diphtheria toxin

Summary

Summary: An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.

Top Publications

  1. Stoneman V, Braganza D, Figg N, Mercer J, Lang R, Goddard M, et al. Monocyte/macrophage suppression in CD11b diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice differentially affects atherogenesis and established plaques. Circ Res. 2007;100:884-93 pubmed
    ..To examine the role of monocytes/macrophages in atherosclerosis, we developed CD11b-diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor (DTR) transgenic mice, whereby administration of DT selectively kills monocytes/macrophages...
  2. Kakita M, Takahashi T, Komiya T, Iba Y, Tsuji T, Kurosawa Y, et al. Isolation of a human monoclonal antibody with strong neutralizing activity against diphtheria toxin. Infect Immun. 2006;74:3682-3 pubmed
    We isolated a human monoclonal antibody against diphtheria toxin (DT). It bound to fragment B with a binding activity (Kd) of 3.01 nM. The neutralizing activity assayed by the rabbit skin test was estimated to be 73,600 IU/g...
  3. Kurnikov I, Kyrychenko A, Flores Canales J, Rodnin M, Simakov N, Vargas Uribe M, et al. pH-triggered conformational switching of the diphtheria toxin T-domain: the roles of N-terminal histidines. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:2752-64 pubmed publisher
    pH-induced conformational switching is essential for functioning of diphtheria toxin, which undergoes a membrane insertion/translocation transition triggered by endosomal acidification as a key step of cellular entry...
  4. Smaldone M, Davies B. BC-819, a plasmid comprising the H19 gene regulatory sequences and diphtheria toxin A, for the potential targeted therapy of cancers. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2010;12:607-16 pubmed
    ..the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, is a double-stranded DNA plasmid carrying the gene for the A subunit of diphtheria toxin under the regulation of the H19 gene promoter...
  5. Mizrahi A, Czerniak A, Levy T, Amiur S, Gallula J, Matouk I, et al. Development of targeted therapy for ovarian cancer mediated by a plasmid expressing diphtheria toxin under the control of H19 regulatory sequences. J Transl Med. 2009;7:69 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, we developed a new therapy strategy to target the expression of diphtheria toxin gene under the control of H19 regulatory sequences in ovarian tumor cells...
  6. Antignani A, Youle R. Endosome fusion induced by diphtheria toxin translocation domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8020-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that early endosome morphogenesis and maturation is disrupted by diphtheria toxin (DT)...
  7. Perier A, Chassaing A, Raffestin S, Pichard S, Masella M, Ménez A, et al. Concerted protonation of key histidines triggers membrane interaction of the diphtheria toxin T domain. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:24239-45 pubmed
    The translocation domain (T domain) of the diphtheria toxin contributes to the transfer of the catalytic domain from the cell endosome to the cytosol, where it blocks protein synthesis...
  8. Webb T, Cross S, McKie L, Edgar R, Vizor L, Harrison J, et al. Diphthamide modification of eEF2 requires a J-domain protein and is essential for normal development. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3140-5 pubmed publisher
    The intracellular target of diphtheria toxin is a modified histidine residue, diphthamide, in the translation elongation factor, eEF2 (also known as EFT1)...
  9. Frankel A, Surendranathan A, Black J, White A, Ganjoo K, Cripe L. Phase II clinical studies of denileukin diftitox diphtheria toxin fusion protein in patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer. 2006;106:2158-64 pubmed
    The safety and efficacy of the interleukin-2 diphtheria toxin fusion protein (DAB(389)IL2; denileukin diftitox) directed against the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) was tested in patients with recurrent or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Montagner C, Perier A, Pichard S, Vernier G, Ménez A, Gillet D, et al. Behavior of the N-terminal helices of the diphtheria toxin T domain during the successive steps of membrane interaction. Biochemistry. 2007;46:1878-87 pubmed
    During intoxication of a cell, the translocation (T) domain of the diphtheria toxin helps the passage of the catalytic domain across the membrane of the endosome into the cytoplasm...
  2. Mahnke K, Schönfeld K, Fondel S, Ring S, Karakhanova S, Wiedemeyer K, et al. Depletion of CD4+CD25+ human regulatory T cells in vivo: kinetics of Treg depletion and alterations in immune functions in vivo and in vitro. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:2723-33 pubmed
    ..In aggregate, our data indicate that ONTAK depletes Treg in vivo significantly, resulting in enhanced immune functions and substantial development of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in vaccinated individuals. ..
  3. Tittel A, Heuser C, Ohliger C, Llanto C, Yona S, Hämmerling G, et al. Functionally relevant neutrophilia in CD11c diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice. Nat Methods. 2012;9:385-90 pubmed publisher
    Transgenic mice expressing the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) in specific cell types are key tools for functional studies in several biological systems. B6.FVB-Tg(Itgax-DTR/EGFP)57Lan/J (CD11c.DTR) and B6...
  4. Pandrea I, Gaufin T, Brenchley J, Gautam R, Monjure C, Gautam A, et al. Cutting edge: Experimentally induced immune activation in natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion. J Immunol. 2008;181:6687-91 pubmed
    ..In vivo administration of LPS or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and ..
  5. Kim G, Wang Z, Liu Y, Stavrou S, Mathias A, Goodwin K, et al. A fold-back single-chain diabody format enhances the bioactivity of an anti-monkey CD3 recombinant diphtheria toxin-based immunotoxin. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2007;20:425-32 pubmed
    ..scFv) anti-monkey CD3 antibody, C207, had increased binding to T-cells and increased bioactivity in a diphtheria toxin (DT)-based biscFv immunotoxin compared with the parental antibody, FN18...
  6. Kreitman R. Immunotoxins for targeted cancer therapy. AAPS J. 2006;8:E532-51 pubmed
    ..At present, only 1 agent, which contains human interleukin-2 and truncated diphtheria toxin, is approved for use in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma...
  7. Potala S, Sahoo S, Verma R. Targeted therapy of cancer using diphtheria toxin-derived immunotoxins. Drug Discov Today. 2008;13:807-15 pubmed publisher
  8. Khramtsov Y, Rokitskaya T, Rosenkranz A, Trusov G, Gnuchev N, Antonenko Y, et al. Modular drug transporters with diphtheria toxin translocation domain form edged holes in lipid membranes. J Control Release. 2008;128:241-7 pubmed publisher
    ..g. diphtheria toxin, as a module enabling escape of the chimeric molecules from acidifying endosomes...
  9. Kakutani H, Kondoh M, Saeki R, Fujii M, Watanabe Y, Mizuguchi H, et al. Claudin-4-targeting of diphtheria toxin fragment A using a C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2010;75:213-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the present study, we genetically prepared a novel CL-4-targeting molecule (DTA-C-CPE) by fusion of C-CPE and diphtheria toxin fragment A (DTA)...
  10. Bavaro S, Calabro M, Kanduc D. Pentapeptide sharing between Corynebacterium diphtheria toxin and the human neural protein network. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2011;33:360-72 pubmed publisher
    We describe the pentapeptides shared between the Corynebacterium diphtheria toxin and the human proteins associated with fundamental neural functions...
  11. Dmochewitz L, Lillich M, Kaiser E, Jennings L, Lang A, Buchner J, et al. Role of CypA and Hsp90 in membrane translocation mediated by anthrax protective antigen. Cell Microbiol. 2011;13:359-73 pubmed publisher
    ..LF(N) mediates uptake of LF(N)DTA into the cytosol, where DTA, the catalytic domain of diphtheria toxin, ADP-ribosylates elongation factor-2, allowing for detection of small amounts of translocated LF(N)DTA...
  12. Roy V, Ghani K, Caruso M. A dominant-negative approach that prevents diphthamide formation confers resistance to Pseudomonas exotoxin A and diphtheria toxin. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15753 pubmed publisher
    b>Diphtheria toxin (DT), Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exotoxin A (ETA) and cholix toxin from Vibrio cholerae share the same mechanism of toxicity; these enzymes ADP-rybosylate elongation factor-2 (EF-2) on a modified histidine residue called ..
  13. Dang N, Fayad L, McLaughlin P, Romaguara J, Hagemeister F, Goy A, et al. Phase II trial of the combination of denileukin diftitox and rituximab for relapsed/refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2007;138:502-5 pubmed
    ..Most toxicities were low grade and transient, and myelotoxicity was uncommon. ..
  14. Hamaoka M, Chinen I, Murata T, Takashima S, Iwamoto R, Mekada E. Anti-human HB-EGF monoclonal antibodies inhibiting ectodomain shedding of HB-EGF and diphtheria toxin binding. J Biochem. 2010;148:55-69 pubmed publisher
    ..ProHB-EGF functions as the receptor for the diphtheria toxin (DT). HB-EGF plays pivotal roles in pathophysiological processes, including cancer...
  15. Reder S, Riffelmann M, Becker C, Wirsing von Konig C. Measuring immunoglobulin g antibodies to tetanus toxin, diphtheria toxin, and pertussis toxin with single-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a bead-based multiplex assay. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:744-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated a vaccine panel of a multianalyte system that measures antibodies to tetanus toxin, diphtheria toxin, and pertussis toxin (PT) from Bordetella pertussis...
  16. Miyake Y, Kaise H, Isono K, Koseki H, Kohno K, Tanaka M. Protective role of macrophages in noninflammatory lung injury caused by selective ablation of alveolar epithelial type II Cells. J Immunol. 2007;178:5001-9 pubmed
    ..The human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor (DTR), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), was expressed under ..
  17. Carette J, Guimaraes C, Varadarajan M, Park A, Wuethrich I, Godarova A, et al. Haploid genetic screens in human cells identify host factors used by pathogens. Science. 2009;326:1231-5 pubmed publisher
    ..elements of the biosynthetic pathway of diphthamide, which are required for the cytotoxic effects of diphtheria toxin and exotoxin A...
  18. Clarke M, Figg N, Maguire J, Davenport A, Goddard M, Littlewood T, et al. Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells induces features of plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis. Nat Med. 2006;12:1075-80 pubmed
    ..To study the direct consequences of VSMC apoptosis, we generated transgenic mice expressing the human diphtheria toxin receptor (hDTR, encoded by HBEGF) from a minimal Tagln (also known as SM22alpha) promoter...
  19. Lahl K, Loddenkemper C, Drouin C, Freyer J, Arnason J, Eberl G, et al. Selective depletion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells induces a scurfy-like disease. J Exp Med. 2007;204:57-63 pubmed
    ..chromosome-transgenic mice termed "depletion of regulatory T cell" (DEREG) mice expressing a diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion protein under the control of the foxp3 gene locus, ..
  20. Duvic M, Talpur R. Optimizing denileukin diftitox (Ontak) therapy. Future Oncol. 2008;4:457-69 pubmed publisher
    ..protein consisting of peptide sequences for the enzymatically active and membrane translocation domain of diphtheria toxin linked to human IL-2...
  21. Araki K, Araki M, Yamamura K. Negative selection with the Diphtheria toxin A fragment gene improves frequency of Cre-mediated cassette exchange in ES cells. J Biochem. 2006;140:793-8 pubmed
    ..The Diphtheria toxin A fragment gene was placed in the un-exchanged region for negative selection and the puromycin N-..
  22. Frank A, Johnson M. Expressing the diphtheria toxin A subunit from the HAP2(GCS1) promoter blocks sperm maturation and produces single sperm-like cells capable of fertilization. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:1390-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the potent translation inhibitor, diphtheria toxin A subunit, from the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) HAP2(GCS1) promoter blocked sperm development before ..
  23. Goren I, Allmann N, Yogev N, Schürmann C, Linke A, Holdener M, et al. A transgenic mouse model of inducible macrophage depletion: effects of diphtheria toxin-driven lysozyme M-specific cell lineage ablation on wound inflammatory, angiogenic, and contractive processes. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:132-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we specifically rendered the monocyte/macrophage leukocyte lineage sensitive to diphtheria toxin by expressing the lysozyme M promoter-driven, Cre-mediated excision of a transcriptional STOP cassette from ..
  24. Mirza R, DiPietro L, Koh T. Selective and specific macrophage ablation is detrimental to wound healing in mice. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:2454-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We used transgenic mice that express the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor under the control of the CD11b promoter (DTR mice) to specifically ablate macrophages during ..
  25. Thorel F, Nepote V, Avril I, Kohno K, Desgraz R, Chera S, et al. Conversion of adult pancreatic alpha-cells to beta-cells after extreme beta-cell loss. Nature. 2010;464:1149-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Such inter-endocrine spontaneous adult cell conversion could be harnessed towards methods of producing beta-cells for diabetes therapies, either in differentiation settings in vitro or in induced regeneration. ..
  26. Zhang Y, Schulte W, Pink D, Phipps K, Zijlstra A, Lewis J, et al. Sensitivity of cancer cells to truncated diphtheria toxin. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10498 pubmed publisher
    b>Diphtheria toxin (DT) has been utilized as a prospective anti-cancer agent for the targeted delivery of cytotoxic therapy to otherwise untreatable neoplasia...
  27. Horita H, Thorburn J, Frankel A, Thorburn A. EGFR-targeted diphtheria toxin stimulates TRAIL killing of glioblastoma cells by depleting anti-apoptotic proteins. J Neurooncol. 2009;95:175-184 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a mechanism-based rationale for combining targeted toxins and TRAIL receptor agonists to treat GBM. ..
  28. Ortiz P, Ulloque R, Kihara G, Zheng H, Kinzy T. Translation elongation factor 2 anticodon mimicry domain mutants affect fidelity and diphtheria toxin resistance. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:32639-48 pubmed
    ..Functional eEF2 forms substituted in domain IV confer dominant diphtheria toxin resistance, which correlates with an in vivo effect on translation-linked phenotypes...
  29. Jiang Q, Zhang L, Wang R, Jeffrey J, Washburn M, Brouwer D, et al. FoxP3+CD4+ regulatory T cells play an important role in acute HIV-1 infection in humanized Rag2-/-gammaC-/- mice in vivo. Blood. 2008;112:2858-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The DKO-hu HSC mouse will be a valuable model to study human Treg functions and their role in HIV-1 pathogenesis in vivo. ..
  30. Rodnin M, Posokhov Y, Contino Pépin C, Brettmann J, Kyrychenko A, Palchevskyy S, et al. Interactions of fluorinated surfactants with diphtheria toxin T-domain: testing new media for studies of membrane proteins. Biophys J. 2008;94:4348-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the advantages of fluorinated surfactants over other types of solubilizing agents, with a specific emphasis on their possible applications in thermodynamic measurements. ..
  31. Clark S, Alderson H, Winn P, Latimer M, Nothacker H, Civelli O. Fusion of diphtheria toxin and urotensin II produces a neurotoxin selective for cholinergic neurons in the rat mesopontine tegmentum. J Neurochem. 2007;102:112-20 pubmed
    ..We took advantage of UII-R's unique expression profile, by combining UII with diphtheria toxin, to engineer a toxin specific for cholinergic neurons of the PPTg...
  32. Kimura Y, Saito M, Kimata Y, Kohno K. Transgenic mice expressing a fully nontoxic diphtheria toxin mutant, not CRM197 mutant, acquire immune tolerance against diphtheria toxin. J Biochem. 2007;142:105-12 pubmed
    ..By the TRECK method, a single or repeated shot(s) of diphtheria toxin (DT) conditionally ablates a specific cell population from transgenic mice expressing the DT receptor ..
  33. Showalter S, Huang Y, Witkiewicz A, Costantino C, Yeo C, Green J, et al. Nanoparticulate delivery of diphtheria toxin DNA effectively kills Mesothelin expressing pancreatic cancer cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008;7:1584-90 pubmed
    ..system, we sought to target mesothelin-expressing pancreatic cancer cells with a potent suicide gene, diphtheria toxin-A (DT-A)...
  34. Lao B, Tsai W, Mashayekhi F, Pham E, Mason A, Kamei D. Inhibition of transferrin iron release increases in vitro drug carrier efficacy. J Control Release. 2007;117:403-12 pubmed
    ..1 nM and 1 nM. Importantly, diphtheria toxin (DT) conjugates of oxalate Tf are more cytotoxic against HeLa cells than conjugates of native Tf...
  35. Sekizuka T, Yamamoto A, Komiya T, Kenri T, Takeuchi F, Shibayama K, et al. Corynebacterium ulcerans 0102 carries the gene encoding diphtheria toxin on a prophage different from the C. diphtheriae NCTC 13129 prophage. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:72 pubmed publisher
    ..illness, especially when the bacterium is lysogenized with a tox gene-carrying bacteriophage that produces diphtheria toxin. Acquisition of toxigenicity upon phage lysogenization is a common feature of C. ulcerans and C. diphtheriae...
  36. Sawaguchi M, Tanaka S, Nakatani Y, Harada Y, Mukai K, Matsunaga Y, et al. Role of mast cells and basophils in IgE responses and in allergic airway hyperresponsiveness. J Immunol. 2012;188:1809-18 pubmed publisher
    We established a diphtheria toxin (DT)-based conditional deletion system using Il4 enhancer elements previously shown to be specific for IL-4 production in mast cells (MCs) or basophils (Mas-TRECK and Bas-TRECK mice)...
  37. Broker M, Costantino P, DeTora L, McIntosh E, Rappuoli R. Biochemical and biological characteristics of cross-reacting material 197 CRM197, a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin: use as a conjugation protein in vaccines and other potential clinical applications. Biologicals. 2011;39:195-204 pubmed publisher
    ..These carriers perform well, and they require detoxification. A non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, cross-reacting material 197 (CRM(197)), is a useful carrier protein with several manufacturing and other ..
  38. Amit D, Hochberg A. Development of targeted therapy for bladder cancer mediated by a double promoter plasmid expressing diphtheria toxin under the control of H19 and IGF2-P4 regulatory sequences. J Transl Med. 2010;8:134 pubmed publisher
    ..Single promoter vectors expressing diphtheria toxin A-fragment (DTA) under the control regulation of IGF2-P4 or H19 regulatory sequences (IGF2-P4-DTA and H19-DTA)..
  39. Rodnin M, Kyrychenko A, Kienker P, Sharma O, Posokhov Y, Collier R, et al. Conformational switching of the diphtheria toxin T domain. J Mol Biol. 2010;402:1-7 pubmed publisher
    The diphtheria toxin T domain translocates the catalytic C domain across the endosomal membrane in response to acidification...
  40. Landsman L, Jung S. Lung macrophages serve as obligatory intermediate between blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages. J Immunol. 2007;179:3488-94 pubmed
    ..We also provide direct evidence for the ability of both lung and alveolar macrophages to proliferate. ..
  41. Hochweller K, Striegler J, Hämmerling G, Garbi N. A novel CD11c.DTR transgenic mouse for depletion of dendritic cells reveals their requirement for homeostatic proliferation of natural killer cells. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:2776-83 pubmed publisher
    ..this question, a novel bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model was generated in which the diphtheria toxin receptor is expressed under the CD11c promoter...
  42. Kim C, Slavinskaya Z, Merrill A, Kaufmann S. Human alpha-defensins neutralize toxins of the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase family. Biochem J. 2006;399:225-9 pubmed
    ..human neutrophil alpha-defensins are potent inhibitors of the bacterial enzymes, particularly against DT (diphtheria toxin) and ETA (Pseudomonas exotoxin A)...
  43. Wang C, Li F, Yang Y, Guo H, Wu C, Wang S. Recombinant baculovirus containing the diphtheria toxin A gene for malignant glioma therapy. Cancer Res. 2006;66:5798-806 pubmed
    ..When used to produce the A-chain of diphtheria toxin intracellularly in a rat C6 glioma xenograft model, the baculovirus effectively suppressed tumor development...
  44. Litzinger M, Fernando R, Curiel T, Grosenbach D, Schlom J, Palena C. IL-2 immunotoxin denileukin diftitox reduces regulatory T cells and enhances vaccine-mediated T-cell immunity. Blood. 2007;110:3192-201 pubmed
    ..Denileukin diftitox (DAB(389)IL-2), a fusion protein of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and diphtheria toxin, provides a means of targeting Treg cells...
  45. Trujillo C, Taylor Parker J, Harrison R, Murphy J. Essential lysine residues within transmembrane helix 1 of diphtheria toxin facilitate COPI binding and catalytic domain entry. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:1010-9 pubmed publisher
    The translocation of the diphtheria toxin catalytic domain from the lumen of early endosomes into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells is an essential step in the intoxication process...
  46. Bachran C, Sutherland M, Bachran D, Fuchs H. Quantification of diphtheria toxin mediated ADP-ribosylation in a solid-phase assay. Clin Chem. 2007;53:1676-83 pubmed
    Because of reduced vaccination programs, the number of diphtheria infections has increased in the last decade. Diphtheria toxin (DT) is expressed by Corynebacterium diphtheriae and is responsible for the lethality of diphtheria...
  47. Murphy J. Mechanism of diphtheria toxin catalytic domain delivery to the eukaryotic cell cytosol and the cellular factors that directly participate in the process. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:294-308 pubmed publisher
    ..I shall focus on recent findings that have led to a more detailed understanding of the mechanism by which the diphtheria toxin catalytic domain is delivered to the eukaryotic cell cytosol...
  48. Golub J, Tong L, Ngyuen T, Hume C, Palmiter R, Rubel E, et al. Hair cell replacement in adult mouse utricles after targeted ablation of hair cells with diphtheria toxin. J Neurosci. 2012;32:15093-105 pubmed publisher
    ..to permit conditional and selective ablation of hair cells in the adult mouse utricle by inserting the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) gene into the Pou4f3 gene, which encodes a hair cell-specific transcription factor...
  49. Kyrychenko A, Posokhov Y, Rodnin M, Ladokhin A. Kinetic intermediate reveals staggered pH-dependent transitions along the membrane insertion pathway of the diphtheria toxin T-domain. Biochemistry. 2009;48:7584-94 pubmed publisher
    The pH-triggered membrane insertion pathway of the T-domain of diphtheria toxin was studied using site-selective fluorescence labeling with subsequent application of several spectroscopic techniques (e.g...
  50. Guerrero G, Russell W, Moreno Fierros L. Analysis of the cellular immune response induced by Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins in mice: effect of the hydrophobic motif from diphtheria toxin. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:1209-17 pubmed
    ..In addition, Cry1A mutants (carrying a substitution of a motif from fragment B of diphtheria toxin into the structurally similar hydrophobic alpha-helix 7 motif of Cry1A toxins) were able to modulate the ..
  51. Rodnin M, Kyrychenko A, Kienker P, Sharma O, Vargas Uribe M, Collier R, et al. Replacement of C-terminal histidines uncouples membrane insertion and translocation in diphtheria toxin T-domain. Biophys J. 2011;101:L41-3 pubmed publisher
    The translocation (T) domain plays a key role in the action of diphtheria toxin and is responsible for transferring the N-terminus-attached catalytic domain across the endosomal membrane into the cytosol in response to acidification...
  52. Morse M, Hobeika A, Osada T, Serra D, Niedzwiecki D, Lyerly H, et al. Depletion of human regulatory T cells specifically enhances antigen-specific immune responses to cancer vaccines. Blood. 2008;112:610-8 pubmed publisher
  53. Xi D, Gandhi N, Lai M, Kublaoui B. Ablation of Sim1 neurons causes obesity through hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36453 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, Sim1cre mice were bred to homozygous inducible diphtheria toxin receptor (iDTR) mice to generate mice expressing the simian DTR in Sim1 cells...