glycogen phosphorylase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in animals by releasing glucose-1-phosphate from the terminal alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond. This enzyme exists in two forms: an active phosphorylated form ( PHOSPHORYLASE A) and an inactive un-phosphorylated form (PHOSPHORYLASE B). Both a and b forms of phosphorylase exist as homodimers. In mammals, the major isozymes of glycogen phosphorylase are found in muscle, liver and brain tissue.

Top Publications

  1. Wen X, Sun H, Liu J, Cheng K, Zhang P, Zhang L, et al. Naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenes as inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase: synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and X-ray crystallographic studies. J Med Chem. 2008;51:3540-54 pubmed publisher
    ..15 of which were synthesized in this study, were biologically evaluated as inhibitors of rabbit muscle glycogen phosphorylase a (GPa)...
  2. Tsirkone V, Tsoukala E, Lamprakis C, Manta S, Hayes J, Skamnaki V, et al. 1-(3-Deoxy-3-fluoro-beta-d-glucopyranosyl) pyrimidine derivatives as inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase b: Kinetic, crystallographic and modelling studies. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:3413-25 pubmed publisher
    Design of inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) with pharmaceutical applications in improving glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes is a promising therapeutic strategy...
  3. Sánchez Chávez G, Hernández Berrones J, Luna Ulloa L, Coffe V, Salceda R. Effect of diabetes on glycogen metabolism in rat retina. Neurochem Res. 2008;33:1301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Glycogen phosphorylase activity decreased 50% in the liver of diabetic animals; it was not modified in the other tissues examined...
  4. Andersen B, Westergaard N. The effect of glucose on the potency of two distinct glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors. Biochem J. 2002;367:443-50 pubmed
    Two distinct glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors, 5-chloro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid [1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-2-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-2-oxoethyl]amide (CP-320,626) and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-D-arabinitol (DAB), were characterized in vitro with ..
  5. Rothermel A, Weigel W, Pfeiffer Guglielmi B, Hamprecht B, Robitzki A. Immunocytochemical analysis of glycogen phosphorylase isozymes in the developing and adult retina of the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus). Neurochem Res. 2008;33:336-47 pubmed
    ..A key-enzyme in glycogen metabolism is glycogen phosphorylase (GP) which exists in three differentially regulated isoforms...
  6. te Pas M, Leenhouwers J, Knol E, Booij M, Priem J, van der Lende T. Marker polymorphisms in the porcine genes for muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1) and muscle glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM). Anim Genet. 2003;34:157-8 pubmed
  7. Furukawa S, Murakami K, Nishikawa M, Nakayama O, Hino M. FR258900, a novel glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor isolated from Fungus No. 138354. II. Anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetic animal models. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2005;58:503-6 pubmed
    A novel glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor FR258900 was isolated from the cultured broth of a fungal strain No. 138354. We examined the hypoglycemic effects of FR258900 in diabetic animal models...
  8. Dixon C, White P, Hall J, Kingston S, Boarder M. Regulation of human hepatocytes by P2Y receptors: control of glycogen phosphorylase, Ca2+, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;313:1305-13 pubmed
    ..Here, we have studied P2Y receptor regulation of signaling pathways involved in glycogen phosphorylase activation and proliferation of primary human hepatocytes...
  9. Garduno E, Nogues M, Merino J, Gutierrez Merino C, Henao F. The content of glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen in preparations of sarcoplasmic reticulum-glycogenolytic complex is enhanced in diabetic rat skeletal muscle. Diabetologia. 2001;44:1238-46 pubmed
    We have examined the effect of diabetes and pharmacological insulin treatment on the content of glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen associated with the sarcoplasmic reticulum-glycogenolytic complex from rat skeletal muscle...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Habash M, Taha M. Ligand-based modelling followed by synthetic exploration unveil novel glycogen phosphorylase inhibitory leads. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011;19:4746-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is a valid anti-diabetic target...
  2. Lerner A, Castro Sowinski S, Lerner H, Okon Y, Burdman S. Glycogen phosphorylase is involved in stress endurance and biofilm formation in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;300:75-82 pubmed publisher
    Here we report the identification of a glycogen phosphorylase (glgP) gene in the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense, Sp7, and the characterization of a glgP marker exchange mutant of this strain...
  3. Stejskal D, Lacnak B, Jedelsky L, Stepanova L, Proskova J, Solichova P, et al. Use of glycogen phosphorylase BB measurement with POCT in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes. A comparison with the ELISA method. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2007;151:247-9 pubmed
    b>Glycogen Phosphorylase BB (GPBB) is considered an early and specific marker of myocardial necrosis and ischemia. A POCT kit GPBB for diagnostic use has recently been approved...
  4. Walling S, Rigoulot M, Scharfman H. Acute and chronic changes in glycogen phosphorylase in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex after status epilepticus in the adult male rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:178-89 pubmed
    Glial cells provide energy substrates to neurons, in part from glycogen metabolism, which is influenced by glycogen phosphorylase (GP)...
  5. Henke B, Sparks S. Glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2006;6:845-57 pubmed
    ..b>Glycogen phosphorylase is the enzyme that catalyzes this process...
  6. Alonso Casajús N, Dauvillee D, Viale A, Muñoz F, Baroja Fernandez E, Morán Zorzano M, et al. Glycogen phosphorylase, the product of the glgP Gene, catalyzes glycogen breakdown by removing glucose units from the nonreducing ends in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5266-72 pubmed
    To understand the biological function of bacterial glycogen phosphorylase (GlgP), we have produced and characterized Escherichia coli cells with null or altered glgP expression...
  7. Baker D, Timmons J, Greenhaff P. Glycogen phosphorylase inhibition in type 2 diabetes therapy: a systematic evaluation of metabolic and functional effects in rat skeletal muscle. Diabetes. 2005;54:2453-9 pubmed
    Inhibition of hepatic glycogen phosphorylase is a promising treatment strategy for attenuating hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes...
  8. Saadat M, Pournourmohammadi S, Donyavi M, Khorasani R, Amin G, Nazar Salehnia A, et al. Alteration of rat hepatic glycogen phosphorylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities by Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad essential oil. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2004;7:310-4 pubmed
  9. Nielsen J, Vissing J, Wojtaszewski J, Haller R, Begum N, Richter E. Decreased insulin action in skeletal muscle from patients with McArdle's disease. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;282:E1267-75 pubmed
    ..The data further suggest that skeletal muscle glycogen levels play an important role in the regulation of insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activity. ..
  10. Chrysina E. The prototype of glycogen phosphorylase. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2010;10:1093-101 pubmed
    ..To this end, the allosteric enzyme of glycogen phosphorylase, has been proposed as molecular target for the design of potential new antidiabetic agents by an ..
  11. Cheng K, Liu J, Liu X, Li H, Sun H, Xie J. Synthesis of glucoconjugates of oleanolic acid as inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase. Carbohydr Res. 2009;344:841-50 pubmed publisher
    ..of oleanolic acid, linked by either a triazole moiety or an ester function, as novel inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase have been described...
  12. Bozkurt S, Kaya E, Okutucu S, Aytemir K, Coskun F, Oto A. The diagnostic and prognostic value of first hour glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB level in acute coronary syndrome. Cardiol J. 2011;18:496-502 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme-BB (GP-BB) in ACS. A total of 72 patients (mean age 61.8 ± 11.6 years) with ACS were enrolled...
  13. Suh S, Bergher J, Anderson C, Treadway J, Fosgerau K, Swanson R. Astrocyte glycogen sustains neuronal activity during hypoglycemia: studies with the glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor CP-316,819 ([R-R*,S*]-5-chloro-N-[2-hydroxy-3-(methoxymethylamino)-3-oxo-1-(phenylmethyl)propyl]-1H-indole-2-carboxamide). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;321:45-50 pubmed
    ..Here, we used a novel glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor, CP-316,819 ([R-R*,S*]-5-chloro-N-[2-hydroxy-3-(methoxymethylamino)-3-oxo-1-(phenylmethyl)propyl]..
  14. Pfeiffer Guglielmi B, Francke M, Reichenbach A, Hamprecht B. Glycogen phosphorylase isozymes and energy metabolism in the rat peripheral nervous system--an immunocytochemical study. Brain Res. 2007;1136:20-7 pubmed
    ..In the present work, we have demonstrated immunocytochemically the ubiquitous presence of glycogen phosphorylase (GP), one of the major control sites in glycogen metabolism, in the axons of rat spinal and sciatic nerves,..
  15. Rezg R, Mornagui B, El Arbi M, Kamoun A, El Fazaa S, Gharbi N. Effect of subchronic exposure to malathion on glycogen phosphorylase and hexokinase activities in rat liver using native PAGE. Toxicology. 2006;223:9-14 pubmed
    ..At the end of the experiment, the liver was removed. The activities of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and hexokinase (HK) were analysed in the homogenate...
  16. Zhang T, Wang S, Lin Y, Xu W, Ye D, Xiong Y, et al. Acetylation negatively regulates glycogen phosphorylase by recruiting protein phosphatase 1. Cell Metab. 2012;15:75-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycogen catabolism and plays a key role in maintaining cellular and organismal glucose homeostasis...
  17. Greenberg C, Jurczak M, Danos A, Brady M. Glycogen branches out: new perspectives on the role of glycogen metabolism in the integration of metabolic pathways. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;291:E1-8 pubmed
    ..However, recent findings demonstrate that the roles of glycogen metabolism in energy sensing, integration of metabolic pathways, and coordination of cellular responses to hormonal stimuli are far more complex. ..
  18. Kristiansen M, Andersen B, Iversen L, Westergaard N. Identification, synthesis, and characterization of new glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors binding to the allosteric AMP site. J Med Chem. 2004;47:3537-45 pubmed
    Inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) has attracted considerable attention during the last five to 10 years as a means of treating the elevated hepatic glucose production seen in patients with type 2 diabetes...
  19. Cheng K, Liu J, Sun H, Xie J. Synthesis of oleanolic acid dimers as inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase. Chem Biodivers. 2010;7:690-7 pubmed publisher
    Recently, oleanolic acid was found to be an inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase. For further structural modification, we have synthesized several dimers of oleanolic acid by using amide, ester, or triazole linkage with click chemistry...
  20. Aschenbach W, Suzuki Y, Breeden K, Prats C, Hirshman M, Dufresne S, et al. The muscle-specific protein phosphatase PP1G/R(GL)(G(M))is essential for activation of glycogen synthase by exercise. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:39959-67 pubmed
  21. Oikonomakos N. Glycogen phosphorylase as a molecular target for type 2 diabetes therapy. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2002;3:561-86 pubmed
    ..Glycogenolysis is catalyzed in liver, muscle and brain by tissue specific isoforms of glycogen phosphorylase (GP)...
  22. Lerin C, Montell E, Nolasco T, Garcia Rocha M, Guinovart J, Gómez Foix A. Regulation of glycogen metabolism in cultured human muscles by the glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor CP-91149. Biochem J. 2004;378:1073-7 pubmed
    Pharmacological inhibition of liver GP (glycogen phosphorylase), which is currently being studied as a treatment for Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, may affect muscle glycogen metabolism...
  23. Baker D, Greenhaff P, MacInnes A, Timmons J. The experimental type 2 diabetes therapy glycogen phosphorylase inhibition can impair aerobic muscle function during prolonged contraction. Diabetes. 2006;55:1855-61 pubmed
    b>Glycogen phosphorylase inhibition represents a promising strategy to suppress inappropriate hepatic glucose output, while muscle glycogen is a major source of fuel during contraction...
  24. Sunnarborg S, Miller S, Unnikrishnan I, LaPorte D. Expression of the yeast glycogen phosphorylase gene is regulated by stress-response elements and by the HOG MAP kinase pathway. Yeast. 2001;18:1505-14 pubmed
    ..Environmental stressors induce a number of glycogen metabolic genes, including GPH1, which encodes glycogen phosphorylase. Primer extension analysis detected two start sites for GPH1, one of which predominated...
  25. Agius L. Physiological control of liver glycogen metabolism: lessons from novel glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2010;10:1175-87 pubmed
    ..either glycogen degradation or synthesis through changes in allosteric control or covalent modification of glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen synthase leads to disturbance of blood glucose homeostasis...
  26. Begum G. Enzymes as biomarkers of cypermethrin toxicity: response of Clarias batrachus tissues ATPase and glycogen phosphorylase as a function of exposure and recovery at sublethal level. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2009;19:29-39 pubmed publisher
    ..was conducted to evaluate the sublethal effects of a synthetic pyrethroid, cypermethrin on ATPase, and glycogen phosphorylase in gill, kidney, liver, and muscle tissue of freshwater fish, Clarias batrachus (Linn) during exposure and ..
  27. Li S, Li J, Guan X, Li J, Deng S, Li L, et al. Hypoglycemic effects and constituents of the barks of Cyclocarya paliurus and their inhibiting activities to glucosidase and glycogen phosphorylase. Fitoterapia. 2011;82:1081-5 pubmed publisher
    ..All of the isolates were evaluated for their ?-glycosidase and glycogen phosphorylase inhibitory activities.
  28. Koksharova O, Brandt U, Cerff R. [The gap1 operon of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7942 carries a gene encoding glycogen phosphorylase and is induced under anaerobic conditions]. Mikrobiologiia. 2004;73:388-92 pubmed
    ..Synechococcus PCC 7942, showed that the gap1 gene is closely linked to the glgP gene encoding glycogen phosphorylase (an enzyme that catalyzes the first step of glycogen degradation)...
  29. Meune C, Wahbi K, Weber S, Zuily S, Cynober L, Chenevier Gobeaux C. Performance of glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB is weak in the detection of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Clin Biochem. 2011;44:1343-5 pubmed publisher
    ..07 ?g/L in 15 patients and GPBB was >10 ?g/L in 6 patients. Areas under ROC curves were similar: 0.854 (cTnI+GPBB) vs. 0.843 (cTnI), p=0.728. Combination of GPBB with cTnI does not improve the detection of ACS. ..
  30. Archontis G, Watson K, Xie Q, Andreou G, Chrysina E, Zographos S, et al. Glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors: a free energy perturbation analysis of glucopyranose spirohydantoin analogues. Proteins. 2005;61:984-98 pubmed
    ..For the systems in this work, such an approach fails to estimate the order of relative binding strengths, in contrast to the rigorous free energy treatment. ..
  31. Tomihira M, Kawasaki E, Nakajima H, Imamura Y, Sato Y, Sata M, et al. Intermittent and recurrent hepatomegaly due to glycogen storage in a patient with type 1 diabetes: genetic analysis of the liver glycogen phosphorylase gene (PYGL). Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2004;65:175-82 pubmed
    ..We supposed the partial deficiency of liver glycogen phosphorylase activity in this patient and analyzed the liver glycogen phosphorylase gene (PYGL)...
  32. Figiel Ł, Wraga M, Bednarkiewicz Z, Lipiec P, Smigielski J, Krzemińska Pakuła M, et al. Direct comparison of the diagnostic value of point-of-care tests detecting heart-type fatty acid binding protein or glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB in patients with acute coronary syndromes with persistent ST-segment elevation. Kardiol Pol. 2011;69:1-6 pubmed
    ..In recent years, glycogen phosphorylase BB (GP-BB) also emerged as a promising early specific marker of myocardial necrosis...
  33. Wilson W, Wang Z, Roach P. Regulation of yeast glycogen phosphorylase by the cyclin-dependent protein kinase Pho85p. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:161-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the cyclin-dependent protein kinase, Pho85p, which we have previously found to regulate glycogen synthase also controls the phosphorylation state of phosphorylase. ..
  34. Gill A, Gao N, Lehrman M. Rapid activation of glycogen phosphorylase by the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:44747-53 pubmed
    ..Stimulation of only one activity by the UPR was detected, AMP-independent glycogen phosphorylase (GP)...
  35. Prats C, Cadefau J, Cusso R, Qvortrup K, Nielsen J, Wojtaszewski J, et al. Phosphorylation-dependent translocation of glycogen synthase to a novel structure during glycogen resynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:23165-72 pubmed
    ..accepted that the rate-limiting enzymes in glycogenesis and glycogenolysis are glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GPh), respectively. Both enzymes are regulated by reversible phosphorylation and by allosteric effectors...
  36. Hallgren N, Busby E, Mommsen T. Cell volume affects glycogen phosphorylase activity in fish hepatocytes. J Comp Physiol B. 2003;173:591-9 pubmed
    The activity of glycogen phosphorylase (GPase) in the active a-form (GPase a) is dependent on the hydration state of hepatocytes...
  37. Dixon C, Hall J, Webb T, Boarder M. Regulation of rat hepatocyte function by P2Y receptors: focus on control of glycogen phosphorylase and cyclic AMP by 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-diphosphate. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;311:334-41 pubmed
    ..2-MeSADP), an agonist at P2Y(1), P2Y(12), and P2Y(13) receptors, potently (threshold 30 nM) stimulates glycogen phosphorylase in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes...
  38. Vornanen M, Haverinen J. Seasonality of glycogen phosphorylase activity in crucian carp (Carassius carassius L.). J Comp Physiol B. 2011;181:917-26 pubmed publisher
    Seasonal changes in the activity of glycogen phosphorylase (GP), a rate-limiting enzyme of glycogen degradation, were examined in an anoxia-tolerant fish species, the crucian carp (Carassius carassius L.)...
  39. Freeman S, Bartlett J, Convey G, Hardern I, Teague J, Loxham S, et al. Sensitivity of glycogen phosphorylase isoforms to indole site inhibitors is markedly dependent on the activation state of the enzyme. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;149:775-85 pubmed
    Inhibition of hepatic glycogen phosphorylase is a potential treatment for glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. Selective inhibition of the liver phosphorylase isoform could minimize adverse effects in other tissues...
  40. Pfeiffer Guglielmi B, Fleckenstein B, Jung G, Hamprecht B. Immunocytochemical localization of glycogen phosphorylase isozymes in rat nervous tissues by using isozyme-specific antibodies. J Neurochem. 2003;85:73-81 pubmed
    ..antibodies were raised against peptides from the low-homology regions of the sequences of rat glycogen phosphorylase BB and MM isozymes by immunization of rabbits and guinea pigs...
  41. Li Z, Lu C, Peng B, Zeng H, Zhou Z, Wu Y, et al. Induction of protective immunity against Chlamydia muridarum intravaginal infection with a chlamydial glycogen phosphorylase. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32997 pubmed publisher
    ..muridarum pathogenesis. Of the 7 plasmid-regulated ORFs, the chlamydial glycogen phosphorylase or GlgP, when delivered into mice intramuscularly, induced the most pronounced protective immunity against ..
  42. Gaboriaud Kolar N, Skaltsounis A. Glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors: a patent review (2008 - 2012). Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2013;23:1017-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of glucose-1-phosphate, the source of energy for muscles and the rest of the body...
  43. Wrabl J, Grishin N. Homology between O-linked GlcNAc transferases and proteins of the glycogen phosphorylase superfamily. J Mol Biol. 2001;314:365-74 pubmed
    ..and a large group of diverse sugar processing enzymes, including proteins with known structure such as glycogen phosphorylase, UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase, and the glycosyl transferase MurG...
  44. Latsis T, Andersen B, Agius L. Diverse effects of two allosteric inhibitors on the phosphorylation state of glycogen phosphorylase in hepatocytes. Biochem J. 2002;368:309-16 pubmed
    Two distinct allosteric inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase, 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (DAB) and CP-91149 (an indole-2-carboxamide), were investigated for their effects on the phosphorylation state of the enzyme in hepatocytes ..
  45. Langfort J, Ploug T, Ihlemann J, Baranczuk E, Donsmark M, Gorski J, et al. Additivity of adrenaline and contractions on hormone-sensitive lipase, but not on glycogen phosphorylase, in rat muscle. Acta Physiol Scand. 2003;178:51-60 pubmed
    ..03 (adrenaline and contractions); EDL: 0.18 +/- 0.01, 0.30 +/- 0.02, 0.26 +/- 0.02, 0.32 +/- 0.01]. Glycogen phosphorylase activity was always increased more by adrenaline compared with contractions [Soleus: 60 +/- 4 (a/a + b)% ..
  46. Pfeiffer Guglielmi B, Francke M, Reichenbach A, Fleckenstein B, Jung G, Hamprecht B. Glycogen phosphorylase isozyme pattern in mammalian retinal Müller (glial) cells and in astrocytes of retina and optic nerve. Glia. 2005;49:84-95 pubmed
    ..cells of the retina, are known to contain abundant glycogen as well as the key enzyme for its degradation, glycogen phosphorylase (GP), but the expressed isozyme pattern is unknown...
  47. Montori Grau M, Minor R, Lerin C, Allard J, Garcia Martinez C, De Cabo R, et al. Effects of aging and calorie restriction on rat skeletal muscle glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase. Exp Gerontol. 2009;44:426-33 pubmed publisher
    ..There was an age-associated reduction in glycogen phosphorylase (GP) activity level in SOL, while brain/muscle isoforms (B/M) of GP protein levels were higher...
  48. Makino Y, Omichi K. Sensitive assay of glycogen phosphorylase activity by analysing the chain-lengthening action on a Fluorogenic [corrected] maltooligosaccharide derivative. J Biochem. 2009;146:71-6 pubmed publisher
    The action of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is essentially reversible, although GP is generally classified as a glycogen-degrading enzyme...
  49. Venien Bryan C, Jonic S, Skamnaki V, Brown N, Bischler N, Oikonomakos N, et al. The structure of phosphorylase kinase holoenzyme at 9.9 angstroms resolution and location of the catalytic subunit and the substrate glycogen phosphorylase. Structure. 2009;17:117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of inactive glycogen phosphorylase b (GPb), resulting in the formation of active glycogen phosphorylase a. We present a 9...
  50. Guan T, Qian Y, Tang X, Huang M, Huang L, Li Y, et al. Maslinic acid, a natural inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase, reduces cerebral ischemic injury in hyperglycemic rats by GLT-1 up-regulation. J Neurosci Res. 2011;89:1829-39 pubmed publisher
    Maslinic acid (MA), a natural triterpene from Olea europaea L., is a well-known inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase and elicits multiple biological activities...
  51. Roach P. Glycogen and its metabolism. Curr Mol Med. 2002;2:101-20 pubmed
    ..Defects in the basic metabolizing enzymes lead to severe consequences whereas, with some exceptions, mutations in the regulatory proteins appear to cause a more subtle phenotypic change. ..
  52. Edgerton D, Cardin S, Neal D, Farmer B, Lautz M, Pan C, et al. Effects of hyperglycemia on hepatic gluconeogenic flux during glycogen phosphorylase inhibition in the conscious dog. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;286:E510-22 pubmed
    ..A glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor (BAY R3401) was used to inhibit glycogen breakdown in the conscious overnight-fasted dog, and ..
  53. Quinlan K, Seto J, Turner N, Vandebrouck A, Floetenmeyer M, MacArthur D, et al. Alpha-actinin-3 deficiency results in reduced glycogen phosphorylase activity and altered calcium handling in skeletal muscle. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:1335-46 pubmed publisher
    ..have been shown to interact with a number of muscle proteins including the key metabolic regulator glycogen phosphorylase (GPh)...