pentosyltransferases

Summary

Summary: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.

Top Publications

  1. Jensen K, Arent S, Larsen S, Schack L. Allosteric properties of the GTP activated and CTP inhibited uracil phosphoribosyltransferase from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. FEBS J. 2005;272:1440-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that UPRTase undergoes a transition from a weakly active or inactive T-state, favored by binding of UMP and CTP, to an active R-state, favored by binding of GTP and PRPP...
  2. Umemura T, Tasaki M, Kijima A, Okamura T, Inoue T, Ishii Y, et al. Possible participation of oxidative stress in causation of cell proliferation and in vivo mutagenicity in kidneys of gpt delta rats treated with potassium bromate. Toxicology. 2009;257:46-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall data indicated that while oxidative stress well correlates with induction of cell proliferation in females, its role in males and in generation of in vivo mutagenicity by KBrO(3) in both sexes is limited. ..
  3. Starks A, Gumusboga A, Plikaytis B, Shinnick T, Posey J. Mutations at embB codon 306 are an important molecular indicator of ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:1061-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that embB 306 mutations are sufficient to confer ethambutol resistance, and detection of these mutations should be considered in the development of rapid molecular tests...
  4. Brown D, Zhang Z, Stephens E, Dupree P, Turner S. Characterization of IRX10 and IRX10-like reveals an essential role in glucuronoxylan biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2009;57:732-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These characteristics are similar to those of irx9 and irx14, mutants that are believed to be defective in xylan chain elongation, and suggests that IRX10 and IRX10-L also play a role in elongation of the xylan backbone. ..
  5. Seidel M, Alderwick L, Birch H, Sahm H, Eggeling L, Besra G. Identification of a novel arabinofuranosyltransferase AftB involved in a terminal step of cell wall arabinan biosynthesis in Corynebacterianeae, such as Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:14729-40 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these studies have shed further light on the complexities of Corynebacterianeae cell wall biosynthesis, and Mt-AftB represents a potential new drug target. ..
  6. Katahira R, Ashihara H. Profiles of purine biosynthesis, salvage and degradation in disks of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. Planta. 2006;225:115-26 pubmed
    ..Catabolites before xanthosine and xanthine can be utilised in salvage pathways for nucleotide biosynthesis. ..
  7. Khatri A, Zhang B, Doherty E, Chapman J, Ow K, Pwint H, et al. Combination of cytosine deaminase with uracil phosphoribosyl transferase leads to local and distant bystander effects against RM1 prostate cancer in mice. J Gene Med. 2006;8:1086-96 pubmed
    ..We conclude that CDUPRT-GDEPT significantly suppressed the aggressive growth of RM1 prostate tumors and lung pseudo-metastases via immune mechanisms involving necrosis and apoptosis. ..
  8. Konrad A, Piskur J, Liberles D. The evolution of catalytic residues and enzyme mechanism within the bacterial nucleoside phosphorylase superfamily 1. Gene. 2012;510:154-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a basis for understanding the evolution of uridine and purine nucleoside phosphorylases with respect to DNA/RNA metabolism and with potential utility in the design of antimicrobial and anti-tumor drugs. ..
  9. Villela A, Sánchez Quitian Z, Ducati R, Santos D, Basso L. Pyrimidine salvage pathway in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18:1286-98 pubmed
    ..Enzyme functional and structural data have been included to provide a broader knowledge on which to base the search for compounds with selective biological activity. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Xing L, Sun X, Deng X, Kotedia K, Urano M, Koutcher J, et al. Expression of the bifunctional suicide gene CDUPRT increases radiosensitization and bystander effect of 5-FC in prostate cancer cells. Radiother Oncol. 2009;92:345-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that CDUPRT/5-FC strategy may be more effective than CD/5-FC, especially when used in combination with radiation. ..
  2. Tidten N, Stengl B, Heine A, Garcia G, Klebe G, Reuter K. Glutamate versus glutamine exchange swaps substrate selectivity in tRNA-guanine transglycosylase: insight into the regulation of substrate selectivity by kinetic and crystallographic studies. J Mol Biol. 2007;374:764-76 pubmed
    ..The way this is achieved, however, significantly differs from that predicted based on crystal structures of wild-type Tgt...
  3. Oliva R, Tramontano A, Cavallo L. Mg2+ binding and archaeosine modification stabilize the G15 C48 Levitt base pair in tRNAs. RNA. 2007;13:1427-36 pubmed
    ..Metal binding and chemical modification thus play an interchangeable role in stabilizing the G15-C48 correct geometry. Interestingly, these different but convergent strategies are selectively adopted in the different life domains. ..
  4. Kantardjieff K, Vasquez C, Castro P, Warfel N, Rho B, Lekin T, et al. Structure of pyrR (Rv1379) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a persistence gene and protein drug target. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005;61:355-64 pubmed
    ..In silico screening of pyrimidine-nucleoside analogs has revealed a number of potential lead compounds that, if bound to Mtb pyrR, could facilitate transcriptional attenuation, particularly cyclopentenyl nucleosides. ..
  5. Liu H, Woznica K, Catton G, Crawford A, Botting N, Naismith J. Structural and kinetic characterization of quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (hQPRTase) from homo sapiens. J Mol Biol. 2007;373:755-63 pubmed
    ..The human enzyme adopts a hexameric arrangement, which places the active sites in close proximity to each other. ..
  6. Garcia G, Chervin S, Kittendorf J. Identification of the rate-determining step of tRNA-guanine transglycosylase from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2009;48:11243-51 pubmed publisher
  7. Safi H, Fleischmann R, Peterson S, Jones M, Jarrahi B, Alland D. Allelic exchange and mutant selection demonstrate that common clinical embCAB gene mutations only modestly increase resistance to ethambutol in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis strains with identical mutations suggest that clinical EMB resistance is multigenic and that high-level EMB resistance requires mutations in currently unknown loci...
  8. Condac E, Silasi Mansat R, Kosanke S, Schoeb T, Towner R, Lupu F, et al. Polycystic disease caused by deficiency in xylosyltransferase 2, an initiating enzyme of glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:9416-21 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate that alterations in PG concentrations can occur due to loss of XylT2, and that reduced PGs can induce cyst development. ..
  9. Xu A, Smilenov L, He P, Masumura K, Nohmi T, Yu Z, et al. New insight into intrachromosomal deletions induced by chrysotile in the gpt delta transgenic mutation assay. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:87-92 pubmed
    ..However, there is less evidence to demonstrate the contribution of deletions to the mutagenicity of asbestos fibers in vivo...
  10. Cuellar K, Chuong H, Hubbell S, Hinsdale M. Biosynthesis of chondroitin and heparan sulfate in chinese hamster ovary cells depends on xylosyltransferase II. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:5195-200 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that XylT2 has a significant role in proteoglycan biosynthesis and that cell type may control which family member is utilized. ..
  11. Schön S, Prante C, Bahr C, Kuhn J, Kleesiek K, Gotting C. Cloning and recombinant expression of active full-length xylosyltransferase I (XT-I) and characterization of subcellular localization of XT-I and XT-II. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:14224-31 pubmed
    ..Unlike XT-I, for XT-II, the first 45 amino acids are sufficient to target and retain the GFP reporter in the Golgi compartment. Here we show evidence that the stem regions were indispensable for Golgi localization of XT-I and XT-II. ..
  12. Pönighaus C, Ambrosius M, Casanova J, Prante C, Kuhn J, Esko J, et al. Human xylosyltransferase II is involved in the biosynthesis of the uniform tetrasaccharide linkage region in chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:5201-6 pubmed
    ..In particular, XT-II is highly expressed in liver tissue, where XT-I transcripts were not detected. This is the first report on the enzyme activity of XT-II and its involvement in chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate biosynthesis. ..
  13. Sharma K, Gupta M, Pathak M, Gupta N, Koul A, Sarangi S, et al. Transcriptional control of the mycobacterial embCAB operon by PknH through a regulatory protein, EmbR, in vivo. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2936-44 pubmed
    ..These findings and in vivo upregulation of PknH inside the host macrophages suggest a functionally relevant signaling mechanism involving the PknH-EmbR-embCAB system. ..
  14. Ritschel T, Kohler P, Neudert G, Heine A, Diederich F, Klebe G. How to replace the residual solvation shell of polar active site residues to achieve nanomolar inhibition of tRNA-guanine transglycosylase. ChemMedChem. 2009;4:2012-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, conformational preferences of attached hydrophobic moieties explain their contribution to a gradual increase in binding affinity. ..
  15. Bernal A, Jensen J, Harholt J, Sørensen S, Moller I, Blaukopf C, et al. Disruption of ATCSLD5 results in reduced growth, reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity and altered xylan occurrence in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2007;52:791-802 pubmed
    ..The work presented provides a comprehensive analysis of the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 in planta, and the possible role(s) of this gene and other ATCSLDs in cell wall biosynthesis are discussed. ..
  16. Shi D, Li L, Zhao Y, Jia Q, Li H, Coulter C, et al. Characteristics of embB mutations in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Henan, China. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:2240-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the association between embB mutations and drug resistance, and to further investigate the mechanism of embB mutations involved in the development of ethambutol and multidrug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  17. Chen Y, Brooks A, Goodenough Lashua D, Kittendorf J, Showalter H, Garcia G. Evolution of eukaryal tRNA-guanine transglycosylase: insight gained from the heterocyclic substrate recognition by the wild-type and mutant human and Escherichia coli tRNA-guanine transglycosylases. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:2834-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the phylogenetic and kinetic analyses support the conclusion that all TGTs have divergently evolved to specifically recognize their cognate heterocyclic substrates. ..
  18. Harholt J, Jensen J, Sørensen S, Orfila C, Pauly M, Scheller H. ARABINAN DEFICIENT 1 is a putative arabinosyltransferase involved in biosynthesis of pectic arabinan in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2006;140:49-58 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that ARAD1 is an arabinan alpha-1,5-arabinosyltransferase. To our knowledge, the identification of other L-arabinosyltransferases has not been published. ..
  19. Seidel M, Alderwick L, Sahm H, Besra G, Eggeling L. Topology and mutational analysis of the single Emb arabinofuranosyltransferase of Corynebacterium glutamicum as a model of Emb proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Glycobiology. 2007;17:210-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the data clearly define important residues of Emb involved in arabinan domain formation and, for the first time, shed new light on the topology of this important enzyme. ..
  20. Xing L, Deng X, Kotedia K, Ackerstaff E, Ponomarev V, Clifton Ling C, et al. Non-invasive molecular and functional imaging of cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase fused with red fluorescence protein. Acta Oncol. 2008;47:1211-20 pubmed publisher
  21. Shi R, Zhang J, Otomo K, Zhang G, Sugawara I. Lack of correlation between embB mutation and ethambutol MIC in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:4515-7 pubmed
    ..The results revealed that the presence of embB mutations did not correlate with ethambutol resistance but was associated with multiple-drug resistance, especially resistance to both ethambutol and rifampin...
  22. Brunner A, Kolarich D, Voglmeir J, Paschinger K, Wilson I. Comparative characterisation of recombinant invertebrate and vertebrate peptide O-Xylosyltransferases. Glycoconj J. 2006;23:543-54 pubmed
    ..Using this substrate, we could for the first time follow, by mass spectrometry, the xylosylation of a peptide with multiple xylosyltransferase acceptor motifs. ..
  23. Wu A, Hörnblad E, Voxeur A, Gerber L, Rihouey C, Lerouge P, et al. Analysis of the Arabidopsis IRX9/IRX9-L and IRX14/IRX14-L pairs of glycosyltransferase genes reveals critical contributions to biosynthesis of the hemicellulose glucuronoxylan. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:542-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal two distinct sets of four genes each differentially contributing to GX biosynthesis. ..
  24. Lee C, O Neill M, Tsumuraya Y, Darvill A, Ye Z. The irregular xylem9 mutant is deficient in xylan xylosyltransferase activity. Plant Cell Physiol. 2007;48:1624-34 pubmed
    ..Our results provide biochemical evidence that the irx9 mutation results in a deficiency in xylan XylT activity, thus leading to a defect in the elongation of the xylan backbone. ..
  25. Kuhn J, Prante C, Schön S, Gotting C, Kleesiek K. Measurement of fibrosis marker xylosyltransferase I activity by HPLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2006;52:2243-9 pubmed
    ..79). The Passing-Bablok regression line was: radiochemical assay = 0.045 LC-MS/MS + 0.061 mU/L, S(y/x) = 0.186. This simple and robust LC-MS/MS assay permits the rapid and accurate determination of XT-I activity in human serum. ..
  26. Venkatesan N, Barre L, Magdalou J, Mainard D, Netter P, Fournel Gigleux S, et al. Modulation of xylosyltransferase I expression provides a mechanism regulating glycosaminoglycan chain synthesis during cartilage destruction and repair. FASEB J. 2009;23:813-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that GTs play a key role in the loss of PG-GAGs in joint diseases and identify novel targets for stimulating cartilage repair. ..
  27. Hurt J, Olgen S, Garcia G. Site-specific modification of Shigella flexneri virF mRNA by tRNA-guanine transglycosylase in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:4905-13 pubmed publisher
  28. Takeuchi H, Fernández Valdivia R, Caswell D, Nita Lazar A, Rana N, Garner T, et al. Rumi functions as both a protein O-glucosyltransferase and a protein O-xylosyltransferase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:16600-5 pubmed publisher
  29. Parsons L, Salfinger M, Clobridge A, Dormandy J, Mirabello L, Polletta V, et al. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates resistant to both isoniazid and ethambutol. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:2218-25 pubmed
    ..2%) were found in isolates that also contained the katG Ser315Thr mutation. Finally, sequencing this region of embB appears to be sufficiently sensitive for use as a rapid screening tool for detection of high-level resistance to EMB. ..
  30. Stengl B, Reuter K, Klebe G. Mechanism and substrate specificity of tRNA-guanine transglycosylases (TGTs): tRNA-modifying enzymes from the three different kingdoms of life share a common catalytic mechanism. Chembiochem. 2005;6:1926-39 pubmed
  31. Zeiner G, Cleary M, Fouts A, Meiring C, Mocarski E, Boothroyd J. RNA analysis by biosynthetic tagging using 4-thiouracil and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;419:135-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter updates the original RABT protocol (1) and addresses methodological details associated with RABT that were beyond the scope or space allotment of the initial report. ..
  32. Safi H, Sayers B, Hazbon M, Alland D. Transfer of embB codon 306 mutations into clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains alters susceptibility to ethambutol, isoniazid, and rifampin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:2027-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The unusual growth property of embB306 mutants in other antibiotics suggests that they may be amplified during treatment in humans and that a single mutation may affect antibiotic susceptibility against multiple first-line antibiotics...
  33. Schon S, Huep G, Prante C, Muller S, Christ R, Hagena F, et al. Mutational and functional analyses of xylosyltransferases and their implication in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2006;14:442-8 pubmed
    ..Comparison of XT-I activity in mutant enzymes in vivo and in vitro revealed that heterozygous mutations are not involved in OA. ..
  34. Prante C, Milting H, Kassner A, Farr M, Ambrosius M, Schön S, et al. Transforming growth factor beta1-regulated xylosyltransferase I activity in human cardiac fibroblasts and its impact for myocardial remodeling. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:26441-9 pubmed
    ..Specific blocking of XT-I expression confirmed that XT-I catalyzes a rate-limiting step during fibrotic GAG biosynthesis. ..
  35. Li J, Huang S, Chen J, Yang Z, Fei X, Zheng M, et al. Identification and characterization of human uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase). J Hum Genet. 2007;52:415-22 pubmed
    ..This means that human UPRTase may have enzymatic activity with another, unknown, factor or have other activity in pyrimidine metabolism. ..
  36. Maier A, Braks J, Waters A, Cowman A. Negative selection using yeast cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyl transferase in Plasmodium falciparum for targeted gene deletion by double crossover recombination. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006;150:118-21 pubmed
  37. Muller S, Disse J, Schöttler M, Schön S, Prante C, Brinkmann T, et al. Human xylosyltransferase I and N-terminal truncated forms: functional characterization of the core enzyme. Biochem J. 2006;394:163-71 pubmed
    ..Our study demonstrates that over 80% of the nucleotide sequence of the XT-I-cDNA is necessary for expressing a recombinant enzyme with full catalytic activity. ..
  38. Amin A, Goude R, Shi L, Zhang J, Chatterjee D, Parish T. EmbA is an essential arabinosyltransferase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Microbiology. 2008;154:240-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Ethambutol exposure had no effect on P(embA)((Mtb)) activity. These data demonstrate that M. tuberculosis embA encodes a functional arabinosyltransferase which is constitutively expressed and plays a critical role in M. tuberculosis. ..
  39. Gotting C, Hendig D, Adam A, Schön S, Schulz V, Szliska C, et al. Elevated xylosyltransferase I activities in pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) patients as a marker of stimulated proteoglycan biosynthesis. J Mol Med (Berl). 2005;83:984-92 pubmed
    ..Serum XT-I, the novel fibrosis marker, may be useful for the assessment of extracellular matrix alterations and disease activity in PXE. ..
  40. Rakovich T, Boland C, Bernstein I, Chikwana V, Iwata Reuyl D, Kelly V. Queuosine deficiency in eukaryotes compromises tyrosine production through increased tetrahydrobiopterin oxidation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19354-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that queuosine modification limits BH4 oxidation in vivo and thereby potentially impacts on numerous physiological processes in eukaryotes. ..
  41. Sethi M, Buettner F, Krylov V, Takeuchi H, Nifantiev N, Haltiwanger R, et al. Identification of glycosyltransferase 8 family members as xylosyltransferases acting on O-glucosylated notch epidermal growth factor repeats. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:1582-6 pubmed publisher
  42. Arent S, Harris P, Jensen K, Larsen S. Allosteric regulation and communication between subunits in uracil phosphoribosyltransferase from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Biochemistry. 2005;44:883-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The active-site differences have been related to proposed kinetic models and provide an explanation for the regulatory significance of the C-terminal Gly216...
  43. di Luccio E, Wilson D. Comprehensive X-ray structural studies of the quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase (BNA6) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry. 2008;47:4039-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results allow insight into the kinetic mechanism of QAPRTase and provide an understanding of structural diversity in the active site of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme when compared to prokaryotic homologues. ..
  44. Kohler P, Ritschel T, Schweizer W, Klebe G, Diederich F. High-affinity inhibitors of tRNA-guanine transglycosylase replacing the function of a structural water cluster. Chemistry. 2009;15:10809-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a synthetic intermediate with an unusual 3,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydroimidazo[4,5-g][1,3]benzodiazepine core, as confirmed by X-ray analysis, is reported. ..
  45. Ritschel T, Atmanene C, Reuter K, Van Dorsselaer A, Sanglier Cianferani S, Klebe G. An integrative approach combining noncovalent mass spectrometry, enzyme kinetics and X-ray crystallography to decipher Tgt protein-protein and protein-RNA interaction. J Mol Biol. 2009;393:833-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibitors that display an influence on the formation of the dimer interface in the crystal structure are promising candidates to alter the protein-protein interaction, which could provide a new way to inhibit Tgt. ..
  46. Boland C, Hayes P, Santa Maria I, Nishimura S, Kelly V. Queuosine formation in eukaryotic tRNA occurs via a mitochondria-localized heteromeric transglycosylase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:18218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Confocal and immunoblot analysis suggest that TGT weakly interacts with the outer mitochondrial membrane possibly through association with Qv1, which was found to be stably associated with the organelle. ..
  47. Ritschel T, Hoertner S, Heine A, Diederich F, Klebe G. Crystal structure analysis and in silico pKa calculations suggest strong pKa shifts of ligands as driving force for high-affinity binding to TGT. Chembiochem. 2009;10:716-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Docking suggests multiple orientations of these side chains. Obviously, an entropic advantage of the residual mobility experienced by these ligands in the bound state is beneficial and reveals an overall improved protein binding...
  48. Todorov K, Garcia G. Role of aspartate 143 in Escherichia coli tRNA-guanine transglycosylase: alteration of heterocyclic substrate specificity. Biochemistry. 2006;45:617-25 pubmed
    ..This confirms the key role of aspartate 143 in maintaining the anticodon identities of the queuine-containing tRNAs and suggests that TGT mutants could be developed that would alter the tRNA wobble base base pairing properties. ..
  49. Khasnobis S, Zhang J, Angala S, Amin A, McNeil M, Crick D, et al. Characterization of a specific arabinosyltransferase activity involved in mycobacterial arabinan biosynthesis. Chem Biol. 2006;13:787-95 pubmed
    ..This activity was undetectable in strains of M. smegmatis where embB or embA had been genetically disrupted. Normal activity could be restored only in the presence of both EmbA and EmbB proteins. ..
  50. Kim M, Im Y, Lee J, Eom S. Crystal structure of quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase from Helicobacter pylori. Proteins. 2006;63:252-5 pubmed publisher
  51. Prante C, Bieback K, Funke C, Schön S, Kern S, Kuhn J, et al. The formation of extracellular matrix during chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells correlates with increased levels of xylosyltransferase I. Stem Cells. 2006;24:2252-61 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we could show that key enzymes for CS, DS, and HS synthesis, especially XT-I, are useful markers for the developmental stages of chondrogenic differentiation. ..
  52. Plinke C, Cox H, Zarkua N, Karimovich H, Braker K, Diel R, et al. embCAB sequence variation among ethambutol-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates without embB306 mutation. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:1359-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, other mutations in the embCAB operon are suggested to be involved in resistance development...
  53. Stengl B, Meyer E, Heine A, Brenk R, Diederich F, Klebe G. Crystal structures of tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (TGT) in complex with novel and potent inhibitors unravel pronounced induced-fit adaptations and suggest dimer formation upon substrate binding. J Mol Biol. 2007;370:492-511 pubmed
    ..It is hypothesized that one unit of the dimer performs the catalytic reaction whereas the second is required to recognize and properly orient the bound tRNA for the catalytic reaction. ..