylase suicide gene with fludarabine. Int J Oncol. 2007;30:1397-406 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential of electrogene therapy with the bacterial purine nucleoside phosphorylase gene (ePNP), on pancreatic carcinoma (PC) large tumors...
  14. Włodarczyk J, Stoychev Galitonov G, Kierdaszuk B. Identification of the tautomeric form of formycin A in its complex with Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase based on the effect of enzyme-ligand binding on fluorescence and phosphorescence. Eur Biophys J. 2004;33:377-85 pubmed
    ..and phosphorescence emission spectroscopy were employed to study the interaction of Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) with its specific inhibitor, formycin A (FA), a close structural analogue of adenosine (natural ..
  15. Tai C, Wang W, Lai Y, Logg C, Parker W, Li Y, et al. Enhanced efficiency of prodrug activation therapy by tumor-selective replicating retrovirus vectors armed with the Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase gene. Cancer Gene Ther. 2010;17:614-23 pubmed publisher
    Gene transfer of the Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) results in potent cytotoxicity after administration of the prodrug fludarabine phosphate (F-araAMP)...
  16. Ting L, Shi W, Lewandowicz A, Singh V, Mwakingwe A, Birck M, et al. Targeting a novel Plasmodium falciparum purine recycling pathway with specific immucillins. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9547-54 pubmed
    ..The action of P. falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylase is a convergent step of purine salvage, converting both 5'-methylthioinosine and inosine to ..
  17. Li W, Su D, Mizobuchi H, Martin D, Gu B, Gorlick R, et al. Status of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase and its impact on cellular response to L-alanosine and methylmercaptopurine riboside in human soft tissue sarcoma cells. Oncol Res. 2004;14:373-9 pubmed
    ..These results provide the basis for selective therapy using inhibitors of de novo purine nucleotide synthesis such as L-alanosine or MMPR to treat patients with STS lacking this enzyme. ..
  18. Shi W, Basso L, Santos D, Tyler P, Furneaux R, Blanchard J, et al. Structures of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in complexes with immucillin-H and its pieces. Biochemistry. 2001;40:8204-15 pubmed
    ..Loose packing of the pieces of ImmH in the catalytic site establishes that covalent connectivity in ImmH is required to achieve the tightly bound complex. ..
  19. Bzowska A, Kazimierczuk Z, Seela F. 7-Deazapurine 2'-deoxyribofuranosides are noncleavable competitive inhibitors of Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP). Acta Biochim Pol. 1998;45:755-68 pubmed
    ..coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase were examined...
  20. Evans G, Furneaux R, Lewandowicz A, Schramm V, Tyler P. Synthesis of second-generation transition state analogues of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. J Med Chem. 2003;46:5271-6 pubmed
    ..The immucillins and DADMe-Immucillins represent approaches from the product and reaction side of the transition state. ..
  21. Evans G, Furneaux R, Tyler P, Schramm V. Synthesis of a transition state analogue inhibitor of purine nucleoside phosphorylase via the Mannich reaction. Org Lett. 2003;5:3639-40 pubmed
    reaction: see text] The expeditious convergent synthesis of the potent human purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitor DADMe-Immucillin-G (3) was achieved via the Mannich reaction...
  22. Basso L, Santos D, Shi W, Furneaux R, Tyler P, Schramm V, et al. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Analysis of inhibition by a transition-state analogue and dissection by parts. Biochemistry. 2001;40:8196-203 pubmed
    ..The M. tuberculosis deoD gene encodes a presumptive purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP). The gene was cloned, expressed, purified, and found to exhibit PNP activity. Purified M...
  23. Kung P, Zehnder L, Meng J, Kupchinsky S, Skalitzky D, Johnson M, et al. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel human 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) substrates. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005;15:2829-33 pubmed
    ..These compounds incorporate various C5'-moieties and are shown to have different k(cat)/K(m) values compared with the natural MTAP substrate (MTA). ..
  24. Sasaki Y, Iseki M, Yamaguchi S, Kurosawa Y, Yamamoto T, Moriwaki Y, et al. Direct evidence of autosomal recessive inheritance of Arg24 to termination codon in purine nucleoside phosphorylase gene in a family with a severe combined immunodeficiency patient. Hum Genet. 1998;103:81-5 pubmed
    b>Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency is a rare immunodeficiency disease involving a T-lymphocyte-dysfunction that is fatal unless bone marrow transplantation is successful...
  25. Mao C, Cook W, Zhou M, Federov A, Almo S, Ealick S. Calf spleen purine nucleoside phosphorylase complexed with substrates and substrate analogues. Biochemistry. 1998;37:7135-46 pubmed
    b>Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a key enzyme in the purine salvage pathway, which provides an alternative to the de novo pathway for the biosynthesis of purine nucleotides...
  26. Chaudhary K, Ting L, Kim K, Roos D. Toxoplasma gondii purine nucleoside phosphorylase biochemical characterization, inhibitor profiles, and comparison with the Plasmodium falciparum ortholog. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:25652-8 pubmed
    b>Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is an important component of the nucleotide salvage pathway in apicomplexan parasites and a potential target for drug development...
  27. Karikari C, Mullendore M, Eshleman J, Argani P, Leoni L, Chattopadhyay S, et al. Homozygous deletions of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase in human biliary tract cancers. Mol Cancer Ther. 2005;4:1860-6 pubmed
    ..Inhibitors of de novo purine synthesis can be a potential mechanism-based strategy for treatment of biliary tract cancers, one third of which show complete loss of MTAP function. ..
  28. Li L, Luo M, Ghanem M, Taylor E, Schramm V. Second-sphere amino acids contribute to transition-state structure in bovine purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Biochemistry. 2008;47:2577-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These residues are implicated in linking the dynamic motion of the protein to formation of the transition state. ..
  29. Fu W, Lan H, Liang S, Gao T, Ren D. Suicide gene/prodrug therapy using salmonella-mediated delivery of Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase gene and 6-methoxypurine 2'-deoxyriboside in murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 model. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:1172-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2'-deoxyriboside in structure, we aimed to evaluate the antitumoral effect of the Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (ePNP) gene, using an attenuated salmonella-mediated delivery system, in combination with MoPdR...
  30. Kikuchi E, Menendez S, Ozu C, Ohori M, Cordon Cardo C, Logg C, et al. Delivery of replication-competent retrovirus expressing Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase increases the metabolism of the prodrug, fludarabine phosphate and suppresses the growth of bladder tumor xenografts. Cancer Gene Ther. 2007;14:279-86 pubmed
    ..efficiency and the therapeutic efficacy of the RCR vector mediated delivery of Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) in combination with fludarabine phosphate for bladder cancer...
  31. Ducati R, Santos D, Basso L. Substrate specificity and kinetic mechanism of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2009;486:155-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtPNP) is numbered among targets for persistence of the causative agent of tuberculosis...
  32. van Kuilenburg A, Zoetekouw L, Meijer J, Kuijpers T. Identification of purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency in dried blood spots by a non-radiochemical assay using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2010;29:466-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency results in severe T cell dysfunction and hypouricemia. An assay to measure PNP activity in dried blood spots was developed using reversed-phase HPLC...
  33. Dandanell G, Szczepanowski R, Kierdaszuk B, Shugar D, Bochtler M. Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase II, the product of the xapA gene. J Mol Biol. 2005;348:113-25 pubmed
    ..coli PNP-II into an enzyme with the specificity of conventional trimeric PNPs, but the reciprocal mutation in human PNP, valine 195 to tyrosine, does not elicit xanthosine phosphorylase activity in the human enzyme. ..
  34. Hamamoto T, Okuyama K, Noguchi T, Midorikawa Y. Cloning and expression of purine nucleoside phosphorylase I gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus TH 6-2. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1997;61:272-5 pubmed
    ..coli by using the trc promoter to produce an active enzyme in large quantities. The amino acid sequence of Pu-NPase I shared 50% similarity with those of human and mouse purine nucleoside phosphorylases. ..
  35. Koellner G, Luic M, Shugar D, Saenger W, Bzowska A. Crystal structure of the ternary complex of E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase with formycin B, a structural analogue of the substrate inosine, and phosphate (Sulphate) at 2.1 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1998;280:153-66 pubmed
    The ternary complex of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from E. coli with formycin B and a sulphate or phosphate ion crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6122 with unit cell dimensions a=123.11, c=241...
  36. Parker W, Allan P, Hassan A, Secrist J, Sorscher E, Waud W. Antitumor activity of 2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine against tumors that express Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Cancer Gene Ther. 2003;10:23-9 pubmed
    The selective expression of Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) in solid tumors has been successfully used to activate two purine nucleoside analogs [9-(2-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (MeP-dR) and 9-beta-..
  37. Gregus Z, Nemeti B. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase as a cytosolic arsenate reductase. Toxicol Sci. 2002;70:13-9 pubmed
    ..b>Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is such an enzyme...
  38. Balakrishnan K, Nimmanapalli R, Ravandi F, Keating M, Gandhi V. Forodesine, an inhibitor of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Blood. 2006;108:2392-8 pubmed
    b>Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency in humans results in T lymphocytopenia. Forodesine, a potent inhibitor of PNP, was designed based on the transition-state structure stabilized by the enzyme...
  39. Krohne T, Shankara S, Geissler M, Roberts B, Wands J, Blum H, et al. Mechanisms of cell death induced by suicide genes encoding purine nucleoside phosphorylase and thymidine kinase in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro. Hepatology. 2001;34:511-8 pubmed
    For gene therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)/fludarabine suicide gene system may be more useful than the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV) ..
  40. Cacciapuoti G, Porcelli M, Bertoldo C, De Rosa M, Zappia V. Purification and characterization of extremely thermophilic and thermostable 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity and evidence for intersubunit disulfide bonds. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:24762-9 pubmed
    ..NH2-terminal sequence shows high homology (50%) with the NH2-terminal sequence of Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Physicochemical and kinetic features are reported...
  41. Snyder F, Jenuth J, Mably E, Mangat R. Point mutations at the purine nucleoside phosphorylase locus impair thymocyte differentiation in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:2522-7 pubmed
    Three point mutations on the Np(b) allele of the purine nucleoside phosphorylase locus in the mouse have been recovered by male germ cell mutagenesis...
  42. Morris P, Omura G. Inhibitors of the enzyme purine nucleoside phosphorylase as potential therapy for psoriasis. Curr Pharm Des. 2000;6:943-59 pubmed
    b>Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is one of the enzymes comprising the purine salvage pathway , and is responsible for the catalysis of the reversible phosphorolytic cleavage of purine ribonucleosides and 2'-deoxyribonucleosides...
  43. Afshar S, Sawaya M, Morrison S. Structure of a mutant human purine nucleoside phosphorylase with the prodrug, 2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine and the cytotoxic drug, 2-fluoroadenine. Protein Sci. 2009;18:1107-14 pubmed publisher
    A double mutant of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (hDM) with the amino acid mutations Glu201Gln:Asn243Asp cleaves adenosine-based prodrugs to their corresponding cytotoxic drugs...
  44. Dalal I, Grunebaum E, Cohen A, Roifman C. Two novel mutations in a purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)-deficient patient. Clin Genet. 2001;59:430-7 pubmed
    b>Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disease, which presents clinically as severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)...
  45. Voeks D, Martiniello Wilks R, Madden V, Smith K, Bennetts E, Both G, et al. Gene therapy for prostate cancer delivered by ovine adenovirus and mediated by purine nucleoside phosphorylase and fludarabine in mouse models. Gene Ther. 2002;9:759-68 pubmed
    A gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy (GDEPT) based on purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), that converts the prodrug, fludarabine to 2-fluoroadenine, has been described, but studies are limited compared with other GDEPTs...
  46. Yu L, Kalla K, Guthrie E, Vidrine A, Klimecki W. Genetic variation in genes associated with arsenic metabolism: glutathione S-transferase omega 1-1 and purine nucleoside phosphorylase polymorphisms in European and indigenous Americans. Environ Health Perspect. 2003;111:1421-7 pubmed
    ..We screened two genes responsible for arsenic metabolism, human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (hNP), which functions as an arsenate reductase converting arsenate to arsenite, and human ..
  47. Basu I, Cordovano G, Das I, Belbin T, Guha C, Schramm V. A transition state analogue of 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase induces apoptosis in head and neck cancers. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:21477-86 pubmed
    ..The selective action of MT-DADMe-ImmA on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells suggests potential as an agent for treatment of cancers sensitive to reduced CpG island methylation. ..
  48. Deng H, Lewandowicz A, Schramm V, Callender R. Activating the phosphate nucleophile at the catalytic site of purine nucleoside phosphorylase: a vibrational spectroscopic study. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:9516-7 pubmed
  49. Parker W, Allan P, Ealick S, Sorscher E, Hassan A, Silamkoti A, et al. Design and evaluation of 5'-modified nucleoside analogs as prodrugs for an E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase mutant. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2005;24:387-92 pubmed
  50. Belenky P, Christensen K, Gazzaniga F, Pletnev A, Brenner C. Nicotinamide riboside and nicotinic acid riboside salvage in fungi and mammals. Quantitative basis for Urh1 and purine nucleoside phosphorylase function in NAD+ metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic evidence has established that uridine hydrolase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, and methylthioadenosine phosphorylase are required for Nrk-independent utilization of nicotinamide ..
  51. Lee J, Filosa S, Bonvin J, Guyon S, Aponte R, Turnbull J. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Escherichia coli. Protein Expr Purif. 2001;22:180-8 pubmed
    Recombinant purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNPase) from Escherichia coli was prepared in high yield in order to facilitate its use in coupled assays to measure the kinetics of phosphate-liberating enzymes. The E...
  52. García Castellano J, Villanueva A, Healey J, Sowers R, Cordon Cardo C, Huvos A, et al. Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase gene deletions are common in osteosarcoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8:782-7 pubmed
  53. Edwards A, Mason J, Clinch K, Tyler P, Evans G, Schramm V. Altered enthalpy-entropy compensation in picomolar transition state analogues of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Biochemistry. 2009;48:5226-38 pubmed publisher
    Human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) belongs to the trimeric class of PNPs and is essential for catabolism of deoxyguanosine...