starch synthase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from ADPglucose to glucose-containing polysaccharides in 1,4-alpha-linkages. EC

Top Publications

  1. Harn C, Knight M, Ramakrishnan A, Guan H, Keeling P, Wasserman B. Isolation and characterization of the zSSIIa and zSSIIb starch synthase cDNA clones from maize endosperm. Plant Mol Biol. 1998;37:639-49 pubmed
    Two starch synthase clones, zSSIIa and zSSIIb, were isolated from a cDNA library constructed from W64A maize endosperm...
  2. Ral J, Derelle E, Ferraz C, Wattebled F, Farinas B, Corellou F, et al. Starch division and partitioning. A mechanism for granule propagation and maintenance in the picophytoplanktonic green alga Ostreococcus tauri. Plant Physiol. 2004;136:3333-40 pubmed
  3. Li J, Ezquer I, Bahaji A, Montero M, Ovecka M, Baroja Fernandez E, et al. Microbial volatile-induced accumulation of exceptionally high levels of starch in Arabidopsis leaves is a process involving NTRC and starch synthase classes III and IV. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2011;24:1165-78 pubmed publisher
    ..analyses revealed that the magnitude of the FV-induced starch accumulation was low in mutants impaired in starch synthase (SS) classes III and IV and plastidial NADP-thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC)...
  4. Winkworth R, Donoghue M. Viburnum phylogeny: evidence from the duplicated nuclear gene GBSSI. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2004;33:109-26 pubmed
    DNA sequencing studies of the granule-bound starch synthase gene (GBSSI) indicate the presence of two loci in Viburnum...
  5. Hunt H, Denyer K, Packman L, Jones M, Howe C. Molecular basis of the waxy endosperm starch phenotype in broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.). Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:1478-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) protein was present in the endosperm of both nonwaxy and waxy individuals, but waxy types had ..
  6. Fujita N, Yoshida M, Kondo T, Saito K, Utsumi Y, Tokunaga T, et al. Characterization of SSIIIa-deficient mutants of rice: the function of SSIIIa and pleiotropic effects by SSIIIa deficiency in the rice endosperm. Plant Physiol. 2007;144:2009-23 pubmed
    b>Starch synthase IIIa (SSIIIa)-deficient rice (Oryza sativa) mutants were generated using retrotransposon insertion and chemical mutagenesis...
  7. Roldán I, Wattebled F, Mercedes Lucas M, Delvalle D, Planchot V, Jimenez S, et al. The phenotype of soluble starch synthase IV defective mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana suggests a novel function of elongation enzymes in the control of starch granule formation. Plant J. 2007;49:492-504 pubmed
    ..Arabidopsis mutants defective for the synthesis of the soluble starch synthase IV (SSIV) type of elongation enzyme have now been characterized...
  8. Sato Y, Nishio T. Mutation detection in rice waxy mutants by PCR-RF-SSCP. Theor Appl Genet. 2003;107:560-7 pubmed
    ..Two mutations found at a splice site were considered to inhibit normal splicing of mRNA. These results show that PRS is a useful technique for detecting point mutations in large plant genes. ..
  9. Senoura T, Isono N, Yoshikawa M, Asao A, Hamada S, Watanabe K, et al. Characterization of starch synthase I and II expressed in early developing seeds of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2004;68:1949-60 pubmed
    Plant starch synthase (SS) contributes to the elongation of glucan chains during starch biosynthesis and hence plays an essential role in determining the fine structure of amylopectin...

More Information


  1. Szydlowski N, Ragel P, Hennen Bierwagen T, Planchot V, Myers A, Mérida A, et al. Integrated functions among multiple starch synthases determine both amylopectin chain length and branch linkage location in Arabidopsis leaf starch. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:4547-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Compensatory functions that, in some instances, allow continued residual starch production in the absence of specific SS classes were identified, probaby accomplished by the granule bound starch synthase GBSS1.
  2. Zhang G, Cheng Z, Zhang X, Guo X, Su N, Jiang L, et al. Double repression of soluble starch synthase genes SSIIa and SSIIIa in rice (Oryza sativa L.) uncovers interactive effects on the physicochemical properties of starch. Genome. 2011;54:448-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the data showed that SSIIa and SSIIIa play distinctive, but partially overlapping, roles during rice grain starch synthesis. The possibility of extensive redundancy or complementarity among SS isozymes is discussed. ..
  3. Nakamura Y, Francisco P, Hosaka Y, Sato A, Sawada T, Kubo A, et al. Essential amino acids of starch synthase IIa differentiate amylopectin structure and starch quality between japonica and indica rice varieties. Plant Mol Biol. 2005;58:213-27 pubmed
    Four amino acids were variable between the 'active' indica-type and 'inactive' japonica-type soluble starch synthase IIa (SSIIa) of rice plants; Glu-88 and Gly-604 in SSIIa of indica-cultivars IR36 and Kasalath were replaced by Asp-88 ..
  4. MacGregor E. Possible structure and active site residues of starch, glycogen, and sucrose synthases. J Protein Chem. 2002;21:297-306 pubmed
    ..Domain architecture and secondary structure are discussed, and the possible role of several conserved amino acids at the active site is explored. ..
  5. Tenorio G, Orea A, Romero J, Mérida A. Oscillation of mRNA level and activity of granule-bound starch synthase I in Arabidopsis leaves during the day/night cycle. Plant Mol Biol. 2003;51:949-58 pubmed
    Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) is one of the most extensively studied enzymes of the starch synthesis pathway and its role in the synthesis of amylose has been well established...
  6. Tetlow I, Morell M, Emes M. Recent developments in understanding the regulation of starch metabolism in higher plants. J Exp Bot. 2004;55:2131-45 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that some of the newly discovered aspects of fine control of the biosynthetic pathway may well apply to many other proteins which are directly and indirectly involved in polymer synthesis and degradation. ..
  7. Dian W, Jiang H, Wu P. Evolution and expression analysis of starch synthase III and IV in rice. J Exp Bot. 2005;56:623-32 pubmed publisher
    Plants contain at least five subfamilies of starch synthases, granule bound starch synthase (GBSS) and starch synthases I, II, III, and IV (SSI, SSII, SSIII, SSIV)...
  8. Hanashiro I, Higuchi T, Aihara S, Nakamura Y, Fujita N. Structures of starches from rice mutants deficient in the starch synthase isozyme SSI or SSIIIa. Biomacromolecules. 2011;12:1621-8 pubmed publisher
    Amylose and amylopectin of rice mutants deficient in a starch synthase (SS) isozyme in the endosperm, either SSI (?SSI) or SSIIIa (?SSIIIa), were structurally altered from those of their parent (cv. Nipponbare, Np)...
  9. Liu F, Romanova N, Lee E, Ahmed R, Evans M, Gilbert E, et al. Glucan affinity of starch synthase IIa determines binding of starch synthase I and starch-branching enzyme IIb to starch granules. Biochem J. 2012;448:373-87 pubmed publisher a result of the loss of catalytic activity of the endosperm-specific SS (starch synthase) IIa isoform causing major alterations to amylopectin architecture...
  10. Gao Z, Keeling P, Shibles R, Guan H. Involvement of lysine-193 of the conserved "K-T-G-G" motif in the catalysis of maize starch synthase IIa. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;427:1-7 pubmed
    ..Since the K-X-G-G motif is highly conserved between E. coli GS and all the maize starch synthase (SS) isozymes, it has become widely accepted that the lysine in the conserved K-T-G-G motif may also function ..
  11. Van Den Koornhuyse N, Libessart N, Delrue B, Zabawinski C, Decq A, Iglesias A, et al. Control of starch composition and structure through substrate supply in the monocellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:16281-7 pubmed
    ..The residual polysaccharide is shown to be devoid of amylose despite the presence of granule-bound starch synthase, the amylose biosynthetic enzyme...
  12. Morell M, Kosar Hashemi B, Cmiel M, Samuel M, Chandler P, Rahman S, et al. Barley sex6 mutants lack starch synthase IIa activity and contain a starch with novel properties. Plant J. 2003;34:173-85 pubmed
    ..The causal mutation is located at the sex6 locus on chromosome 7H, suggesting the starch synthase IIa (ssIIa) gene as a candidate gene altered by the mutation...
  13. Bird A, Flory C, Davies D, Usher S, Topping D. A novel barley cultivar (Himalaya 292) with a specific gene mutation in starch synthase IIa raises large bowel starch and short-chain fatty acids in rats. J Nutr. 2004;134:831-5 pubmed
    ..himalaya 292) is a novel, hull-less barley cultivar with a single nucleotide change in the gene encoding starch synthase IIa (EC
  14. Shimbata T, Nakamura T, Vrinten P, Saito M, Yonemaru J, Seto Y, et al. Mutations in wheat starch synthase II genes and PCR-based selection of a SGP-1 null line. Theor Appl Genet. 2005;111:1072-9 pubmed publisher
    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starch synthase II, which is also known as starch granule protein 1 (SGP-1), plays a major role in endosperm starch synthesis...
  15. Kossmann J, Abel G, Springer F, Lloyd J, Willmitzer L. Cloning and functional analysis of a cDNA encoding a starch synthase from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that is predominantly expressed in leaf tissue. Planta. 1999;208:503-11 pubmed publisher
    Three isoforms of starch synthase (SS) were shown to be present in soluble potato tuber extracts by activity staining after native gel electrophoresis...
  16. Gao M, Wanat J, Stinard P, James M, Myers A. Characterization of dull1, a maize gene coding for a novel starch synthase. Plant Cell. 1998;10:399-412 pubmed
    ..of endosperm starch, and du1- mutations affect the activity of two enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis, starch synthase II (SSII) and starch branching enzyme IIa (SBEIIa)...
  17. Olsen K, Caicedo A, Polato N, McClung A, McCouch S, Purugganan M. Selection under domestication: evidence for a sweep in the rice waxy genomic region. Genetics. 2006;173:975-83 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that selection pressures associated with crop domestication regimes can exceed by one to two orders of magnitude those observed for genes under even strong selection in natural systems. ..
  18. Clarke B, Liang R, Morell M, Bird A, Jenkins C, Li Z. Gene expression in a starch synthase IIa mutant of barley: changes in the level of gene transcription and grain composition. Funct Integr Genomics. 2008;8:211-21 pubmed publisher
    The barley shrunken grain mutant M292 has a novel high-amylose starch phenotype caused by a mutation in the starch synthase IIa gene (SsIIa) located at the starch excess-6 (sex6) locus on chromosome 7H of barley...
  19. Smith S, Fulton D, Chia T, Thorneycroft D, Chapple A, Dunstan H, et al. Diurnal changes in the transcriptome encoding enzymes of starch metabolism provide evidence for both transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of starch metabolism in Arabidopsis leaves. Plant Physiol. 2004;136:2687-99 pubmed
    ..starch synthesis changed relatively little in amount over 24 h except for two starch synthases, granule bound starch synthase and starch synthase II, which increased appreciably during the transition from dark to light...
  20. Denyer K, Waite D, Edwards A, Martin C, Smith A. Interaction with amylopectin influences the ability of granule-bound starch synthase I to elongate malto-oligosaccharides. Biochem J. 1999;342 Pt 3:647-53 pubmed
    This paper examines the properties in soluble form of two isoforms of starch synthase. One of these, granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), is responsible for the synthesis of amylose inside the amylopectin matrix of the starch granule ..
  21. Damager I, Denyer K, Motawia M, Møller B, Blennow A. The action of starch synthase II on 6"'-alpha-maltotriosyl-maltohexaose comprising the branch point of amylopectin. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:4878-84 pubmed
    ..well-defined branched oligosaccharide to provide a more detailed knowledge of the substrate specificity of starch synthase II (SSII) is demonstrated...
  22. Nishi A, Nakamura Y, Tanaka N, Satoh H. Biochemical and genetic analysis of the effects of amylose-extender mutation in rice endosperm. Plant Physiol. 2001;127:459-72 pubmed
    ..The ae mutation caused a dramatic reduction in the activity of BEIIb. The activity of soluble starch synthase I (SSI) in the ae mutant was significantly lower than in the wild type, suggesting that the mutation had a ..
  23. Fulton D, Edwards A, Pilling E, Robinson H, Fahy B, Seale R, et al. Role of granule-bound starch synthase in determination of amylopectin structure and starch granule morphology in potato. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:10834-41 pubmed
    Reductions in activity of SSIII, the major isoform of starch synthase responsible for amylopectin synthesis in the potato tuber, result in fissuring of the starch granules...
  24. Commuri P, Keeling P. Chain-length specificities of maize starch synthase I enzyme: studies of glucan affinity and catalytic properties. Plant J. 2001;25:475-86 pubmed
    ..If this is correct, this proposal provides a biochemical basis to explain how the specificities of various SS enzymes determine and set the limitations on the length of A, B, C chains in the starch granule. ..
  25. Jobling S, Westcott R, Tayal A, Jeffcoat R, Schwall G. Production of a freeze-thaw-stable potato starch by antisense inhibition of three starch synthase genes. Nat Biotechnol. 2002;20:295-9 pubmed
    ..starch with short-chain amylopectin was produced by simultaneous antisense downregulation of three starch synthase genes. This starch is extremely freeze-thaw-stable and shows no syneresis even after five freeze-thaw cycles...
  26. Denyer K, Waite D, Motawia S, Møller B, Smith A. Granule-bound starch synthase I in isolated starch granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides processively. Biochem J. 1999;340 ( Pt 1):183-91 pubmed
    Isoforms of starch synthase belonging to the granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) class synthesize the amylose component of starch in plants...
  27. Fukunaga K, Kawase M, Kato K. Structural variation in the Waxy gene and differentiation in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.]: implications for multiple origins of the waxy phenotype. Mol Genet Genomics. 2002;268:214-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a polyphyletic origin for the waxy phenotype in landraces of foxtail millet...
  28. Duan M, Sun S. Profiling the expression of genes controlling rice grain quality. Plant Mol Biol. 2005;59:165-78 pubmed
  29. Mason Gamer R, Weil C, Kellogg E. Granule-bound starch synthase: structure, function, and phylogenetic utility. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:1658-73 pubmed
    ..The gene for granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI or waxy) exists in a single copy in nearly all plants examined so far...
  30. Damager I, Olsen C, Blennow A, Denyer K, Møller B, Motawia M. Chemical synthesis of methyl 6'-alpha-maltosyl-alpha-maltotrioside and its use for investigation of the action of starch synthase II. Carbohydr Res. 2003;338:189-97 pubmed
    ..6'-alpha-maltosyl-alpha-maltotrioside was chemically synthesised and investigated as a primer for particulate starch synthase II (SSII) using starch granules prepared from the low-amylose pea mutant lam as the enzyme source...
  31. Ko Y, Dong Y, Hsieh Y, Kuo J. Morphology, associated protein analysis, and identification of 58-kDa starch synthase in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. cv. KPS1) starch granule preparations. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:4426-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The major 58-kDa protein was identified to be granule-bound starch synthase I by sequence homology with that in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays) using MALDI-TOF mass and ..
  32. Mason Gamer R. Allohexaploidy, introgression, and the complex phylogenetic history of Elymus repens (Poaceae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;47:598-611 pubmed publisher
    ..A previous analysis of E. repens using data from the nuclear granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) gene had yielded five phylogenetically distinct gene copies, two more than expected from hexaploidy ..
  33. Delrue B, Fontaine T, Routier F, Decq A, Wieruszeski J, Van Den Koornhuyse N, et al. Waxy Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: monocellular algal mutants defective in amylose biosynthesis and granule-bound starch synthase activity accumulate a structurally modified amylopectin. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3612-20 pubmed
    ..Granule-bound starch synthase activities were markedly reduced in strains carrying either st-2-1 or st-2-2, as is the case for amylose-..
  34. Ball S, Morell M. From bacterial glycogen to starch: understanding the biogenesis of the plant starch granule. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2003;54:207-33 pubmed
    ..However, according to the genetic and physiological system under study, these enzymes may have acquired distinctive roles. ..
  35. Krishnan H, Chen M. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:5404-9 pubmed publisher
    ..flight-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, resulting in identification of this rice allergen as granule-bound starch synthase, a product of the Waxy gene...
  36. Lloyd J, Landschütze V, Kossmann J. Simultaneous antisense inhibition of two starch-synthase isoforms in potato tubers leads to accumulation of grossly modified amylopectin. Biochem J. 1999;338 ( Pt 2):515-21 pubmed
    ..Using a technique different to that used previously we show that both isoforms also affect the amylopectin, but in a way that is different to when both isoforms are repressed together. ..
  37. Saito M, Konda M, Vrinten P, Nakamura K, Nakamura T. Molecular comparison of waxy null alleles in common wheat and identification of a unique null allele. Theor Appl Genet. 2004;108:1205-11 pubmed
    ..Hence, the Turkey null Wx-A1 mutation was likely caused by the movement of a transposon, and this spontaneous mutation appears to be present in a limited geographical area. ..
  38. Bao J, Corke H, Sun M. Nucleotide diversity in starch synthase IIa and validation of single nucleotide polymorphisms in relation to starch gelatinization temperature and other physicochemical properties in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2006;113:1171-83 pubmed
    ..The GT of rice flour is controlled by the alk locus, which has been co-mapped to the starch synthase IIa (SSIIa) locus...
  39. Ral J, Colleoni C, Wattebled F, Dauvillee D, Nempont C, Deschamps P, et al. Circadian clock regulation of starch metabolism establishes GBSSI as a major contributor to amylopectin synthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Physiol. 2006;142:305-17 pubmed
    ..Persistence of this rhythm depends on the presence of either soluble starch synthase III or granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI)...
  40. Edwards A, Vincken J, Suurs L, Visser R, Zeeman S, Smith A, et al. Discrete forms of amylose are synthesized by isoforms of GBSSI in pea. Plant Cell. 2002;14:1767-85 pubmed
    ..In pea embryos, a granule-bound starch synthase protein (GBSSIa) is required for the synthesis of a significant portion of the amylose...
  41. Mason Gamer R. Reticulate evolution, introgression, and intertribal gene capture in an allohexaploid grass. Syst Biol. 2004;53:25-37 pubmed
    ..Nuclear starch synthase gene data indicate that both Hordeum and Pseudoroegneria have contributed to the nuclear genome of E...
  42. Ghedira R, Papazova N, Vuylsteke M, Ruttink T, Taverniers I, De Loose M. Assessment of primer/template mismatch effects on real-time PCR amplification of target taxa for GMO quantification. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:9370-7 pubmed publisher
    ..mismatches between the forward primer and the DNA template in the reference assay targeting the maize starch synthase (SSIIb) gene...
  43. Nakamura Y. Towards a better understanding of the metabolic system for amylopectin biosynthesis in plants: rice endosperm as a model tissue. Plant Cell Physiol. 2002;43:718-25 pubmed multiple subunits or isoforms of four classes of enzymes: ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, soluble starch synthase (SS), starch branching enzyme (BE), and starch debranching enzyme (DBE)...
  44. Gámez Arjona F, Li J, Raynaud S, Baroja Fernandez E, Muñoz F, Ovecka M, et al. Enhancing the expression of starch synthase class IV results in increased levels of both transitory and long-term storage starch. Plant Biotechnol J. 2011;9:1049-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we show that the overexpression of starch synthase class IV (SSIV) increases the levels of starch accumulated in the leaves of Arabidopsis by 30%-40%...
  45. Kharabian Masouleh A, Waters D, Reinke R, Henry R. Discovery of polymorphisms in starch-related genes in rice germplasm by amplification of pooled DNA and deeply parallel sequencing. Plant Biotechnol J. 2011;9:1074-85 pubmed publisher
    ..synthesis genes encoding seven classes of enzymes, including ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), granule starch synthase (GBSS), soluble starch synthase (SS), starch branching enzyme (BE), starch debranching enzyme (DBE) and ..
  46. Otani M, Hamada T, Katayama K, Kitahara K, Kim S, Takahata Y, et al. Inhibition of the gene expression for granule-bound starch synthase I by RNA interference in sweet potato plants. Plant Cell Rep. 2007;26:1801-7 pubmed
    Granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) is one of the key enzymes catalyzing the formation of amylose, a linear alpha(1,4)D-glucan polymer, from ADP-glucose...
  47. Zhang L, Häusler R, Greiten C, Hajirezaei M, Haferkamp I, Neuhaus H, et al. Overriding the co-limiting import of carbon and energy into tuber amyloplasts increases the starch content and yield of transgenic potato plants. Plant Biotechnol J. 2008;6:453-64 pubmed publisher
    ..As total adenosine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase and starch synthase activities remained unchanged in double transformants relative to the wild-type, they cannot account for the ..
  48. Leterrier M, Holappa L, Broglie K, Beckles D. Cloning, characterisation and comparative analysis of a starch synthase IV gene in wheat: functional and evolutionary implications. BMC Plant Biol. 2008;8:98 pubmed publisher a food and biomaterial, and the amount and structure of starch made in plants is determined in part by starch synthase (SS) activity...
  49. Hirano H, Eiguchi M, Sano Y. A single base change altered the regulation of the Waxy gene at the posttranscriptional level during the domestication of rice. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:978-87 pubmed
    ..rufipogon, its wild progenitor, by this mutation, and, therefore, a single base change that has altered the regulation of the Wx gene at the posttranscriptional level probably occurred during the domestication of rice. ..
  50. Waters D, Henry R, Reinke R, Fitzgerald M. Gelatinization temperature of rice explained by polymorphisms in starch synthase. Plant Biotechnol J. 2006;4:115-22 pubmed
    ..We now report polymorphisms in starch synthase IIa (SSIIa) that explain the variation in rice starch GT...
  51. Zhang X, Szydlowski N, Delvalle D, D Hulst C, James M, Myers A. Overlapping functions of the starch synthases SSII and SSIII in amylopectin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. BMC Plant Biol. 2008;8:96 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, amylopectin chain elongation in plants involves five conserved classes of starch synthase (SS), whereas glycogen biosynthesis typically requires only one class of glycogen synthase...
  52. Olsen K, Purugganan M. Molecular evidence on the origin and evolution of glutinous rice. Genetics. 2002;162:941-50 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates the utility of phylogeographic approaches for understanding trait diversification in crops, and it contributes to growing evidence on the importance of modifier loci in the evolution of domestication traits. ..
  53. Domon E, Saito A, Takeda K. Comparison of the waxy locus sequence from a non-waxy strain and two waxy mutants of spontaneous and artificial origins in barley. Genes Genet Syst. 2002;77:351-9 pubmed
    ..These results will be helpful for understanding the mechanism of the variable amylose content in waxy cultivars of cereal species...